Publications by authors named "Michael C Howland"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Affinity and enzyme-based biosensors: recent advances and emerging applications in cell analysis and point-of-care testing.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2012 Sep 22;404(4):1181-96. Epub 2012 Jun 22.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The applications of biosensors range from environmental testing and biowarfare agent detection to clinical testing and cell analysis. In recent years, biosensors have become increasingly prevalent in clinical testing and point-of-care testing. This is driven in part by the desire to decrease the cost of health care, to shift some of the analytical tests from centralized facilities to "frontline" physicians and nurses, and to obtain more precise information more quickly about the health status of a patient. This article gives an overview of recent advances in the field of biosensors, focusing on biosensors based on enzymes, aptamers, antibodies, and phages. In addition, this article attempts to describe efforts to apply these biosensors to clinical testing and cell analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-012-6149-6DOI Listing
September 2012

Micropatterned aptasensors for continuous monitoring of cytokine release from human leukocytes.

Anal Chem 2011 Nov 13;83(21):8286-92. Epub 2011 Oct 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, United States.

We report the development of a microdevice for detecting local interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release from primary human leukocytes in real time. Our microdevice makes use of miniature aptamer-modified electrodes integrated with microfluidics to monitor cellular production of IFN-γ. The aptamer species consists of a DNA hairpin molecule with thiol groups on the 3'-end for self-assembly onto Au electrodes. A redox reporter is covalently attached at the 5'-end for electrochemical sensing. This aptasensor has excellent sensitivity for IFN-γ (<60 pM detection limit) and responds to the target analyte in real time without additional washing or labeling steps. Aptamer-functionalized electrode arrays are fabricated on glass slides containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel patterns designed to expose glass regions adjacent to electrodes while protecting the remainder of the surface from nonspecific adsorption. The micropatterned substrates are integrated with PDMS microfluidic channels and incubated with T-cell-specific antibodies (Ab) (anti-CD4). Upon injection of blood, leukocytes are bound to Ab-modified glass regions in proximity to aptasensors. Cytokine release from captured cells is triggered by mitogenic activation and detected at the aptamer-modified electrodes using square wave voltammetry (SWV). The IFN-γ signal is monitored in real time with signal appearing as early as 15 min poststimulation from as few as 90 T cells. The observed IFN-γ release profiles are used to calculate an initial IFN-γ production rate of 0.0079 pg cell(-1) h(-1) upon activation. The work described here represents an important step toward development of aptasensors for immune cell analysis and blood-based diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac202117gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3235337PMC
November 2011

Model studies of membrane disruption by photogenerated oxidative assault.

J Phys Chem B 2010 May;114(19):6377-85

Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science and of Applied Science, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA.

We have investigated the response of solid-supported phospholipid bilayers to short doses of photogenerated oxidative stress to characterize physical membrane changes during early phases of membrane oxidation. The low-dose oxidative stress is generated by uniformly exposing the bilayer samples using short-wavelength UV radiation (184-257 nm) for short periods (approximately 3 min) and resulting membrane morphological transformations characterized using a combination of wide-field epifluorescence microscopy and imaging ellipsometry measurements. Our results establish that the early phase of membrane oxidation is characterized by the nucleation and growth of discrete microscopic voids within the bilayer. The locations of the voids are randomly distributed throughout the sample surface, despite the uniform illumination. Over longer time scales, the voids continue to grow after the termination of the UV radiation. We also find that the voids heal as sample temperature is raised and that the supported bilayers consisting of fully saturated lipids are less susceptible to the mild oxidation conditions used, regardless of phase state. Analyzing these results in terms of (1) reactive-oxygen species mediated oxidative attack, (2) in situ generation of membrane oxidation products, and (3) their reequilibration between the membrane and the bulk aqueous phase explains the membrane morphological changes observed and provides insights into membrane perturbations following oxidative assault. Specifically, molecular properties of oxidation products (e.g., intrinsic curvature) account for formation and stabilization of voids within contiguous bilayers, and the long-term structural evolution is consistent with slow kinetics of the desorption of these oxidation products from the bilayer into bulk solution. A corollary benefit from our study is that the thermal properties of voids appear to offer a useful means to measure the thermal expansivity of supported membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp102861vDOI Listing
May 2010

Micropatterning of proteins and mammalian cells on indium tin oxide.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2009 Nov;1(11):2592-601

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

This paper describes a novel surface engineering approach that combines oxygen plasma treatment and electrochemical activation to create micropatterned cocultures on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. In this approach, photoresist was patterned onto an ITO substrate modified with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) silane. The photoresist served as a stencil during exposure of the surface to oxygen plasma. Upon incubation with collagen (I) solution and removal of the photoresist, the ITO substrate contained collagen regions surrounded by nonfouling PEG silane. Chemical analysis carried out with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) at different stages in micropatterned construction verified removal of PEG-silane during oxygen plasma and presence of collagen and PEG molecules on the same surface. Imaging ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to further investigate micropatterned ITO surfaces. Biological application of this micropatterning strategy was demonstrated through selective attachment of mammalian cells on the ITO substrate. Importantly, after seeding the first cell type, the ITO surfaces could be activated by applying negative voltage (-1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl). This resulted in removal of nonfouling PEG layer and allowed to attach another cell type onto the same surface and to create micropatterned cocultures. Micropatterned cocultures of primary hepatocytes and fibroblasts created by this strategy remained functional after 9 days as verified by analysis of hepatic albumin. The novel surface engineering strategy described here may be used to pattern multiple cell types on an optically transparent and conductive substrate and is envisioned to have applications in tissue engineering and biosensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/am900508mDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2901501PMC
November 2009

Early stages of oxidative stress-induced membrane permeabilization: a neutron reflectometry study.

