Publications by authors named "Michael Csukai"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Growing a circular economy with fungal biotechnology: a white paper.

Fungal Biol Biotechnol 2020 2;7. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

22Department of Biology, Microbiology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Fungi have the ability to transform organic materials into a rich and diverse set of useful products and provide distinct opportunities for tackling the urgent challenges before all humans. Fungal biotechnology can advance the transition from our petroleum-based economy into a bio-based circular economy and has the ability to sustainably produce resilient sources of food, feed, chemicals, fuels, textiles, and materials for construction, automotive and transportation industries, for furniture and beyond. Fungal biotechnology offers solutions for securing, stabilizing and enhancing the food supply for a growing human population, while simultaneously lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Fungal biotechnology has, thus, the potential to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation and meeting the United Nation's sustainable development goals through the rational improvement of new and established fungal cell factories. The White Paper presented here is the result of the 2nd Think Tank meeting held by the EUROFUNG consortium in Berlin in October 2019. This paper highlights discussions on current opportunities and research challenges in fungal biotechnology and aims to inform scientists, educators, the general public, industrial stakeholders and policymakers about the current fungal biotech revolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40694-020-00095-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140391PMC
April 2020

The ORFeome: A Functional Genomics Community Resource.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2019 Dec 14;32(12):1564-1570. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, U.K.

Libraries of protein-encoding sequences can be generated by identification of open reading frames (ORFs) from a genome of choice that are then assembled into collections of plasmids termed ORFeome libraries. These represent powerful resources to facilitate functional genomic characterization of genes and their encoded products. Here, we report the generation of an ORFeome for , which causes the most serious disease of wheat in temperate regions of the world. We screened the genome of strain IP0323 for high confidence gene models, identifying 4,075 candidates from 10,933 predicted genes. These were amplified from genomic DNA, were cloned into the Gateway entry vector pDONR207, and were sequenced, providing a total of 3,022 quality-controlled plasmids. The ORFeome includes genes predicted to encode effectors ( = 410) and secondary metabolite biosynthetic proteins ( = 171) in addition to genes residing at dispensable chromosomes ( = 122) or those that are preferentially expressed during plant infection ( = 527). The ORFeome plasmid library is compatible with our previously developed suite of Gateway destination vectors, which have various combinations of promoters, selection markers, and epitope tags. The ORFeome constitutes a powerful resource for functional genomics and offers unparalleled opportunities to understand the biology of .[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-05-19-0123-ADOI Listing
December 2019

Conidial Morphogenesis and Septin-Mediated Plant Infection Require Smo1, a Ras GTPase-Activating Protein in .

Genetics 2019 01 16;211(1):151-167. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK

The pathogenic life cycle of the rice blast fungus involves a series of morphogenetic changes, essential for its ability to cause disease. The mutation was identified > 25 years ago, and affects the shape and development of diverse cell types in , including conidia, appressoria, and asci. All attempts to clone the gene by map-based cloning or complementation have failed over many years. Here, we report the identification of by a combination of bulk segregant analysis and comparative genome analysis. encodes a GTPase-activating protein, which regulates Ras signaling during infection-related development. Targeted deletion of results in abnormal, nonadherent conidia, impaired in their production of spore tip mucilage. Smo1 mutants also develop smaller appressoria, with a severely reduced capacity to infect rice plants. is necessary for the organization of microtubules and for septin-dependent remodeling of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the appressorium pore. Smo1 physically interacts with components of the Ras2 signaling complex, and a range of other signaling and cytoskeletal components, including the four core septins. is therefore necessary for the regulation of RAS activation required for conidial morphogenesis and septin-mediated plant infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.118.301490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325701PMC
January 2019

An NMRA-Like Protein Regulates Gene Expression in Phytophthora capsici to Drive the Infection Cycle on Tomato.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2018 06 4;31(6):665-677. Epub 2018 May 4.

