Publications by authors named "Michael A Matthay"

547 Publications

Mesenchymal stromal cells reduce evidence of lung injury in patients with ARDS.

JCI Insight 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America.

Background: Whether airspace biomarkers add value to plasma biomarkers in studying ARDS is not well understood. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an investigational therapy for ARDS, and airspace biomarkers may provide mechanistic evidence for MSCs' impact in patients with ARDS.

Methods: We carried out a nested cohort study within a phase 2a safety trial of treatment with allogeneic MSCs for moderate to severe ARDS. Non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma samples were collected 48 hours after study drug infusion. Airspace and plasma biomarker concentrations were compared between the MSC (n = 17) and placebo (n = 10) treatment arms, and correlation between the two compartments was tested. Airspace biomarkers were also tested for associations with clinical and radiographic outcomes.

Results: Compared to placebo, MSC treatment significantly reduced airspace total protein, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 concentrations. Plasma biomarkers did not differ between groups. Each 10-fold increase in airspace Ang-2 was independently associated with 6.7 fewer days alive and free of mechanical ventilation (95% CI -12.3 to -1.0, p = 0.023), and each 10-fold increase in airspace receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) was independently associated with a 6.6 point increase in day 3 radiographic assessment of lung edema score (95% CI 2.4 to 10.7, p = 0.004).

Conclusions: MSCs reduced biological evidence of lung injury in patients with ARDS. Biomarkers from the airspaces provide additional value for studying pathogenesis, treatment effects, and outcomes in ARDS.

Trial Registration: NCT02097641 FUNDING. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.148983DOI Listing
May 2021

The Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome: should patients receiving high-flow nasal oxygen be included?

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

The 2012 Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) provided validated support for three levels of initial arterial hypoxaemia that correlated with mortality in patients receiving ventilatory support. Since 2015, high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) has become widely used as an effective therapeutic support for acute respiratory failure, most recently in patients with severe COVID-19. We propose that the Berlin definition of ARDS be broadened to include patients treated with HFNO of at least 30 L/min who fulfil the other criteria for the Berlin definition of ARDS. An expanded definition would make the diagnosis of ARDS more widely applicable, allowing patients at an earlier stage of the syndrome to be recognised, independent of the need for endotracheal intubation or positive-pressure ventilation, with benefits for the testing of early interventions and the study of factors associated with the course of ARDS. We identify key questions that could be addressed in refining an expanded definition of ARDS, the implementation of which could lead to improvements in clinical practice and clinical outcomes for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00105-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075801PMC
April 2021

Transepithelial nasal potential difference in patients with, and at risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Thorax 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Intensive Care Unit, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, UK

Background: Impaired alveolar fluid clearance, determined in part by alveolar sodium transport, is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nasal sodium transport may reflect alveolar transport. The primary objective of this prospective, observational study was to determine if reduced nasal sodium transport, as measured by nasal potential difference (NPD), was predictive of the development of and outcome from ARDS.

Methods: NPD was measured in 15 healthy controls and in 88 patients: 40 mechanically ventilated patients defined as 'at-risk' for ARDS, 61 mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS (13 who were previously included in the 'at-risk' group) and 8 ARDS survivors on the ward.

Results: In at-risk subjects, maximum NPD (mNPD) was greater in those who developed ARDS (difference -8.4 mV; 95% CI -13.8 to -3.7; p=0.005) and increased mNPD predicted the development of ARDS before its onset (area under the curve (AUC) 0.75; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.89). In the ARDS group, mNPD was not significantly different for survivors and non-survivors (p=0.076), and mNPD was a modest predictor of death (AUC 0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.75). mNPD was greater in subjects with ARDS (-30.8 mV) than in at-risk subjects (-24.2 mV) and controls (-19.9 mV) (p<0.001). NPD values were not significantly different for survivors and controls (p=0.18).

Conclusions: Increased NPD predicts the development of ARDS in at-risk subjects but does not predict mortality. NPD increases before ARDS develops, is greater during ARDS, but is not significantly different for controls and survivors. These results may reflect the upregulated sodium transport necessary for alveolar fluid clearance in ARDS. NPD may be useful as a biomarker of endogenous mechanisms to stimulate sodium transport. Larger studies are now needed to confirm these associations and predictive performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215587DOI Listing
April 2021

Inhibition of the Lipoxin A4 and Resolvin D1 Receptor Impairs Host Response to Acute Lung Injury Caused by Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Mice.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, United States.

Resolution of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from pneumonia requires repair of the injured lung endothelium and alveolar epithelium, removal of neutrophils from the distal airspaces of the lung, and clearance of the pathogen. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) in the regulation of host responses during inflammation. Although ARDS is commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the role of Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and Resolvin D1 (RvD1) in pneumococcal pneumonia is not well understood. In the present experimental study, we tested the hypothesis that endogenous SPMs play a role in the resolution of lung injury in a clinically relevant model of bacterial pneumonia. Blockade of ALX/FPR2, the receptor for LXA4 and RvD1, with the peptide WRW4 resulted in more pulmonary edema, greater protein accumulation in the air spaces, and increased bacteria accumulation in the air spaces and the blood. Inhibition of this receptor was also associated with decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Even in the presence of antibiotic treatment, WRW4 inhibited the resolution of lung injury. In summary, these experiments demonstrated two novel findings: LXA4 and RvD1 contribute to the resolution of lung injury due to pneumococcal pneumonia, and the mechanism of their benefit likely includes augmenting bacterial clearance and reducing pulmonary edema via the restoration of lung alveolar-capillary barrier permeability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00046.2021DOI Listing
April 2021

Healthy inflamed lung environments differentially effect MSCs.