J Am Chem Soc 2009 Mar;131(10):3631-8

Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA.

Neutron reflectometry was used to probe in situ the structure of supported lipid bilayers at the solid-liquid interface during the early stages of UV-induced oxidative degradation. Single-component supported lipid bilayers composed of gel phase, dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), and fluid phase, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), phospholipids were exposed to low-dose oxidative stress generated by UV light and their structures were examined by neutron reflectometry. An interrupted illumination mode, involving exposures in 15 min increments with 2 h intervals between subsequent exposures, and a continuous mode involving a single 60 (or 90) min exposure period were employed. In both cases, pronounced differences in the structure of the lipid bilayer after exposure were observed. Interrupted exposure led to a substantial decrease in membrane coverage but preserved its total thickness at reduced scattering length densities. These results indicate that the initial phase during UV-induced membrane degradation involves the formation of hydrophilic channels within the membrane. This is consistent with the loss of some lipid molecules we observe and attendant reorganization of residual lipids forming hemimicellar edges of the hydrophilic channels. In contrast, continuous illumination produced a graded interface of continuously varied scattering length density (and hence hydrocarbon density) extending 100-150 A into the liquid phase. Exposure of a DPPC bilayer to UV light in the presence of a reservoir of unfused vesicles showed low net membrane disintegration during oxidative stress, presumably because of surface back-filling from the bulk reservoir. Chemical evidence for membrane degradation was obtained by mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Further evidence for the formation of hydrophilic channels was furnished by fluorescence microscopy and imaging ellipsometry data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja807680mDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2703001PMC
March 2009

Integrating sensing hydrogel microstructures into micropatterned hepatocellular cocultures.

Langmuir 2009 Apr;25(6):3880-6

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Applied Science Graduate Group, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

In this paper we describe a microfabrication-derived approach for defining interactions between distinct groups of cells and integrating biosensors with cellular micropatterns. In this approach, photoresist lithography was employed to micropattern cell-adhesive ligand (collagen I) on silane-modified glass substrates. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) photolithography was then used to fabricate hydrogel microstructures in registration with existing collagen I domains. A glass substrate modified in this manner had three types of micropatterned regions: cell-adhesive collagen I domains, moderately adhesive silanized glass regions, and nonadhesive PEG hydrogel regions. Incubation of this substrate with primary rat hepatocytes or HepG2 cells resulted in attachment of hepatic cells on collagen I domains with no adhesion observed on silane-modified glass regions or hydrogel domains. 3T3 fibroblasts added onto the same surface attached on the glass regions around the hepatocytes, completing the coculture. Significantly, PEG hydrogel microstructures remained free of cells and were used to "fence" hepatocytes from fibroblasts, thus limiting communication between the cell types. We also demonstrated that entrapment of enzyme molecules inside hydrogel microstructures did not compromise nonfouling properties of PEG. Building on this result, horse radish peroxidase-containing hydrogel microstructures were integrated into micropatterned cocultures and were used to detect hydrogen peroxide in the culture medium. The surface micropatterning approach described here may be used in the future to simultaneously define and detect endocrine signaling between two distinct cell types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la803635rDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2749523PMC
April 2009

Evidence for leaflet-dependent redistribution of charged molecules in fluid supported phospholipid bilayers.

Langmuir 2008 Dec;24(23):13250-3

Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA.

The asymmetric distribution of charged molecules between the leaflets of solid-substrate-supported phospholipid bilayers is studied using imaging ellipsometry, fluorescence microscopy, and numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Experiments are facilitated by the use of patterned substrates that allow for side-by-side comparison of lipid monolayers and supported bilayers. On silica surfaces, negatively charged lipid components are shown to be enriched in the outer leaflet of a supported bilayer system at modest salt concentrations. The approaches developed provide a general means for determining asymmetries of charged components in supported lipid bilayers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la802909cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670441PMC
December 2008

Protecting, patterning, and scaffolding supported lipid membranes using carbohydrate glasses.

Lab Chip 2008 Jun 11;8(6):892-7. Epub 2008 Apr 11.

