Publications by authors named "Michèle Iacob"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preservation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid bioavailability prevents renal allograft dysfunction and cardiovascular alterations in kidney transplant recipients.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 12;11(1):3739. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, 76000, Rouen, France.

This study addressed the hypothesis that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) synthesized by CYP450 and catabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) are involved in the maintenance of renal allograft function, either directly or through modulation of cardiovascular function. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the sEH gene EPHX2 and CYP450 on renal and vascular function, plasma levels of EETs and peripheral blood monuclear cell sEH activity was assessed in 79 kidney transplant recipients explored at least one year after transplantation. Additional experiments in a mouse model mimicking the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury suffered by the transplanted kidney evaluated the cardiovascular and renal effects of the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB administered in drinking water (10 mg/l) during 28 days after surgery. There was a long-term protective effect of the sEH SNP rs6558004, which increased EET plasma levels, on renal allograft function and a deleterious effect of K55R, which increased sEH activity. Surprisingly, the loss-of-function CYP2C9*3 was associated with a better renal function without affecting EET levels. R287Q SNP, which decreased sEH activity, was protective against vascular dysfunction while CYP2C8*3 and 2C9*2 loss-of-function SNP, altered endothelial function by reducing flow-induced EET release. In I/R mice, sEH inhibition reduced kidney lesions, prevented cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction as well as preserved endothelial function. The preservation of EET bioavailability may prevent allograft dysfunction and improve cardiovascular disease in kidney transplant recipients. Inhibition of sEH appears thus as a novel therapeutic option but its impact on other epoxyfatty acids should be carefully evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83274-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881112PMC
February 2021

Evidence for wall shear stress-dependent t-PA release in human conduit arteries: role of endothelial factors and impact of high blood pressure.

Hypertens Res 2021 Mar 18;44(3):310-317. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, 76000, Rouen, France.

Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) converts plasminogen into the serine protease plasmin, which in turn degrades fibrin clots. This study assessed whether an increase in shear stress is associated in humans in vivo with the release of t-PA in peripheral conduit arteries, the impact of high blood pressure and the role of NO and CYP450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Local t-PA levels were quantified at baseline and during a sustained increase in radial artery wall shear stress induced by hand skin heating (from 34 to 44 °C) in a total of 25 subjects, among whom 8 were newly diagnosed essential hypertensive patients. The impact of the brachial infusion of NO synthase (L-NMMA) and CYP450 inhibitors (fluconazole) on t-PA release was assessed. The increase in shear stress induced by heating was associated with an increase in local t-PA release (from 3.0 ± 0.5 to 19.2 ± 5.5 ng/min, n = 25, P < 0.01). The magnitude of t-PA release was positively correlated with the increase in shear stress (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with mean blood pressure (r = -0.443, P = 0.027). These associations persisted after multiple adjustments for confounding factors. Finally, t-PA release was reduced by L-NMMA and to a larger extent by the combination of L-NMMA and fluconazole without a change in shear stress. The increase in wall shear stress in the peripheral conduit arteries induces a release of t-PA by a mechanism involving NO and EETs. The alteration of this response by high blood pressure may contribute to reducing the fibrinolytic potential and enhancing the risk of arterial thrombosis during exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-020-00554-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Endothelium-dependent adaptation of arterial wall viscosity during blood flow increase is impaired in essential hypertension.

Atherosclerosis 2019 06 8;285:102-107. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Rouen University Hospital, Department of Pharmacology, F 76000, Rouen, France; Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1096, F 76000, Rouen, France; University of Rouen, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, Rouen, France; Clinical Investigation Center CIC-CRB 1404, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Background And Aims: Arterial wall viscosity (AWV) is regulated by endothelium-derived NO and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) under baseline physiological conditions. Whether these factors regulate AWV during blood flow increase and whether this mechanism is affected in essential hypertensive patients (HT) remain unknown.