1 Division of Plant Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD2 5DA, U.K.

Phytophthora spp. cause devastating disease epidemics on important crop plants and pose a grave threat to global crop production. Critically, Phytophthora pathogens represent a distinct evolutionary lineage in which pathogenicity has been acquired independently. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand and disrupt the processes that drive infection if we aspire to defeat oomycete pathogens in the field. One area that has received little attention thus far in this respect is the regulation of Phytophthora gene expression during infection. Here, we characterize PcNMRAL1 (Phyca11_505845), a homolog of the Aspergillus nidulans nitrogen metabolite repression regulator NMRA and demonstrate a role for this protein in progression of the Phytophthora capsici infection cycle. PcNmrAL1 is coexpressed with the biotrophic marker gene PcHmp1 (haustorial membrane protein 1) and, when overexpressed, extends the biotrophic infection stage. Microarray analyses revealed that PcNmrAL1 overexpression in P. capsici leads to large-scale transcriptional changes during infection and in vitro. Importantly, detailed analysis reveals that PcNmrAL1 overexpression induces biotrophy-associated genes while repressing those associated with necrotrophy. In addition to factors controlling transcription, translation, and nitrogen metabolism, PcNMRAL1 helps regulate the expression of a considerable effector repertoire in P. capsici. Our data suggests that PcNMRAL1 is a transcriptional regulator that mediates the biotrophy to necrotrophy transition. PcNMRAL1 represents a novel factor that may drive the Phytophthora disease cycle on crops. This study provides the first insight into mechanisms that regulate infection-related processes in Phytophthora spp. and provides a platform for further studies aimed at disabling pathogenesis and preventing crop losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-07-17-0193-RDOI Listing
June 2018

Protein kinase C is essential for viability of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

Mol Microbiol 2015 Oct 18;98(3):403-19. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK.

Protein kinase C constitutes a family of serine-threonine kinases found in all eukaryotes and implicated in a wide range of cellular functions, including regulation of cell growth, cellular differentiation and immunity. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence which indicate that protein kinase C is essential for viability of Magnaporthe oryzae. First, all attempts to generate a target deletion of PKC1, the single copy protein kinase C-encoding gene, proved unsuccessful. Secondly, conditional gene silencing of PKC1 by RNA interference led to severely reduced growth of the fungus, which was reversed by targeted deletion of the Dicer2-encoding gene, MDL2. Finally, selective kinase inhibition of protein kinase C by targeted allelic replacement with an analogue-sensitive PKC1(AS) allele led to specific loss of fungal viability in the presence of the PP1 inhibitor. Global transcriptional profiling following selective PKC inhibition identified significant changes in gene expression associated with cell wall re-modelling, autophagy, signal transduction and secondary metabolism. When considered together, these results suggest protein kinase C is essential for growth and development of M. oryzae with extensive downstream targets in addition to the cell integrity pathway. Targeting protein kinase C signalling may therefore prove an effective means of controlling rice blast disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.13132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791171PMC
October 2015

Sequence diversity in the large subunit of RNA polymerase I contributes to Mefenoxam insensitivity in Phytophthora infestans.

Mol Plant Pathol 2014 Sep 14;15(7):664-76. Epub 2014 Apr 14.

Cell and Molecular Sciences, James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, DD2 5DA, UK.

Phenylamide fungicides have been widely used for the control of oomycete-incited plant diseases for over 30 years. Insensitivity to this chemical class of fungicide was recorded early in its usage history, but the precise protein(s) conditioning insensitivity has proven difficult to determine. To determine the genetic basis of insensitivity and to inform strategies for the cloning of the gene(s) responsible, genetic crosses were established between Mefenoxam sensitive and intermediate insensitive isolates of Phytophthora infestans, the potato late blight pathogen. F1 progeny showed the expected semi-dominant phenotypes for Mefenoxam insensitivity and suggested the involvement of multiple loci, complicating the positional cloning of the gene(s) conditioning insensitivity to Mefenoxam. Instead, a candidate gene strategy was used, based on previous observations that the primary effect of phenylamide compounds is to inhibit ribosomal RNA synthesis. The subunits of RNA polymerase I (RNApolI) were sequenced from sensitive and insensitive isolates and F1 progeny. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific to insensitive field isolates were identified in the gene encoding the large subunit of RNApolI. In a survey of field isolates, SNP T1145A (Y382F) showed an 86% association with Mefenoxam insensitivity. Isolates not showing this association belonged predominantly to one P. infestans genotype. The transfer of the 'insensitive' allele of RPA190 to a sensitive isolate yielded transgenic lines that were insensitive to Mefenoxam. These results demonstrate that sequence variation in RPA190 contributes to insensitivity to Mefenoxam in P. infestans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6638662PMC
September 2014

Mutagenesis and functional studies with succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors in the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

PLoS One 2012 19;7(4):e35429. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Syngenta Crop Protection Münchwilen AG, Stein, Switzerland.

