Publications by authors named "Michael C Dean"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lipoteichoic Acid as a Potential Noninvasive Biomarker of Biofilm in Dialysis Access.

ASAIO J 2020 08;66(8):960-965

University of Michigan, Division of Nephrology, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) are colonized by Gram-positive organisms and form biofilm. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a Gram-positive cell wall component that can be measured in serum. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize LTA concentrations in hemodialysis (HD) patients with TCVCs compared to other access types and to evaluate biofilm morphology and microbiology in TCVCs removed by clinical decision. The study enrolled patients with TCVCs (18), grafts (19), and fistulas (18). Blood samples were collected before HD, at 30 minutes, 2 hours, and end of HD. Catheters removed by clinical decision were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for biofilm morphology, and portions of the catheter were cultured. LTA was detectable in all samples and concentrations increased significantly in all access types during HD (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Patients with TCVCs that had a >30% increase in LTA concentration from baseline also had the greatest rate of increase (slope) compared to grafts and fistulas (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Catheters removed by clinical decision (n = 7) and examined by SEM had deposition of fibrin. Cultures revealed polymicrobial colonization. TCVCs had the highest rate of increase of LTA during HD. Further studies to determine the source of LTA in patients with AVG and AVF are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000001091DOI Listing
August 2020

Impact of hemodialysis on the concentrations of sodium and potassium during infusion of sodium thiosulfate using an In Vitro hemodialysis model.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(11):e0224767. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Hope Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ, United States of America.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of hemodialysis on the concentrations of sodium and potassium in the blood when a 25 g dose of sodium thiosulfate injection is infused over 60 minutes in combination with hemodialysis.

Methods: Sodium thiosulfate (25 g) was prepared by diluting 100 mL of 250 mg/mL Sodium Thiosulfate Injection with 800 mL of 5% dextrose. This was added to the circulating blood surrogate solution at a rate of 15 mL/minute using an infusion pump of an in vitro model of dialysis machine. Serial samples were collected before the administration of the sodium thiosulfate solution, after 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes of infusion from pre-and post-dialyzer ports in both the dialysate circuit and the extracorporeal circuit.

Findings: The concentration of sodium thiosulfate in pre-dialyzer and post-dialyzer samples of the circulating blood surrogate solution peaked at 30 minutes and 15 minutes, respectively and then remained relatively unchanged during the remainder of the infusion. Mean sodium concentrations (mEq/L) in the circulating blood surrogate solution collected after exposure to a dialyzer were 103.2 ± 12.2, 114.2 ± 18.8, 117.2 ± 7.5, 93.5 ± 5.9 at 0, 15, 30, and 60 minutes, respectively (p = 0.248). Mean potassium concentrations (mEq/L) in the circulating blood surrogate solution collected after exposure to a dialyzer were 1.4 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.3, 1.5 ± 0.1, 1.2 ± 0.1 at 0, 15, 30, and 60 minutes, respectively (p = 0.365). Sodium and potassium concentrations in dialysate increased marginally after exposure to the dialyzer.

Discussion: Our study demonstrates that neither potassium nor sodium accumulated in circulating blood surrogate solution when a dose of sodium thiosulfate was infused in conjunction with hemodialysis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224767PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6853332PMC
March 2020

Quantification of Lipoteichoic Acid in Hemodialysis Patients With Central Venous Catheters.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 5;5:308. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) have chronic systemic inflammation, the source of which may be related to intraluminal bacterial biofilm. There is currently no non-invasive method to adequately evaluate intraluminal biofilm. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a Gram-positive bacterial cell wall component that is spontaneously shed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LTA could be quantified in biological samples and to evaluate potential relationships to markers of inflammation. Heparin-locked catheter aspirate was drawn from both the arterial and venous ports of each CVC prior to dialysis initiation. Venous blood from the dialysis circuit was collected 30 min after dialysis initiation. LTA was quantified in aspirate and plasma. Key markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, and hepcidin) and endothelial dysfunction (soluble vascular endothelial cadherin) were also determined in plasma samples. Catheter aspirate and systemic blood samples were obtained from 40 hemodialysis patients. The median (range) duration of catheter use was 130 (20-1635) days. Unexpectedly, median (range) plasma LTA concentrations (ng/mL) were significantly higher than catheter aspirate LTA concentrations [3.93 (0.25-15) vs. 2.38 (0.1-8.1), respectively, = 0.01] in the majority (70%) of patients. Area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve showed good potential prognostic value of catheter aspirate LTA predicting systemic LTA concentrations with an area under the curve of 0.815 (95% CI, 0.68-0.95). A significant correlation was found between LTA and serum ferritin ( = 0.32, = 0.04), however, there were no significant correlations between LTA and the other inflammation biomarkers assessed. LTA is quantifiable in aspirate and plasma of hemodialysis patients with CVCs and warrants further investigation to determine potential clinical application to intraluminal biofilm evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2018.00308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230575PMC
November 2018

Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome.

Nat Commun 2016 06 13;7:11843. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan 35053, Taiwan.

To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4909985PMC
June 2016

Characterization of large structural genetic mosaicism in human autosomes.

Am J Hum Genet 2015 Mar;96(3):487-97

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Cancer Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.

Analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have revealed that detectable genetic mosaicism involving large (>2 Mb) structural autosomal alterations occurs in a fraction of individuals. We present results for a set of 24,849 genotyped individuals (total GWAS set II [TGSII]) in whom 341 large autosomal abnormalities were observed in 168 (0.68%) individuals. Merging data from the new TGSII set with data from two prior reports (the Gene-Environment Association Studies and the total GWAS set I) generated a large dataset of 127,179 individuals; we then conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the patterns of detectable autosomal mosaicism (n = 1,315 events in 925 [0.73%] individuals). Restricting to events >2 Mb in size, we observed an increase in event frequency as event size decreased. The combined results underscore that the rate of detectable mosaicism increases with age (p value = 5.5 × 10(-31)) and is higher in men (p value = 0.002) but lower in participants of African ancestry (p value = 0.003). In a subset of 47 individuals from whom serial samples were collected up to 6 years apart, complex changes were noted over time and showed an overall increase in the proportion of mosaic cells as age increased. Our large combined sample allowed for a unique ability to characterize detectable genetic mosaicism involving large structural events and strengthens the emerging evidence of non-random erosion of the genome in the aging population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4375431PMC
March 2015

Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer.

Nat Genet 2012 May 6;44(6):651-8. Epub 2012 May 6.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Rockville, Maryland, USA.

In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls from 13 genome-wide association studies, we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones in DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. We observed mosaic abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of >2 Mb in size in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%), with abnormal cell proportions of between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, frequency increased with age, from 0.23% under 50 years to 1.91% between 75 and 79 years (P = 4.8 × 10(-8)). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals; odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; P = 0.016), with stronger association with cases who had DNA collected before diagnosis or treatment (OR = 1.45; P = 0.0005). Detectable mosaicism was also more common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least 1 year before diagnosis with leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR = 35.4; P = 3.8 × 10(-11)). These findings underscore the time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and potentially other late-onset diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3372921PMC
May 2012