Eur Respir J 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

Background: Despite increased interest in MSC-based cell therapies for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), clinical investigations have not yet been successful and understanding of the potential mechanisms of MSC actions in ARDS remain limited. ARDS is driven by an acute severe innate immune dysregulation, often characterised by inflammation, coagulation, and cell injury. How this inflammatory microenvironment influences MSC functions remains to be determined.

Aim: To comparatively assess how the inflammatory environment present in ARDS lungs the lung environment present in healthy volunteers alters MSC behaviors.

Methods: Clinical grade human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) were exposed to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from ARDS patients or from healthy volunteers. Following exposure, hMSCs and their conditioned media were evaluated for a broad panel of relevant properties including viability, levels of expression of inflammatory cytokines, gene expression, cell surface HLA expression, and activation of coagulation and complement pathways.

Results: Pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant, and major histocompatibility complex (self recognition) related gene expression was markedly up-regulated in hMSCs exposed to BALF obtained from healthy volunteers. In contrast, these changes were less apparent and often opposite in hMSCs exposed to ARDS BALF samples.

Conclusion: These data provide new insights into how hMSCs behave in healthy inflamed lung environments strongly suggesting that the inflamed environment in ARDS induces hMSC responses potentially benefical for cell survival and actions. This further highlights the need to understand how different disease environments affect hMSC functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.04149-2020DOI Listing
April 2021

Impaired antibacterial immune signaling and changes in the lung microbiome precede secondary bacterial pneumonia in COVID-19.

medRxiv 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Secondary bacterial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), lead to worse clinical outcomes and increased mortality following viral respiratory infections. Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) face an elevated risk of VAP, although susceptibility varies widely. Because mechanisms underlying VAP predisposition remained unknown, we assessed lower respiratory tract host immune responses and microbiome dynamics in 36 patients, including 28 COVID-19 patients, 15 of whom developed VAP, and eight critically ill controls. We employed a combination of tracheal aspirate bulk and single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Two days before VAP onset, a lower respiratory transcriptional signature of bacterial infection was observed, characterized by increased expression of neutrophil degranulation, toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling pathways. When assessed at an earlier time point following endotracheal intubation, more than two weeks prior to VAP onset, we observed a striking early impairment in antibacterial innate and adaptive immune signaling that markedly differed from COVID-19 patients who did not develop VAP. scRNA-seq further demonstrated suppressed immune signaling across monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and T cells. While viral load did not differ at an early post-intubation timepoint, impaired SARS-CoV-2 clearance and persistent interferon signaling characterized the patients who later developed VAP. Longitudinal metatranscriptomic analysis revealed disruption of lung microbiome community composition in patients who developed VAP, providing a connection between dysregulated immune signaling and outgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Together, these findings demonstrate that COVID-19 patients who develop VAP have impaired antibacterial immune defense weeks before secondary infection onset.

One Sentence Summary: COVID-19 patients with secondary bacterial pneumonia have impaired immune signaling and lung microbiome changes weeks before onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.23.21253487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010763PMC
March 2021

Fibrinolytic niche is required for alveolar type 2 cell-mediated alveologenesis via a uPA-A6-CD44-ENaC signal cascade.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Feb 27;6(1):97. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00511-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910758PMC
February 2021

The pulmonary metatranscriptome prior to pediatric HCT identifies post-HCT lung injury.

Blood 2021 Mar;137(12):1679-1689

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine.

Lung injury after pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a common and disastrous complication that threatens long-term survival. To develop strategies to prevent lung injury, novel tools are needed to comprehensively assess lung health in HCT candidates. Therefore, this study analyzed biospecimens from 181 pediatric HCT candidates who underwent routine pre-HCT bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at the University Medical Center Utrecht between 2005 and 2016. BAL fluid underwent metatranscriptomic sequencing of microbial and human RNA, and unsupervised clustering and generalized linear models were used to associate microbiome gene expression data with the development of post-HCT lung injury. Microbe-gene correlations were validated using a geographically distinct cohort of 18 pediatric HCT candidates. The cumulative incidence of post-HCT lung injury varied significantly according to 4 pre-HCT pulmonary metatranscriptome clusters, with the highest incidence observed in children with pre-HCT viral enrichment and innate immune activation, as well as in children with profound microbial depletion and concomitant natural killer/T-cell activation (P < .001). In contrast, children with pre-HCT pulmonary metatranscriptomes containing diverse oropharyngeal taxa and lacking inflammation rarely developed post-HCT lung injury. In addition, activation of epithelial-epidermal differentiation, mucus production, and cellular adhesion were associated with fatal post-HCT lung injury. In a separate validation cohort, associations among pulmonary respiratory viral load, oropharyngeal taxa, and pulmonary gene expression were recapitulated; the association with post-HCT lung injury needs to be validated in an independent cohort. This analysis suggests that assessment of the pre-HCT BAL fluid may identify high-risk pediatric HCT candidates who may benefit from pathobiology-targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995292PMC
March 2021

The ARREST Pneumonia Clinical Trial. Rationale and Design.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 04;18(4):698-708

Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Patients hospitalized for pneumonia are at high risk for mortality. Effective therapies are therefore needed. Recent randomized clinical trials suggest that systemic steroids can reduce the length of hospital stays among patients hospitalized for pneumonia. Furthermore, preliminary findings from a feasibility study demonstrated that early treatment with a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a bronchodilator can improve oxygenation and reduce risk of respiratory failure in patients at risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Whether such a combination administered early is effective in reducing acute respiratory failure (ARF) among patients hospitalized with pneumonia is unknown. Here we describe the ARREST Pneumonia (Arrest Respiratory Failure due to Pneumonia) trial designed to address this question. ARREST Pneumonia is a two-arm, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a β-agonist compared with placebo for the prevention of ARF in hospitalized participants with severe pneumonia. The primary outcome is ARF within 7 days of randomization, defined as a composite endpoint of intubation and mechanical ventilation; need for high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy or noninvasive ventilation for >36 hours (each alone or combined); or death within 36 hours of being placed on respiratory support. The planned enrollment is 600 adult participants at 10 academic medical centers. In addition, we will measure selected plasma biomarkers to better understand mechanisms of action. The trial is funded by the U.S. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04193878).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202009-1115SDDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008996PMC
April 2021

Molecular markers of telomere dysfunction and senescence are common findings in the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern of lung fibrosis.

Histopathology 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA.

Aims: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a genetically mediated, age-associated, progressive form of pulmonary fibrosis characterised pathologically by a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern of fibrosis. The UIP pattern is also found in pulmonary fibrosis attributable to clinical diagnoses other than IPF (non-IPF UIP), whose clinical course is similarly poor, suggesting common molecular drivers. This study investigates whether IPF and non-IPF UIP lungs similarly express markers of telomere dysfunction and senescence.

Methods And Results: To test whether patients with IPF and non-IPF UIP share molecular drivers, lung tissues from 169 IPF patients and 57 non-IPF UIP patients were histopathologically and molecularly compared. Histopathological changes in both IPF and non-IPF UIP patients included temporal heterogeneity, microscopic honeycombing, fibroblast foci, and dense collagen fibrosis. Non-IPF UIP lungs were more likely to have lymphocytic infiltration, non-caseating granulomas, airway-centred inflammation, or small airways disease. Telomeres were shorter in alveolar type II (AECII) cells of both IPF and non-IPF UIP lungs than in those of age-similar, unused donor, controls. Levels of molecular markers of senescence (p16 and p21) were elevated in lysates of IPF and non-IPF UIP lungs. Immunostaining localised expression of these proteins to AECII cells. The mucin 5B (MUC5B) gene promoter variant minor allele frequency was similar between IPF and non-IPF UIP patients, and MUC5B expression was similar in IPF and non-IPF UIP lungs.

Conclusions: Molecular markers of telomere dysfunction and senescence are pathologically expressed in both IPF and non-IPF UIP lungs. These findings suggest that common molecular drivers may contribute to the pathogenesis of UIP-associated pulmonary fibrosis, regardless of the clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14334DOI Listing
January 2021

A Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody for Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2021 03 22;384(10):905-914. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

From the CHIP Center of Excellence for Health, Immunity, and Infections (J.D.L., D.D.M.), and the Department of Infectious Diseases (J.D.L., D.D.M., J.-U.J.), Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, the Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager and Hvidovre (T.B.), the Department of Internal Medicine, Respiratory Medicine Section, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup (J.-U.J.), the Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense (I.S.J.), and the Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby (L.Ø.) - all in Denmark; the School of Statistics (B.G.) and the Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health (T.A.M., C.R., S.S., D.W., J.D.N.), University of Minnesota, Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute (J.V.B.), and the University of Minnesota (J.V.B.), Minneapolis; the Divisions of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine (C.E.B.) and Infectious Disease (T.L.H.), Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, and the Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy, and Immunology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem (D.C.F.) - both in North Carolina; the Center for Advanced Heart and Lung Disease (R.L.G.) and the Division of Infectious Diseases (U.S.), Baylor University Medical Center, and the Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center (M.K.J.), Dallas; the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray (S.M.B.), and the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah (S.M.B., E.S.H.) and Intermountain Healthcare (K.U.K.), Salt Lake City - both in Utah; the Department of Emergency Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (W.H.S.); the Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (M.E.B.), the Department of Medicine and Anesthesia and the Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (M.A.M.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (H.C.) - all in California; the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (B.G.L.); Denver Public Health, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver (E.M.G.), and the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (A.A.G.); the Department of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit (N.M.); the Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales (C.C.C., M.N.P.), and St. Vincent's Hospital (M.N.P.), Sydney; the Department of Veterans Affairs (V.J.D.), the Veterans Affairs Medical Center (V.L.K.), and George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences (V.L.K.), Washington, DC; the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at UCL (A.G., A.G.B., M.K.B.P.), the Institute of Clinical Trials and Methodology (M.K.B.P.), and the Institute for Global Health (A.N.P.), University College London, and Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust (A.G.), London; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda (E.S.H., H.C.L.), and Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick (R.L.D., M.T.) - both in Maryland; the Infectious Diseases Department and IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain (R.P.); Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (P.K.); the Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (A.C.G.); and the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston (B.T.T.).

Background: LY-CoV555, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, has been associated with a decrease in viral load and the frequency of hospitalizations or emergency department visits among outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Data are needed on the effect of this antibody in patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19.

Methods: In this platform trial of therapeutic agents, we randomly assigned hospitalized patients who had Covid-19 without end-organ failure in a 1:1 ratio to receive either LY-CoV555 or matching placebo. In addition, all the patients received high-quality supportive care as background therapy, including the antiviral drug remdesivir and, when indicated, supplemental oxygen and glucocorticoids. LY-CoV555 (at a dose of 7000 mg) or placebo was administered as a single intravenous infusion over a 1-hour period. The primary outcome was a sustained recovery during a 90-day period, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. An interim futility assessment was performed on the basis of a seven-category ordinal scale for pulmonary function on day 5.