A range of novel carboxamide fungicides, inhibitors of the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH, EC 1.3.5.1) is currently being introduced to the crop protection market. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of structurally distinct carboxamides on target site resistance development and to assess possible impact on fitness. We used a UV mutagenesis approach in Mycosphaerella graminicola, a key pathogen of wheat to compare the nature, frequencies and impact of target mutations towards five subclasses of carboxamides. From this screen we identified 27 amino acid substitutions occurring at 18 different positions on the 3 subunits constituting the ubiquinone binding (Qp) site of the enzyme. The nature of substitutions and cross resistance profiles indicated significant differences in the binding interaction to the enzyme across the different inhibitors. Pharmacophore elucidation followed by docking studies in a tridimensional SDH model allowed us to propose rational hypotheses explaining some of the differential behaviors for the first time. Interestingly all the characterized substitutions had a negative impact on enzyme efficiency, however very low levels of enzyme activity appeared to be sufficient for cell survival. In order to explore the impact of mutations on pathogen fitness in vivo and in planta, homologous recombinants were generated for a selection of mutation types. In vivo, in contrast to previous studies performed in yeast and other organisms, SDH mutations did not result in a major increase of reactive oxygen species levels and did not display any significant fitness penalty. However, a number of Qp site mutations affecting enzyme efficiency were shown to have a biological impact in planta.Using the combined approaches described here, we have significantly improved our understanding of possible resistance mechanisms to carboxamides and performed preliminary fitness penalty assessment in an economically important plant pathogen years ahead of possible resistance development in the field.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0035429PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334918PMC
August 2012

Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, and stealth pathogenesis.

PLoS Genet 2011 Jun 9;7(6):e1002070. Epub 2011 Jun 9.

USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.

The plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (asexual stage: Septoria tritici) causes septoria tritici blotch, a disease that greatly reduces the yield and quality of wheat. This disease is economically important in most wheat-growing areas worldwide and threatens global food production. Control of the disease has been hampered by a limited understanding of the genetic and biochemical bases of pathogenicity, including mechanisms of infection and of resistance in the host. Unlike most other plant pathogens, M. graminicola has a long latent period during which it evades host defenses. Although this type of stealth pathogenicity occurs commonly in Mycosphaerella and other Dothideomycetes, the largest class of plant-pathogenic fungi, its genetic basis is not known. To address this problem, the genome of M. graminicola was sequenced completely. The finished genome contains 21 chromosomes, eight of which could be lost with no visible effect on the fungus and thus are dispensable. This eight-chromosome dispensome is dynamic in field and progeny isolates, is different from the core genome in gene and repeat content, and appears to have originated by ancient horizontal transfer from an unknown donor. Synteny plots of the M. graminicola chromosomes versus those of the only other sequenced Dothideomycete, Stagonospora nodorum, revealed conservation of gene content but not order or orientation, suggesting a high rate of intra-chromosomal rearrangement in one or both species. This observed "mesosynteny" is very different from synteny seen between other organisms. A surprising feature of the M. graminicola genome compared to other sequenced plant pathogens was that it contained very few genes for enzymes that break down plant cell walls, which was more similar to endophytes than to pathogens. The stealth pathogenesis of M. graminicola probably involves degradation of proteins rather than carbohydrates to evade host defenses during the biotrophic stage of infection and may have evolved from endophytic ancestors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3111534PMC
June 2011

New capabilities for Mycosphaerella graminicola research.

Mol Plant Pathol 2010 Sep;11(5):691-704

Syngenta, Jealott's Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire, UK.