Methods: The evolution of radial artery diameter, wall thickness and arterial pressure in response to an increase in flow induced by hand skin heating were measured in 18 untreated HT and 14 normotensive controls (NT) during local infusion of saline and the respective pharmacological inhibitors of NO-synthase and EETs synthesis by cytochrome P450, L-NMMA and/or fluconazole. AWV was estimated by the ratio of the viscous energy dissipated (W) to the elastic energy stored (W) obtained from the pressure-diameter relationship. Concomitant changes in operating conditions, which influence the AWV, were taken into account by calculating the midwall stress.

Results: Baseline W and W were higher in HT than in NT but W/W was similar. In saline condition, W/W increased in HT during heating but not in NT. In the presence of L-NMMA and/or fluconazole, W/W increased during heating in NT. In contrast, these inhibitors did not modify the increase in W/W during heating in HT compared to saline. In all conditions, a larger increase in W than W was responsible for the increase in W/W.

Conclusions: The release of NO and EETs maintains a stable AWV during flow increase and this endothelial adaptive regulation is lost during essential hypertension, which may promote excessive viscous energy dissipation and cardiovascular uncoupling. Restoration of EETs availability with inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase could thus constitute a promising pharmacological approach to restore the endothelial adaptive regulation of AWV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.04.208DOI Listing
June 2019

Altered bioavailability of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids is associated with conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019 03 18;18(1):35. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, 76000, Rouen Cedex, France.

Background: This pathophysiological study addressed the hypothesis that soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which metabolizes the vasodilator and anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), contributes to conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

Methods And Results: Radial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation in response to hand skin heating was reduced in essential hypertensive patients (n = 9) and type 2 diabetic subjects with (n = 19) or without hypertension (n = 10) compared to healthy subjects (n = 36), taking into consideration cardiovascular risk factors, flow stimulus and endothelium-independent dilatation to glyceryl trinitrate. Diabetic patients but not non-diabetic hypertensive subjects displayed elevated whole blood reactive oxygen species levels and loss of NO release during heating, assessed by measuring local plasma nitrite variation. Moreover, plasma levels of EET regioisomers increased during heating in healthy subjects, did not change in hypertensive patients and decreased in diabetic patients. Correlation analysis showed in the overall population that the less NO and EETs bioavailability increases during heating, the more flow-mediated dilatation is reduced. The expression and activity of sEH, measured in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was elevated in diabetic but not hypertensive patients, leading to increased EETs conversion to DHETs. Finally, hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps induced a decrease in flow-mediated dilatation in healthy subjects and this was associated with an altered EETs release during heating.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that an increased EETs degradation by sEH and altered NO bioavailability are associated with conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients independently from their hypertensive status. The hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic state in these patients may contribute to these alterations. Trial registration NCT02311075. Registered December 8, 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0843-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423843PMC
March 2019

Alteration in the availability of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids contributes with NO to the development of endothelial dysfunction in conduit arteries during aging.

Atherosclerosis 2018 08 19;275:239-245. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Pharmacology, CHU de Rouen, 76000, Rouen, France; INSERM U1096, Normandie University, UNIROUEN, 76000, Rouen, France; Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC)-INSERM 1404, CHU de Rouen, 76000, Rouen, France. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction in humans during aging are largely unknown at the level of conduit arteries. We aimed to asses the role of NO and CYP450 epoxygenases-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the regulation of endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation of conduit arteries during aging.

Methods: Radial artery diameter and mean wall shear stress were determined by echotracking coupled with Doppler in 83 subjects (19-71 years old) during a sustained flow increase induced by hand skin heating, with the brachial infusion of saline or NO-synthase and cytochrome P450 epoxygenase inhibitors (L-NNMA and fluconazole respectively). Local blood sampling was performed for the quantification of NO metabolite nitrite and EETs.