Results: On October 26, 2020, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping enrollment for futility after 314 patients (163 in the LY-CoV555 group and 151 in the placebo group) had undergone randomization and infusion. The median interval since the onset of symptoms was 7 days (interquartile range, 5 to 9). At day 5, a total of 81 patients (50%) in the LY-CoV555 group and 81 (54%) in the placebo group were in one of the two most favorable categories of the pulmonary outcome. Across the seven categories, the odds ratio of being in a more favorable category in the LY-CoV555 group than in the placebo group was 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 1.29; P = 0.45). The percentage of patients with the primary safety outcome (a composite of death, serious adverse events, or clinical grade 3 or 4 adverse events through day 5) was similar in the LY-CoV555 group and the placebo group (19% and 14%, respectively; odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.78 to 3.10; P = 0.20). The rate ratio for a sustained recovery was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.47).

Conclusions: Monoclonal antibody LY-CoV555, when coadministered with remdesivir, did not demonstrate efficacy among hospitalized patients who had Covid-19 without end-organ failure. (Funded by Operation Warp Speed and others; TICO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04501978.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2033130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781100PMC
March 2021

A Neutrophil Subset Defined by Intracellular Olfactomedin 4 is Associated with Mortality in Sepsis.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2020 Dec 23. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Departments of Medicine and Anesthesiology and the Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Sepsis is a heterogeneous syndrome clinically and biologically but biomarkers of distinct host response pathways for early prognostic information and testing targeted treatments are lacking. We hypothesized that Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4), a matrix glycoprotein of neutrophil specific granules defines a distinct neutrophil subset that may be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in sepsis. In a single-center, prospective cohort study, we enrolled adults admitted to an academic medical center from the Emergency Department (ED) with suspected sepsis (identified by 2 or greater Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome [SIRS] criteria and antibiotic receipt) from March 2016 through December 2017, followed by sepsis adjudication according to Sepsis-3. We collected 200mL of whole blood within 24 hours of admission and stained for the neutrophil surface marker CD66b followed by intracellular staining for OLFM4 quantitated by flow cytometry. The predictor for 60-day mortality was the percentage of OLFM4+ neutrophils and at a cut-point of OLFM4+ ≥37.6% determined by the Youden Index. Of 120 enrolled patients with suspected sepsis, 97 had sepsis and 23 had non-sepsis SIRS. The mean percentage of OLFM4+ neutrophils was significantly increased in both sepsis and non-sepsis SIRS patients who died (P ≤ 0.01). Among sepsis patients with elevated OLFM4+(≥37.6%), 56% died compared to 18% with OLFM4+ <37.6% (P=0.001).The association between OLFM4+ and mortality withstood adjustment for demographics, co-morbidities and measures of severity of illness (P<0.03). In sepsis, OLFM4+ neutrophil percentage is independently associated with 60-day mortality and may represent a novel measure of the heterogeneity of host response to sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00090.2020DOI Listing
December 2020

Alternative Tobacco Product Use in Critically Ill Patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 24;17(23). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Alternative tobacco product (ATP) use has bee linked to critical illness, however, few studies have examined the use of these substances in critically ill populations. We sought to examine ATP use within critically ill patients and to define barriers in accurately assessing use within this population. We prospectively studied 533 consecutive patients from the Early Assessment of Renal and Lung Injury study, enrolled between 2013 and 2016 at a tertiary referral center and a safety-net hospital. ATP use information (electronic cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookahs/waterpipes, and snus/chewing tobacco) was obtained from the patient or surrogate using a detailed survey. Reasons for non-completion of the survey were recorded, and differences between survey responders vs. non-responders, self- vs. surrogate responders, and ATP users vs. non-users were explored. Overall, 80% ( = 425) of subjects (56% male) completed a tobacco product use survey. Of these, 12.2% ( = 52) reported current ATP use, while 5.6% reported using multiple ATP products. When restricted to subjects who were self-responders, 17% reported ATP use, while 10% reported current cigarette smoking alone. The mean age of ATP users was 57 ± 17 years. Those who did not complete a survey were sicker and more likely to have died during admission. Subjects who completed the survey as self-responders reported higher levels of ATP use than ones with surrogate responders ( < 0.0001). ATP use is common among critically ill patients despite them being generally older than traditional users. Survey self-responders were more likely than surrogate responders to report use. These findings highlight the importance of improving our current methods of surveillance of ATP use in older adults in the outpatient setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727672PMC
November 2020

Phenotypes and personalized medicine in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Intensive Care Med 2020 12 18;46(12):2136-2152. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Anesthesia, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Although the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is well defined by the development of acute hypoxemia, bilateral infiltrates and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, ARDS is heterogeneous in terms of clinical risk factors, physiology of lung injury, microbiology, and biology, potentially explaining why pharmacologic therapies have been mostly unsuccessful in treating ARDS. Identifying phenotypes of ARDS and integrating this information into patient selection for clinical trials may increase the chance for efficacy with new treatments. In this review, we focus on classifying ARDS by the associated clinical disorders, physiological data, and radiographic imaging. We consider biologic phenotypes, including plasma protein biomarkers, gene expression, and common causative microbiologic pathogens. We will also discuss the issue of focusing clinical trials on the patient's phase of lung injury, including prevention, administration of therapy during early acute lung injury, and treatment of established ARDS. A more in depth understanding of the interplay of these variables in ARDS should provide more success in designing and conducting clinical trials and achieving the goal of personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06296-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673253PMC
December 2020

Effect of Hydroxychloroquine on Clinical Status at 14 Days in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2020 12;324(21):2165-2176

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Importance: Data on the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are needed.