Mycosphaerella graminicola is a major pathogen of wheat worldwide, causing Septoria leaf blotch disease. Targeted gene disruption in M. graminicola, by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, has become an established functional genomics tool for M. graminicola research in recent years. However, in order to advance research into this economically important pathogen, further functional genomics tools need to be developed. Here, we report three new capabilities for M. graminicola research: (i) two selectable markers have been shown to work robustly in M. graminicola, namely G418 and the fungicide carboxin; (ii) the generation of a strain of M. graminicola in which the KU70 (MUS-51) homologue has been disrupted; in this strain, homologous recombination efficiencies increased to more than 95%, whilst maintaining wild-type growth in vitro and full pathogenicity on wheat leaves; (iii) the ability to efficiently target and generate precise mutations of specific genes in the genomic context in M. graminicola. In addition, the insertion of the E198A mutation into the beta-tubulin gene (MgTUB1), conferring resistance to the fungicide benomyl, suggests that this mutant allele may provide an additional selectable marker. The collective use of these tools will permit further advancements in our knowledge of the biology and pathogenicity of this important plant pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2010.00629.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6640411PMC
September 2010

Mandipropamid targets the cellulose synthase-like PiCesA3 to inhibit cell wall biosynthesis in the oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora infestans.

Mol Plant Pathol 2010 Mar;11(2):227-43

Syngenta Crop Protection AG, CH-4332 Stein, Switzerland.

Oomycete plant pathogens cause a wide variety of economically and environmentally important plant diseases. Mandipropamid (MPD) is a carboxylic acid amide (CAA) effective against downy mildews, such as Plasmopara viticola on grapes and potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. Historically, the identification of the mode of action of oomycete-specific control agents has been problematic. Here, we describe how a combination of biochemical and genetic techniques has been utilized to identify the molecular target of MPD in P. infestans. Phytophthora infestans germinating cysts treated with MPD produced swelling symptoms typical of cell wall synthesis inhibitors, and these effects were reversible after washing with H(2)O. Uptake studies with (14)C-labelled MPD showed that this oomycete control agent acts on the cell wall and does not enter the cell. Furthermore, (14)C glucose incorporation into cellulose was perturbed in the presence of MPD which, taken together, suggests that the inhibition of cellulose synthesis is the primary effect of MPD. Laboratory mutants, insensitive to MPD, were raised by ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutagenesis, and gene sequence analysis of cellulose synthase genes in these mutants revealed two point mutations in the PiCesA3 gene, known to be involved in cellulose synthesis. Both mutations in the PiCesA3 gene result in a change to the same amino acid (glycine-1105) in the protein. The transformation and expression of a mutated PiCesA3 allele was carried out in a sensitive wild-type isolate to demonstrate that the mutations in PiCesA3 were responsible for the MPD insensitivity phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2009.00604.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6640402PMC
March 2010

Large-scale gene discovery in the septoria tritici blotch fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola with a focus on in planta expression.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2008 Sep;21(9):1249-60

Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The foliar disease septoria tritici blotch, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, is currently the most important wheat disease in Europe. Gene expression was examined under highly different conditions, using 10 expressed sequence tag libraries generated from M. graminicola isolate IPO323 using seven in vitro and three in planta growth conditions. To identify fungal clones in the interaction libraries, we developed a selection method based on hybridization with the entire genomic DNA of M. graminicola, to selectively enrich these libraries for fungal genes. Assembly of the 27,007 expressed sequence tags resulted in 9,190 unigenes, representing 5.2 Mb of the estimated 39-Mb genome size of M. graminicola. All libraries contributed significantly to the number of unigenes, especially the in planta libraries representing different stages of pathogenesis, which covered 15% of the library-specific unigenes. Even under presymptomatic conditions (5 days postinoculation), when fungal biomass is less than 5%, this method enabled us to efficiently capture fungal genes expressed during pathogenesis. Many of these genes were uniquely expressed in planta, indicating that in planta gene expression significantly differed from in vitro expression. Examples of gene discovery included a number of cell wall-degrading enzymes, a broad set of genes involved in signal transduction (n=11) and a range of ATP-binding cassette (n=20) and major facilitator superfamily transporter genes (n=12) potentially involved in protection against antifungal compounds or the secretion of pathogenicity factors. In addition, evidence is provided for a mycovirus in M. graminicola that is highly expressed under various stress conditions, in particular, under nitrogen starvation. Our analyses provide a unique window on in vitro and in planta gene expression of M. graminicola.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-21-9-1249DOI Listing
September 2008

Malayamycin, a new streptomycete antifungal compound, specifically inhibits sporulation of Stagonospora nodorum (Berk) Castell and Germano, the cause of wheat glume blotch disease.