Results: The magnitude of flow-mediated dilatation was independently and negatively correlated with age, baseline artery diameter and systolic blood pressure, and positively correlated with the increase in shear stress induced by heating. There was an increase in nitrite level during heating until the age of 35-40 years, which declined thereafter. However, the inhibitory effect of L-NMMA on flow-mediated dilatation progressively decreased during aging, demonstrating a decrease in functional NO availability. Moreover, aging progressively reduced the increase in EET level during heating as well as the inhibitory effect of fluconazole on flow-mediated dilatation.

Conclusions: These results show that aging impairs the availability of EETs and NO and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in peripheral conduit arteries, contributing to the development of endothelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.06.865DOI Listing
August 2018

Evidence for a Role of Vascular Endothelium in the Control of Arterial Wall Viscosity in Humans.

Hypertension 2018 01 20;71(1):143-150. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

From the Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, France (F.R., M.I., J.B., R.J.); Inserm U1096, Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, France (F.R., M.I., I.R.-J., J.B., R.J.); Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, France (F.R., I.R.-J., J.B., R.J.); and Clinical Investigation Center CIC-CRB 1404, Rouen University Hospital, France (F.R., J.B., R.J.).

Arterial wall viscosity (AWV) is a major cause of energy dissipation along the arterial tree. Its determinants remain controversial but an active endothelial regulation has been suggested. Our objective was to assess in humans the physiological role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and the effect of modulating smooth muscle tone in the regulation of AWV. We simultaneously measured radial artery diameter, wall thickness, and arterial pressure in healthy volunteers during the local infusion of inhibitors of NO-synthase (-monomethyl-l-arginine), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesis by cytochrome P450 (fluconazole), the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids cellular targets calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium), alone and in combination. AWV was estimated from the relative viscosity expressed as the ratio of the area of the hysteresis loop of the pressure-diameter relationship to the area under the loading phase. Arterial tone was assessed by measuring change in wall stiffness and midwall stress. -monomethyl-l-arginine paradoxically reduced relative viscosity (34.9±8.9%-28.9±8.6%). Conversely, relative viscosity was not modified by fluconazole (33.5±15.5%-32.0±13.6%) but increased by tetraethylammonium (31.7±6.6%-35.7±8.0%). This increase was more marked with -monomethyl-l-arginine+fluconazole (31.1±10.7%-43.3±13.2%) and -monomethyl-l-arginine+tetraethylammonium (29.5±2.3%-41.5±11.1%) compared with inhibitors alone. Sodium nitroprusside decreased AWV (35.4±2.9%-28.7±2.0%). These effects were associated with parallel change in tone but of different magnitude for similar variations in viscosity, suggesting tone-dependent and independent mechanisms. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that the endothelial factors, NO and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, regulate AWV in humans and support the role of arterial tone in this regulation.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://eudract.ema.europa.eu. Unique identifier: RCB2007-A001-10-53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09870DOI Listing
January 2018

Physiological role of endothelin-1 in flow-mediated vasodilatation in humans and impact of cardiovascular risk factors.

J Hypertens 2017 06;35(6):1204-1212

aDepartment of Pharmacology, Rouen University HospitalbInstitut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1096cInstitute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, Normandy University, University of RouendCentre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC)-INSERM 1404, Rouen University HospitaleEquipe d'Accueil (EA) 4651, Rouen, France.

Objectives: The current study addressed the hypothesis that the local decrease in endothelin-1 (ET-1) bioavailability during sustained flow increases contributes to endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of conduit arteries and is altered in presence of cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods And Results: In nine young healthy individuals, the decrease in local ET-1 plasma levels and radial artery FMD in response to hand skin heating (from 34 to 44 °C) was not affected by endothelin type A (ETA) receptor blockade, achieved using the brachial infusion of BQ-123 (100 nmol/min per l of forearm), as compared with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) infusion. In contrast, endothelin type B (ETB) receptor blockade with BQ-788 (10 nmol/min per l) suppressed the decrease in plasma ET-1 during heating and reduced FMD, without altering nitric oxide release. The coinfusion of BQ-123 did not affect the inhibitory effect of ETB receptor blockade on the decrease in ET-1 plasma levels during heating but prevented the reduction in FMD. Basal radial artery parameters, systemic hemodynamics, and endothelium-independent dilatation to glyceryl trinitrate were not modified by ETA and/or ETB blockade. In a general population of 40 participants without treatment or major cardiovascular diseases, including the nine healthy individuals, the reduction in endothelin-1 level during heating was correlated with FMD (r = -0.55, P < 0.001) and decreased with increased age (r = 0.49, P = 0.001), mean arterial blood pressure (r = 0.48, P = 0.002), and total cholesterol level (r = 0.37, P = 0.024).