Objective: To determine whether hydroxychloroquine is an efficacious treatment for adults hospitalized with COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a multicenter, blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted at 34 hospitals in the US. Adults hospitalized with respiratory symptoms from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were enrolled between April 2 and June 19, 2020, with the last outcome assessment on July 17, 2020. The planned sample size was 510 patients, with interim analyses planned after every 102 patients were enrolled. The trial was stopped at the fourth interim analysis for futility with a sample size of 479 patients.

Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to hydroxychloroquine (400 mg twice daily for 2 doses, then 200 mg twice daily for 8 doses) (n = 242) or placebo (n = 237).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was clinical status 14 days after randomization as assessed with a 7-category ordinal scale ranging from 1 (death) to 7 (discharged from the hospital and able to perform normal activities). The primary outcome was analyzed with a multivariable proportional odds model, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) greater than 1.0 indicating more favorable outcomes with hydroxychloroquine than placebo. The trial included 12 secondary outcomes, including 28-day mortality.

Results: Among 479 patients who were randomized (median age, 57 years; 44.3% female; 37.2% Hispanic/Latinx; 23.4% Black; 20.1% in the intensive care unit; 46.8% receiving supplemental oxygen without positive pressure; 11.5% receiving noninvasive ventilation or nasal high-flow oxygen; and 6.7% receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), 433 (90.4%) completed the primary outcome assessment at 14 days and the remainder had clinical status imputed. The median duration of symptoms prior to randomization was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 7 days). Clinical status on the ordinal outcome scale at 14 days did not significantly differ between the hydroxychloroquine and placebo groups (median [IQR] score, 6 [4-7] vs 6 [4-7]; aOR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.73 to 1.42]). None of the 12 secondary outcomes were significantly different between groups. At 28 days after randomization, 25 of 241 patients (10.4%) in the hydroxychloroquine group and 25 of 236 (10.6%) in the placebo group had died (absolute difference, -0.2% [95% CI, -5.7% to 5.3%]; aOR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.54 to 2.09]).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among adults hospitalized with respiratory illness from COVID-19, treatment with hydroxychloroquine, compared with placebo, did not significantly improve clinical status at day 14. These findings do not support the use of hydroxychloroquine for treatment of COVID-19 among hospitalized adults.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04332991.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.22240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653542PMC
December 2020

Designing an ARDS trial for 2020 and beyond: focus on enrichment strategies.

Intensive Care Med 2020 Dec 2;46(12):2153-2156. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Lariboisière Hospital, APHP; Inserm UMR-S942 Mascot, FHU PROMICE and Université de Paris, Paris, France.

With the exception of a few successes in trials of supportive care, the majority of interventional clinical trials for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have not led to new therapies. To improve the likelihood of benefit from clinical trial interventions in ARDS, clinical trial design must be improved. To optimize trial design, many factors need to be considered including the type of therapy to be tested, the type of trial (phase 2 or 3), how patients will be selected, primary and secondary end-points, and strategy for conduct of the trial, including potential newer trial designs such as platform or adaptive trials. Of these, optimization of patient selection is central to the likelihood of success and is particularly relevant in ARDS, which is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome, not a homogeneous disease. Recent advances including improved understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms and better tools for outcome prediction in ARDS should facilitate both predictive and prognostic enrichment. This commentary focuses on new information and novel methods for prognostic and predictive enrichment that may be useful to optimize patient selection and increase the likelihood of positive clinical trials in ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06232-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605340PMC
December 2020

Dexamethasone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19: addressing uncertainties.

Lancet Respir Med 2020 12 29;8(12):1170-1172. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30503-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598750PMC
December 2020

Using best subset regression to identify clinical characteristics and biomarkers associated with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2020 12 12;319(6):F979-F987. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complex clinical disorder associated with inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and dysregulated coagulation. With standard regression methods, collinearity among biomarkers may lead to the exclusion of important biological pathways in a single final model. Best subset regression is an analytic technique that identifies statistically equivalent models, allowing for more robust evaluation of correlated variables. Our objective was to identify common clinical characteristics and biomarkers associated with sepsis-associated AKI. We enrolled 453 septic adults within 24 h of intensive care unit admission. Using best subset regression, we evaluated for associations using a range of models consisting of 1-38 predictors (composed of clinical risk factors and plasma and urine biomarkers) with AKI as the outcome [defined as a serum creatinine (SCr) increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL within 48 h or ≥1.5× baseline SCr within 7 days]. Two hundred ninety-seven patients had AKI. Five-variable models were found to be of optimal complexity, as the best subset of five- and six-variable models were statistically equivalent. Within the subset of five-variable models, 46 permutations of predictors were noted to be statistically equivalent. The most common predictors in this subset included diabetes, baseline SCr, angiopoetin-2, IL-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. The models had a c-statistic of ∼0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.75). In conclusion, using best subset regression, we identified common clinical characteristics and biomarkers associated with sepsis-associated AKI. These variables may be especially relevant in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00281.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792692PMC
December 2020