Pest Manag Sci 2008 Dec;64(12):1294-302

Australian Centre for Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens, SABC, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: Malayamycin is a novel perhydrofuropyran C-nucleoside isolated from Streptomyces malaysiensis that shows promising antifungal activity, fully controlling a range of diseases when applied to plants at 100 microg mL(-1). The goal of this study was to determine the mode of action.

Results: Malayamycin exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against Stagonospora nodorum (Berk) Castell & Germano, the cause of stagonospora nodorum blotch of wheat. Growth in liquid minimum medium was merely delayed at 50 microg mL(-1), but sporulation was suppressed by more than 50% by 10 microg mL(-1) of malayamycin. When applied to wheat seedlings 36 h prior to infection, 10 microg mL(-1) of malayamycin reduced lesion size and significantly reduced pycnidiation to only 5% of the non-treated level. A transcription factor gene, Mrg1 (malayamycin response gene) whose expression was upregulated by application of malayamycin, was identified. Both Mrg1 knockout and overexpression strains were created. These strains were fully pathogenic, suggesting that the expression of Mrg1 did not affect pathogenicity. Interestingly, a strain that expressed Mrg1 50 times more than wild type showed a significant reduction in sporulation. However, all the tested knockout and overexpression strains retained sensitivity to malayamycin.

Conclusions: Malayamycin is a new type of antifungal compound that acts primarily by inhibiting sporulation. Although Mrg1 may be involved in the sporulation process, it is not the major contributor for sporulation inhibition caused by malayamycin treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.1632DOI Listing
December 2008

Dual effects of plant steroidal alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006 Aug;50(8):2732-40

Sainsbury Laboratory, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.

Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of alpha-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with alpha-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of alpha-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C(24) methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00289-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1538658PMC
August 2006

Gene expression profiles of Blumeria graminis indicate dynamic changes to primary metabolism during development of an obligate biotrophic pathogen.

Plant Cell 2005 Jul 10;17(7):2107-22. Epub 2005 Jun 10.

Division of Biology, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

cDNA microarrays of Blumeria graminis f sp hordei transcript profiles during the asexual development cycle reveal the dynamics of global gene expression as the fungus germinates, penetrates, feeds on its host, and produces masses of conidia for dispersal. The expression profiles of genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism show that there is a striking degree of coordinate regulation of some of the genes in the same pathway. In one example, genes encoding several glycolytic enzymes are significantly upregulated as mature appressoria form and also in infected epidermis, which contain fungal haustoria. In another example, mRNAs for lipid degrading enzymes are initially expressed at high levels in the conidia and the early germination stages and decrease significantly later. We discuss these results and draw inferences on the metabolic status of this obligate biotrophic fungus as it infects its host and completes its life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.105.032631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1167555PMC
July 2005

Transcript profiles of Blumeria graminis development during infection reveal a cluster of genes that are potential virulence determinants.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2005 Feb;18(2):125-33

Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College London, London, UK.

High-density cDNA microarrays (2,027 unigenes) were used to analyze transcript profiles of the plant-pathogenic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei throughout its asexual life cycle and development of infection. RNA was obtained from four stages preceding penetration and four stages after penetration of the host cells. The microarray data was validated by comparing the expression of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase with the data obtained from a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The results showed that there was a global switch in expression between the pre- and postpenetrative stages. This was largely due to accumulation of RNA encoding protein biosynthesis genes in the late stages. Other functional clusters, such as virulence-related genes and sterol metabolism genes, are up-regulated in pre- and postpenetration stages, respectively. A group of RNAs whose abundance correlated with the expression of cap20, a gene known to be required for virulence in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, identified genes that are strong candidates for pathogenicity factors in B. graminis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-18-0125DOI Listing
February 2005