Conclusion: The uptake of endothelin-1 by ETB receptors contributes to conduit artery FMD, preventing its vasoconstrictor action mediated by ETA receptors. The alteration of this mechanism by cardiovascular risk factors may contribute to endothelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001307DOI Listing
June 2017

A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of regioisomers of epoxyeicosatrienoic and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids in human plasma during endothelial stimulation.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 Mar 15;409(7):1845-1855. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, 1 rue de Germont, 76031, Rouen, France.

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are vasodilating lipid mediators metabolized into dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase. We aimed to develop a LC-MS/MS method to quantify EETs and DHETs in human plasma and monitored their levels during vascular endothelial stimulation. Plasma samples, collected from 14 healthy and five hypertensive subjects at baseline and during radial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation, were spiked with internal standards. Lipids were then extracted by a modified Bligh and Dyer method and saponified to release bound EETs and DHETs. Samples were purified by a second liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The assay allowed identification of (±)8(9)-epoxy-5Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (8,9-EET); (±)11(12)-epoxy-5Z,8Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET); (±)14(15)-epoxy-5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET); (±)8,9-dihydroxy-5Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (8,9-DHET); (±)11,12-dihydroxy-5Z,8Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (11,12-DHET); and (±)14,15-dihydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET). (±)5(6)-epoxy-5Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatrienoic acid (5,6-EET) was virtually undetectable due to its chemical instability. The limits of quantification were 0.25 ng/mL for DHETs and 0.5 ng/mL for EETs. Intra- and inter-assay variations ranged from 1.6 to 13.2%. Heating induced a similar increase in 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET levels and in corresponding DHET levels in healthy but not in hypertensive subjects. We validated a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for measuring simultaneously plasma EET and DHET regioisomers in human plasma and showed its interest for assessing endothelial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-016-0129-1DOI Listing
March 2017

Role of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in mediating endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling in primary arterial antiphospholipid syndrome.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2014 Nov;66(11):3210-20

Rouen University Hospital, INSERM U1096, University of Rouen, and Centre d'Investigation Clinique, INSERM 1404, Rouen, France.

Objective: To assess the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-mediated vascular abnormalities in patients with primary arterial antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

Methods: Forty-eight subjects participated in the study. Arterial function and structure and TLR pathway activation were determined in patients with primary arterial APS and matched controls. The pathogenic effects of aPL isolated from patients were assessed in wild-type (WT) and TLR-knockout mice.

Results: APS patients had endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening, and hypertrophy, as evidenced by decreased brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increased aortic pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), as compared with controls. Plasma samples from APS patients revealed decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability and a pro-oxidative, proinflammatory, and prothrombotic state illustrated by a decrease in nitrite and an increase in lipid peroxidation, tumor necrosis factor α levels, and tissue factor (TF) levels. Furthermore, TLR pathway activation was found in APS patients with increased TLR-2 and TLR-4 messenger RNA expression and increased protein levels of the activated TLR transduction protein interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, agonist-stimulated cell-surface expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in circulating monocytes was higher in APS patients than in controls. These changes were positively associated with IMT and negatively associated with FMD. Finally, aPL injection decreased mesenteric endothelium-dependent relaxation and increased TF expression in WT mice but not in TLR-2- or TLR-4-knockout mice.