Proinflammatory cytokines and ARDS pulmonary edema fluid induce CD40 on human mesenchymal stromal cells-A potential mechanism for immune modulation.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(10):e0240319. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Departments of Medicine and Anesthesiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) are a promising therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other inflammatory conditions. While considerable research has focused on paracrine effects and mitochondrial transfer that improve lung fluid balance, hMSCs are well known to have immunomodulatory properties as well. Some of these immunomodulatory properties have been related to previously reported paracrine effectors such as indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), but these effects cannot fully account for cell-contact dependent immunomodulation. Here, we report that CD40 is upregulated on hMSCs under the same conditions previously reported to induce IDO. Further, CD40 transcription is also upregulated on hMSCs by ARDS pulmonary edema fluid but not by hydrostatic pulmonary edema fluid. Transcription of CD40, as well as paracrine effectors TSG6 and PTGS2 remained significantly upregulated for at least 12 hours after withdrawal of cytokine stimulation. Finally, induction of this immune phenotype altered the transdifferentiation of hMSCs, one of their hallmark properties. CD40 may play an important role in the immunomodulatory effects of hMSCs in ARDS and inflammation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240319PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537876PMC
December 2020

Biological Mechanisms of COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 12;202(11):1489-1491

Department of Medicine, and, Department of Anesthesia, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California and.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202009-3629EDDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706166PMC
December 2020

Corticosteroids, COVID-19 pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

J Clin Invest 2020 12;130(12):6218-6221

Cardiovascular Research Institute.

Although corticosteroids dampen the dysregulated immune system and sometimes are prescribed as an adjunctive treatment for pneumonia, their effectiveness in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. In this issue of the JCI, Liu and Zhang et al. evaluated corticosteroid treatment in more than 400 patients with severe COVID-19. The authors assessed subjects retrospectively for cardiac and liver injury, shock, ventilation, mortality, and viral clearance. Corticosteroids in severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were associated with increased mortality and delayed viral clearance. Here, we consider how to reconcile the negative effects of corticosteroids revealed by Liu and Zhang et al. with the favorable effects (reduced mortality) that were described in the RECOVERY trial. We posit that treatment timing, dosage, and COVID-19 severity determine immune response and viral outcome. Patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia are likely to benefit from moderate-dose corticosteroid treatment when administered relatively late in the disease course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI143331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685752PMC
December 2020

The endogenous capacity to produce proinflammatory mediators by the ex vivo human perfused lung.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2020 Sep 21;8(1):56. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: The ex vivo human perfused lung model has enabled optimizing donor lungs for transplantation and delineating mechanisms of lung injury. Perfusate and airspace biomarkers are a proxy of the lung response to experimental conditions. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating biomarker kinetics during perfusion and after exposure to stimuli. In this study, we analyzed the ex vivo-perfused lung response to three key perturbations: exposure to the perfusion circuit, exogenous fresh whole blood, and bacteria.

Results: Ninety-nine lungs rejected for transplantation underwent ex vivo perfusion. One hour after reaching experimental conditions, fresh whole blood was added to the perfusate (n = 55). Two hours after reaching target temperature, Streptococcus pneumoniae was added to the perfusate (n = 42) or to the airspaces (n = 17). Perfusate and airspace samples were collected at baseline (once lungs were equilibrated for 1 h, but before blood or bacteria were added) and 4 h later. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-1 were quantified. Baseline perfusate and airspace biomarker levels varied significantly, and this was not related to pre-procurement PO:FiO ratio, cold ischemia time, and baseline alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). After 4 h of ex vivo perfusion, the lung demonstrated a sustained production of proinflammatory mediators. The change in biomarker levels was not influenced by baseline donor lung characteristics (cold ischemia time, baseline AFC) nor was it associated with measures of experimental epithelial (final AFC) or endothelial (percent weight gain) injury. In the presence of exogenous blood, the rise in biomarkers was attenuated. Lungs exposed to intravenous (IV) bacteria relative to control lungs demonstrated a significantly higher rise in perfusate IL-6.

Conclusions: The ex vivo-perfused lung has a marked endogenous capacity to produce inflammatory mediators over the course of short-term perfusion that is not significantly influenced by donor lung characteristics or the presence of exogenous blood, and only minimally affected by the introduction of systemic bacteremia. The lack of association between biomarker change and donor lung cold ischemia time, final alveolar fluid clearance, and experimental percent weight gain suggests that the maintained ability of the human lung to produce biomarkers is not merely a marker of lung epithelial or endothelial injury, but may support the function of the lung as an immune cell reservoir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-020-00343-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505905PMC
September 2020

Insufficient hyperfibrinolysis in COVID-19: a systematic review of thrombolysis based on meta-analysis and meta-regression.