Department of Applied Science, University of California-Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Disaccharides are known to protect sensitive biomolecules against stresses caused by dehydration, both in vivo and in vitro. Here we demonstrate how interfacial accumulation of trehalose can be used to (1) produce rugged supported lipid bilayers capable of near total dehydration; (2) enable spatial patterning of membrane micro-arrays; and (3) form stable bilayers on otherwise lipophobic substrates (e.g., metal transducers) thus affording protecting, patterning, and scaffolding of lipid bilayers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b800370jDOI Listing
June 2008

Characterization of physical properties of supported phospholipid membranes using imaging ellipsometry at optical wavelengths.

Biophys J 2007 Feb 1;92(4):1306-17. Epub 2006 Dec 1.

Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Group, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

Subnanometer-scale vertical z-resolution coupled with large lateral area imaging, label-free, noncontact, and in situ advantages make the technique of optical imaging ellipsometry (IE) highly suitable for quantitative characterization of lipid bilayers supported on oxide substrates and submerged in aqueous phases. This article demonstrates the versatility of IE in quantitative characterization of structural and functional properties of supported phospholipid membranes using previously well-characterized examples. These include 1), a single-step determination of bilayer thickness to 0.2 nm accuracy and large-area lateral uniformity using photochemically patterned single 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers; 2), hydration-induced spreading kinetics of single-fluid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers to illustrate the in situ capability and image acquisition speed; 3), a large-area morphological characterization of phase-separating binary mixtures of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and galactosylceramide; and 4), binding of cholera-toxin B subunits to GM1-incorporating bilayers. Additional insights derived from these ellipsometric measurements are also discussed for each of these applications. Agreement with previous studies confirms that IE provides a simple and convenient tool for a routine, quantitative characterization of these membrane properties. Our results also suggest that IE complements more widely used fluorescence and scanning probe microscopies by combining large-area measurements with high vertical resolution without the use of labeled lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.106.097071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1783900PMC
February 2007

Transition from homogeneous Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers to striped bilayers driven by a wetting instability in octadecylsiloxane monolayers.

Langmuir 2005 Nov;21(23):10468-74

Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA.

We show that two dips of an oxidized silicon substrate through a prepolymerized n-octadecylsiloxane monolayer at an air-water interface in a rapid succession produces periodic, linear striped patterns in film morphology extending over macroscopic area of the substrate surface. Langmuir monolayers of n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane were prepared at the surface of an acidic subphase (pH 2) maintained at room temperature (22 +/- 2 degrees C) under relative humidities of 50-70%. The substrate was first withdrawn at a high dipping rate from the quiescent aqueous subphase (upstroke) maintained at several surface pressures corresponding to a condensed monolayer state and lowered soon after at the same rate into the monolayer covered subphase (downstroke). The film structure and morphology were characterized using a combination of optical microscopy, imaging ellipsometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An extended striped pattern, perpendicular to the pushing direction of the second stroke, resulted for all surface pressures when the dipping rate exceeded a threshold value of 40 mm min(-1). Below this threshold value, uniform deposition characterizing formation of a bimolecular film was obtained. Under conditions that favored striped deposition during the downstroke through the monolayer-covered interface, we observed a periodic auto-oscillatory behavior of the meniscus. The stripes appear to be formed by a highly correlated reorganization and/or exchange of the first monolayer, mediated by the Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface. This mechanism appears distinctly different from nanometer scale stripes observed recently in single transfers of phospholipid monolayers maintained near a phase boundary. The stripes further exhibit wettability patterns useful for spatially selective functionalization, as demonstrated by directed adsorptions of an organic dye (fluorescein) and an oil (hexadecane).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la050735nDOI Listing
November 2005

Phospholipid morphologies on photochemically patterned silane monolayers.

J Am Chem Soc 2005 May;127(18):6752-65

Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

We have studied the spreading of phospholipid vesicles on photochemically patterned n-octadecylsiloxane monolayers using epifluorescence and imaging ellipsometry measurements. Self-assembled monolayers of n-octadecylsiloxanes were patterned using short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation and a photomask to produce periodic arrays of patterned hydrophilic domains separated from hydrophobic surroundings. Exposing these patterned surfaces to a solution of small unilamellar vesicles of phospholipids and their mixtures resulted in a complex lipid layer morphology epitaxially reflecting the underlying pattern of hydrophilicity. The hydrophilic square regions of the photopatterned OTS monolayer reflected lipid bilayer formation, and the hydrophobic OTS residues supported lipid monolayers. We further observed the existence of a boundary region composed of a nonfluid lipid phase and a lipid-free moat at the interface between the lipid monolayer and bilayer morphologies spontaneously corralling the fluid bilayers. The outer-edge of the boundary region was found to be accessible for subsequent adsorption by proteins (e.g., streptavidin and BSA), but the inner-edge closer to the bilayer remained resistant to adsorption by protein or vesicles. Mechanistic implications of our results in terms of the effects of substrate topochemical character are discussed. Furthermore, our results provide a basis for the construction of complex biomembrane models, which exhibit fluidity barriers and differentiate membrane properties based on correspondence between lipid leaflets. We also envisage the use of this construct where two-dimensionally fluid, low-defect lipid layers serve as sacrificial resists for the deposition of protein and other material patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja043439qDOI Listing
May 2005