Conclusion: This translational study supports the notion that TLR-2 and TLR-4 play a role in mediating vascular abnormalities in patients with primary arterial APS. TLRs thus constitute a promising pharmacologic target for preventing cardiovascular complications in APS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.38785DOI Listing
November 2014

Polycystin deficiency induces dopamine-reversible alterations in flow-mediated dilatation and vascular nitric oxide release in humans.

Kidney Int 2015 Feb 16;87(2):465-72. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

1] Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France [2] Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1096, Rouen, France [3] Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, Rouen, France [4] Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC)-INSERM 1404, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a renal hereditary disorder associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, due to mutations in polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 genes. Endothelial polycystin-deficient cells have an altered mechanosensitivity to fluid shear stress and subsequent deficit in calcium-induced nitric oxide release, prevented by dopamine receptor stimulation. However, the impact of polycystin deficiency on endothelial function in ADPKD patients is still largely unknown. Here we assessed endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation in 21 normotensive ADPKD patients and 21 healthy control subjects, during sustained (hand skin heating) and transient (postischemic hyperemia) flow stimulation. Flow-mediated dilatation was less marked in ADPKD patients than in controls during heating, but it was similar during postischemic hyperemia. There was no difference in endothelium-independent dilatation in response to glyceryl trinitrate. Local plasma nitrite, an indicator of nitric oxide availability, increased during heating in controls but not in patients. Brachial infusion of dopamine in a subset of ADPKD patients stimulated plasma nitrite increase during heating and improved flow-mediated dilatation. Thus, ADPKD patients display a loss of nitric oxide release and an associated reduction in endothelium-dependent dilatation of conduit arteries during sustained blood flow increase. The correction of these anomalies by dopamine suggests future therapeutic strategies that could reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events in ADPKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2014.241DOI Listing
February 2015

High-efficiency on-line haemodiafiltration improves conduit artery endothelial function compared with high-flux haemodialysis in end-stage renal disease patients.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Feb 13;29(2):414-22. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Background: Middle molecular weight uraemic toxins are considered to play an important role in vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Recent dialysis techniques based on convection, specifically high-efficiency on-line haemodiafiltration (HDF), enhance the removal of middle molecular weight toxins and reduce all-cause mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. However, the mechanisms of these improved outcomes remain to be established.

Methods: This prospective study randomly assigned 42 ESRD patients to switch from high-flux HD to high-efficiency on-line HDF (n=22) or to continue HD (n=20). Brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation, central pulse pressure, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), internal diastolic diameter and distensibility and circulating markers of uraemia, inflammation and oxidative stress were blindly assessed before and after a 4-month follow-up.

Results: Brachial flow-mediated dilatation and carotid artery distensibility increased significantly in the HDF group compared with HD, while carotid IMT and diameter remained similar. HDF decreased predialysis levels of the uraemic toxins β2-microglobulin, phosphate and blood TNFα mRNA expression. Oxidative stress markers were not different between the HD and HDF groups. Blood mRNA expression of protein kinase C β2, an endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, decreased significantly with HDF.

Conclusions: High-efficiency on-line HDF prevents the endothelial dysfunction and stiffening of the conduit arteries in ESRD patients compared with high-flux HD. HDF decreases uraemic toxins, vascular inflammation, and is associated with subsequent improvement in eNOS functionality. These results suggest that reduced endothelial dysfunction may be an intermediate mechanism explaining the beneficial outcomes associated with HDF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gft448DOI Listing
February 2014

Impaired role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the regulation of basal conduit artery diameter during essential hypertension.