medRxiv 2020 Sep 11. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Background How aberrant fibrinolysis influences the clinical progression of COVID-19 presents a clinicopathological dilemma challenging intensivists. To investigate whether abnormal fibrinolysis is a culprit or protector or both, we associated elevated plasma D-dimer with clinical variables to identify a panoramic view of the derangements of fibrinolysis that contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 based on studies available in the literature. Methods We performed this systematic review based on both meta-analysis and meta-regression to compute the correlation of D-dimer at admission with clinical features of COVID-19 patients in retrospective studies or case series. We searched the databases until Aug 18, 2020, with no limitations by language. The first hits were screened, data extracted, and analyzed in duplicate. We did the random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions (both univariate and multivariate). D-dimer associated clinical variables and potential mechanisms were schematically reasoned and graphed. Findings Our search identified 42 observational, or retrospective, or case series from six countries (n=14,862 patients) with all races and ages from 1 to 98-year-old. The weighted mean difference of D-dimer was 0.97 μg/mL (95% CI 0.65, 1.29) between relatively mild (or healthy control) and severely affected groups with significant publication bias. Univariate meta-regression identified 58 of 106 clinical variables were associated with plasma D-dimer levels, including 3 demographics, 5 comorbidies, 22 laboratory tests, 18 organ injury biomarkers, 8 severe complications, and 2 outcomes (discharge and death). Of these, 11 readouts were negatively associated with the level of plasma D-dimer. Further, age and gender were confounding factors for the identified D-dimer associated variables. There were 22 variables independently correlated with the D-dimer level, including respiratory rate, dyspnea plasma K+, glucose, SpO2, BUN, bilirubin, ALT, AST, systolic blood pressure, and CK. We thus propose that "insufficient hyperfibrinolysis (fibrinolysis is accelerated but unable to prevent adverse clinical impact for clinical deterioration COVID-19)" as a peculiar mechanism. Interpretation The findings of this meta-analysis- and meta-regression-based systematic review supports elevated D-dimer as an independent predictor for mortality and severe complications. D-dimer-associated clinical variables draw a landscape integrating the aggregate effects of systemically suppressive and locally (i.e., in the lung) hyperactive derangements of fibrinolysis. D-dimer and associated clinical biomarkers and conceptually parameters could be combined for risk stratification, potentially for tracking thrombolytic therapy or alternative interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.07.20190165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491528PMC
September 2020

The ABO histo-blood group, endothelial activation, and acute respiratory distress syndrome risk in critical illness.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jan;131(1)

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care.

BACKGROUNDThe ABO histo-blood group is defined by carbohydrate modifications and is associated with risk for multiple diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that genetically determined blood subtype A1 is associated with increased risk of ARDS and markers of microvascular dysfunction and coagulation.METHODSWe conducted analyses in 3 cohorts of critically ill trauma and sepsis patients (n = 3710) genotyped on genome-wide platforms to determine the association of the A1 blood type genotype with ARDS risk. We subsequently determined whether associations were present in FUT2-defined nonsecretors who lack ABO antigens on epithelium, but not endothelium. In a patient subgroup, we determined the associations of blood type with plasma levels of endothelial glycoproteins and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Lastly, we tested whether blood type A was associated with less donor lung injury recovery during human ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP).RESULTSThe A1 genotype was associated with a higher risk of moderate to severe ARDS relative to type O in all 3 populations. In sepsis, this relationship was strongest in nonpulmonary infections. The association persisted in nonsecretors, suggesting a vascular mechanism. The A1 genotype was also associated with higher DIC risk as well as concentrations of thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor, which in turn were associated with ARDS risk. Blood type A was also associated with less lung injury recovery during EVLP.CONCLUSIONWe identified a replicable association between ABO blood type A1 and risk of ARDS among the critically ill, possibly mediated through microvascular dysfunction and coagulation.FUNDINGNIH HL122075, HL125723, HL137006, HL137915, DK097307, HL115354, HL101779, and the University of Pennsylvania McCabe Fund Fellowship Award.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI139700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773362PMC
January 2021

NT-proBNP levels in the identification and classification of pulmonary transfusion reactions.

Transfusion 2020 Nov 9;60(11):2548-2556. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Vitalant Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Consensus definitions for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) have recently been revised; however, pulmonary transfusion reactions remain difficult to diagnose. We hypothesized that N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels could have utility in the identification and classification of pulmonary transfusion reactions.

Study Design And Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a case-control study of pulmonary transfusion reactions at four academic hospitals. We evaluated clinical data and measured NT-proBNP levels prior to and following transfusion in patients with TACO (n = 160), transfused acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [n = 51], TRALI [n = 12], TACO/TRALI [n = 7], and controls [n = 335]. We used Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests to compare NT-proBNP levels, and classification and regression tree (CART) algorithms to produce a ranking of covariates in order of relative importance for differentiating TACO from transfused controls.

Results: Pre-transfusion NT-proBNP levels were elevated in cases of transfused ARDS and TACO (both P < .001) but not TRALI (P = .31) or TACO/TRALI (P = .23) compared to transfused controls. Pre-transfusion NT-proBNP levels were higher in cases of transfused ARDS or TRALI with a diagnosis of sepsis compared to those without (P < .05 for both). CART analyses resulted in similar differentiation of patients with TACO from transfused controls for models utilizing either NT-proBNP levels (AUC 0.83) or echocardiogram results (AUC 0.80).

Conclusions: NT-proBNP levels may have utility in the classification of pulmonary transfusion reactions. Prospective studies are needed to test the predictive utility of pre-transfusion NT-proBNP in conjunction with other clinical factors in identifying patients at risk of pulmonary transfusion reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.16059DOI Listing
November 2020

Differential effects of the cystic fibrosis lung inflammatory environment on mesenchymal stromal cells.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2020 12 9;319(6):L908-L925. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Medicine, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont.

Growing evidence demonstrates that human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) modify their in vivo anti-inflammatory actions depending on the specific inflammatory environment encountered. Understanding this better is crucial to refine MSC-based cell therapies for lung and other diseases. Using acute exacerbations of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease as a model, the effects of ex vivo MSC exposure to clinical bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples, as a surrogate for the in vivo clinical lung environment, on MSC viability, gene expression, secreted cytokines, and mitochondrial function were compared with effects of BALF collected from healthy volunteers. CF BALF samples that cultured positive for (Asp) induced rapid MSC death, usually within several hours of exposure. Further analyses suggested the fungal toxin gliotoxin as a potential mediator contributing to CF BALF-induced MSC death. RNA sequencing analyses of MSCs exposed to either Asp+ or Asp- CF BALF samples identified a number of differentially expressed transcripts, including those involved in interferon signaling, antimicrobial gene expression, and cell death. Toxicity did not correlate with bacterial lung infections. These results suggest that the potential use of MSC-based cell therapies for CF or other lung diseases may not be warranted in the presence of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00218.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792680PMC
December 2020

Dose-Dependent Pulmonary Toxicity of Aerosolized Vitamin E Acetate.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2020 12;63(6):748-757

Department of Medicine and.

Electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) is a syndrome of acute respiratory failure characterized by monocytic and neutrophilic alveolar inflammation. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests a role of vitamin E acetate (VEA) in the development of EVALI, yet it remains unclear whether VEA has direct pulmonary toxicity. To test the hypotheses that aerosolized VEA causes lung injury in mice and directly injures human alveolar epithelial cells, we exposed adult mice and primary human alveolar epithelial type II (AT II) cells to an aerosol of VEA generated by a device designed for vaping oils. Outcome measures in mice included lung edema, BAL analysis, histology, and inflammatory cytokines; outcomes included cell death, cytokine release, cellular uptake of VEA, and gene-expression analysis. Comparison exposures in both models included the popular nicotine-containing JUUL aerosol. We discovered that VEA caused dose-dependent increases in lung water and BAL protein compared with control and JUUL-exposed mice in association with increased BAL neutrophils, oil-laden macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, and inflammatory cytokines. VEA aerosol was also toxic to AT II cells, causing increased cell death and the release of monocyte and neutrophil chemokines. VEA was directly absorbed by AT II cells, resulting in the differential gene expression of several inflammatory biological pathways. Given the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the EVALI outbreak, these results suggest that VEA plays an important causal role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2020-0209OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790140PMC
December 2020

Association of patient weight status with plasma surfactant protein D, a biomarker of alveolar epithelial injury, in children with acute respiratory failure.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 10 7;55(10):2730-2736. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Aims And Objectives: Alveolar epithelial injury is a key determinant of acute respiratory failure (ARF) severity. Plasma surfactant protein D (SP-D), a biomarker of alveolar epithelial injury, is lower in obese adults with ARF compared to their lean peers. We aimed to determine if children with ARF have similar variance in plasma SP-D associated with their weight status on admission.

Methods: Plasma SP-D was measured on days 0, 1, or 2 in children (1-18 years) with ARF enrolled in the genetic variation and biomarkers in children with acute lung injury and RESTORE studies. Weight classification (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese) was based on body mass index or weight-for-height z-scores. Associations between weight group and SP-D on each day were tested.

Results: Inclusion criteria were met in 212 subjects, 24% were obese. There were no differences among weight groups in SP-D levels on days 0 and 1. However, on day 2, there was a statistically significant linear trend for lower SP-D levels as weight increased in both the univariate analysis (P = .02) and when adjusting for age, ethnicity, and diagnosis of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (P = .05).

Conclusions: Obesity was associated with lower plasma SP-D levels on day 2 of ARF. This finding may be explained by altered ARF pathogenesis in obese individuals or a reduced incidence of ventilator-induced lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087214PMC
October 2020

Higher plasma cystatin C is associated with mortality after acute respiratory distress syndrome: findings from a Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) substudy.

Crit Care 2020 07 11;24(1):416. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Cystatin C is a well-validated marker of glomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease. Higher plasma concentrations of cystatin C are associated with worse clinical outcomes in heterogenous populations of critically ill patients and may be superior to creatinine in identifying kidney injury in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that elevated levels of plasma cystatin C in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) would be associated with mortality risk.

Methods: In a retrospective study, cystatin C was measured by nephelometry on plasma obtained at enrollment from 919 patients in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial. Multivariable logistic regression was performed testing the association between quartiles of cystatin C and 60-day mortality. Analyses were stratified by acute kidney injury (AKI) status identified in the first 7 days after enrollment by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria.

Results: Cystatin C was significantly higher among those patients who died compared to those who survived to 60 days [1.2 (0.9-1.9) mg/L vs. 0.8 (0.6-1.2) mg/L, p < 0.001]. Compared to the lower three quartiles, subjects in the highest quartile of cystatin C had a significantly higher odds of death at 60 days [OR 1.8 (1.2-2.6), p = 0.003 in adjusted analyses]; the odds of death incrementally rose in higher cystatin C quartiles compared to the lowest quartile (OR 1.1, 1.8, and 2.5). In adjusted analyses stratified by AKI status, compared to subjects in the lower three quartiles, subjects in the highest quartile of cystatin C with AKI had a significantly higher odds of death at 60 days both in participants with AKI [OR 1.6 (1.0-2.4), p = 0.048] and those without AKI [OR 2.4 (1.2-5.0), p = 0.017]. In adjusted analyses, there was no significant association between sex-stratified baseline creatinine quartiles and mortality.

Conclusions: Higher plasma levels of cystatin C on enrollment were strongly associated with mortality at 60 days in patients with ARDS with and without AKI identified by creatinine-based definitions. Compared to creatinine, cystatin C may be a better biomarker of kidney function in patients with ARDS and therefore identify patients with multiple organ failure at higher risk of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03111-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353675PMC
July 2020

Is a "Cytokine Storm" Relevant to COVID-19?

JAMA Intern Med 2020 09;180(9):1152-1154

Division of Pulmonary, Department of Medicine, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine; University of California, San Francisco.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3313DOI Listing
September 2020