Hypertension 2012 Dec 22;60(6):1415-21. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

Departments of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

In young healthy subjects, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesized by endothelial cytochrome P450 epoxygenases maintain basal conduit artery diameter during altered NO availability. Whether this compensatory mechanism is effective during essential hypertension is unknown. Radial artery diameter, blood flow, and mean wall shear stress were determined in 14 nontreated essential hypertensive patients and 14 normotensive control subjects during 8 minutes of brachial infusion for inhibitors of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (fluconazole, 0.4 µmol/min) and NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, 8 µmol/min) alone and in combination. In controls, the radial artery diameter was reduced by fluconazole (-0.034 ± 0.012 mm) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (-0.037 ± 0.010 mm) and to a larger extent by their combination (-0.137 ± 0.011 mm), demonstrating a synergic effect. In contrast, the radial diameter in hypertensive patients was not affected by fluconazole (0.010 ± 0.014 mm) but was reduced by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (-0.091 ± 0.008 mm) to a larger extent than in controls. In parallel, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine decreased local plasma nitrite to a lesser extent in hypertensive patients (-14 ± 5 nmol/L) than in controls (-50 ± 10 nmol/L). Moreover, the addition of fluconazole to N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine did not further decrease radial diameter in patients (-0.086 ± 0.011 mm). Accordingly, fluconazole significantly decreased local epoxyeicosatrienoic acid plasma level in controls (-2.0 ± 0.6 ng/mL) but not in patients (-0.9 ± 0.4 ng/mL). Inhibitors effects on blood flow and endothelium-independent dilatation to sodium nitroprusside were similar between groups. These results show that, in contrast to normotensive subjects, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids did not contribute to the regulation of basal conduit artery diameter and did not compensate for altered NO availability to maintain this diameter in essential hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.201087DOI Listing
December 2012

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids contribute with altered nitric oxide and endothelin-1 pathways to conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension.

Circulation 2012 Mar;125(10):1266-75

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, France.

Background: We sought to clarify, using functional and biological approaches, the role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species balance, and endothelin-1 in conduit artery endothelial dysfunction during essential hypertension.

Methods And Results: Radial artery diameter and mean wall shear stress were determined in 28 untreated patients with essential hypertension and 30 normotensive control subjects during endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation induced by hand skin heating. The role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and NO was assessed with the brachial infusion of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (fluconazole) and NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine [L-NMMA]). Compared with controls, hypertensive patients exhibited a decreased flow-mediated dilatation in response to postischemic hyperemia as well as to heating, as shown by the lesser slope of their diameter-shear stress relationship. In controls, heating-induced flow-mediated dilatation was reduced by fluconazole, L-NMMA, and, to a larger extent, by L-NMMA+fluconazole. In patients, flow-mediated dilatation was not affected by fluconazole and was reduced by L-NMMA and L-NMMA+fluconazole to a lesser extent than in controls. Furthermore, local plasma epoxyeicosatrienoic acids increased during heating in controls (an effect diminished by fluconazole) but not in patients. Plasma nitrite, an indicator of NO availability, increased during heating in controls (an effect abolished by L-NMMA) and, to a lesser extent, in patients, whereas, inversely, reactive oxygen species increased more in patients (an effect diminished by L-NMMA). Plasma endothelin-1 decreased during heating in controls but not in patients.

Conclusions: These results show that an impaired role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids contributes, together with an alteration in NO/reactive oxygen species balance and endothelin-1 pathway, to conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension.

Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.eudract.ema.europa.eu. Unique identifier: RCB2007-A001-10-53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.070680DOI Listing
March 2012

Comparative effects of sirolimus and cyclosporin on conduit arteries endothelial function in kidney recipients.

Transpl Int 2010 Nov;23(11):1135-43

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital & INSERM U644, Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Rouen, Rouen, France.

This study attempted to establish whether a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-free immunosuppressant regimen based on sirolimus (SRL) is associated with a preservation of conduit arteries endothelial function in kidney recipients or not. Twenty-nine kidney recipients were randomized to receive since transplantation SRL (n=15) or cyclosporin A (CsA, n=14) associated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and steroids (6months) in a parallel prospective study. Systolic, diastolic blood pressures, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and radial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) induced by postischaemic hyperaemia were assessed in a blind manner at one (M1) and 7months (M7) after transplantation. Endothelium-independent dilatation was assessed by glyceryl trinitrate spray. There was no difference between the groups for all vascular parameters at M1. At M7, systolic blood pressure was lower (SRL: 119±3 vs. CsA: 138±4mmHg, P<0.05) and FMD was higher in SRL compared with CsA (SRL: 13.1±0.9 vs. CsA: 9.9±0.9%, P<0.05) without any difference for hyperaemia, endothelium-independent dilatation and GFR (SRL: 66.7±1.05 vs. CsA: 67.5±1.22ml/min). Our results demonstrate that a CNI-free regimen based on SRL and MMF prevents conduit artery endothelial dysfunction compared with CsA and MMF in kidney recipients suggesting a beneficial arterial wall effect that may also contribute to the decrease in systolic blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2010.01122.xDOI Listing
November 2010

Hypertrophic remodeling and increased arterial stiffness in patients with intracranial aneurysms.

Atherosclerosis 2010 Aug 13;211(2):486-91. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

Department of Neurology, CHU-Hopitaux de Rouen & Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) U644, Institut Federatif de Recherche Multidisciplinaire sur les Peptides (IFRMP) 23, Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Rouen, France.

Objective: Because an underlying arteriopathy might contribute to the development of intracranial aneurysms (IAs), we assessed the elastic properties of proximal conduit arteries in patients with IA.

Methods: In 27 patients with previous ruptured IA and 27 control subjects matched for age, gender and BMI, we determined arterial pressure, internal diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT), circumferential wall stress (CWS) and elastic modulus (wall stiffness) in common carotid arteries using applanation tonometry and echotracking. Moreover, carotid augmentation index (AIx, arterial wave reflections) and carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic stiffness) were assessed.

Results: Compared with controls, patients with IA exhibited higher brachial and carotid systolic and diastolic blood pressures, with similar brachial but higher carotid artery pulse pressure (35 + or - 6mm Hg vs. 41 + or - 8mm Hg, P=0.014). Moreover, patients have higher PWV (7.8 + or - 1.2ms(-1) vs. 8.3 + or - 1.1ms(-1), P=0.048) and AIx (15.8 + or - 10.8% vs. 21.1 + or - 8.5%, P<0.001) which contributes to increase carotid blood pressures. Furthermore, carotid IMT was higher in patients (546 + or - 64 microm vs. 642 + or - 70 microm, P<0.001) without difference in diameter suggesting an adaptive hypertrophy. However, patients display a lower CWS (61.6 + or - 9.2 kPa vs. 56.9 + or - 10.3 kPa, P=0.007) and no correlation between IMT and pulse pressure (r=0.152, P=NS) in contrast to controls (r=0.539, P<0.001) showing the contribution of a pressure-independent process. Finally, despite this lesser CWS, elastic modulus was increased in patients (310 + or - 105 kPa vs. 383 + or - 174 kPa, P=0.026).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with IA display a particular carotid artery phenotype with an exaggerated hypertrophic remodeling and altered elastic properties. Thus, a systemic arteriopathy might contribute, together with the arterial wall fatiguing effect of the increased pulsatile stress, to the pathogenesis of IA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.04.002DOI Listing
August 2010

Early stage detection of conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 1 diabetes.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2010 Apr 22;7(2):158-66. Epub 2010 Feb 22.

University of Rouen, Rouen cedex, France.

Flow-mediated dilatation evaluation using hand skin heating may possibly be more accurate than post-ischaemic hyperaemia to detect conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes. We measured in 24 type 1 diabetic patients (n=16 without microangiopathy) and 24 healthy matched subjects radial artery diameter (echotracking), blood flow and mean wall shear stress during heating and post-ischaemic hyperaemia. Compared with controls, flow-mediated dilatation was lower in diabetic patients during post-ischaemic hyperaemia and heating. However, in the subgroup of uncomplicated patients, a decreased flow-mediated dilatation was only apparent during heating (17.1+/-1.6% vs. 24.3+/-0.7%, p<0.05) but not during post-ischaemic hyperaemia (10.1+/-1.1% vs. 10.5+/-0.6%, NS). This was confirmed by the lower slope of the diameter-mean wall shear stress relationship in these patients in the absence of modification in endothelium-independent dilatation. We conclude that hand skin heating permits the early detection of conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetic patients with normal response to post-ischaemic hyperaemia. This procedure could be useful to investigate the prognostic role of vascular dysfunction and the impact of vasculoprotective treatments in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164109360470DOI Listing
April 2010

Arterial stiffness is regulated by nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor during changes in blood flow in humans.

Hypertension 2010 Mar 18;55(3):674-80. Epub 2010 Jan 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital and Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale U644, Rouen Medical School, Institut Federatif de Recherche Multidisciplinaire sur les Peptides 23, Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Rouen, Rouen, France.

Cytochrome-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids may be important endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, opening calcium-activated potassium channels, but their involvement in the regulation of arterial stiffness during changes in blood flow in humans is unknown. In healthy volunteers, we measured arterial pressure, radial artery diameter, wall thickness, and flow (NIUS02) during hand skin heating in the presence of saline or inhibitors of NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine), calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium), and cytochrome epoxygenases (fluconazole). Arterial compliance and elastic modulus were calculated and fitted as functions of midwall stress to suppress the confounding influence of geometric changes. Under saline infusion, heating induced an upward shift of the compliance-midwall stress curve and a downward shift of the modulus-midwall stress curve demonstrating a decrease in arterial tone and stiffness when blood flow increases. These shifts were reduced by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine and abolished by the combinations of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine+tetraethylammonium and N(G)-monomethyl arginine+fluconazole. In parallel, in isolated mice coronary arteries, fluconazole and tetraethylammonium reduced the relaxations to acetylcholine. However, fluconazole did not affect the relaxations to the openers of calcium-activated potassium channels of small- and intermediate-conductance NS309 and of large-conductance NS1619 excluding a direct effect on these channels. Moreover, tetraethylammonium reduced the relaxations to NS1619 but not to NS309, suggesting that the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor involved mainly acts on large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. These results show in humans that, during flow variations, arterial stiffness is regulated by the endothelium through the release of both NO and cytochrome-related endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.142190DOI Listing
March 2010

Fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide at low dose improves endothelial function in essential hypertensive patients after acute administration.

Am J Hypertens 2008 Jun 3;21(6):679-84. Epub 2008 Apr 3.

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital & INSERM U644 (IFRMP 23), Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Rouen, Rouen Cedex, France.

Background: Fixed combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) with thiazide-type diuretics at low dose has been used as first-line therapy for the treatment of essential hypertension but their effect on conduit artery endothelial dysfunction remains unknown.

Methods: Thirteen hypertensive patients were assessed after acute administration of a placebo, fixed combination of perindopril-indapamide at low dose: D1 (2 mg/0.625 mg) and twice this dose: D2 (4 mg/1.25 mg), during a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, and were compared with 13 matched controls. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), radial artery diameter (echotracking) and flow (Doppler) were measured during flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) induced by post-ischemic hyperemia (PIH). PIH was characterized by peak flow and duration of hyperemia (t(1/2)). Endothelium-independent dilatation was assessed by trinitrine.

Results: In hypertensive patients compared with controls, basal radial artery diameter and flow, peak flow, and trinitrine responses were similar while MAP was increased (115 +/- 3 vs. 87 +/- 2 mm Hg), t(1/2) was decreased (11.1 +/- 1.9 vs. 17.2 +/- 2.2 s), and FMD was altered (radial diameter increase: 203 +/- 14 vs. 304 +/- 15 microm). Compared with placebo, only D2 decreased MAP (placebo: 115 +/- 3; D1: 112 +/- 4; D2: 103 +/- 4 mm Hg) and increased t(1/2) (placebo: 11.1 +/- 1.9; D1: 8.7 +/- 1.5; D2:13.0 +/- 1.9 s). Conversely, D1 and D2 increased FMD (placebo: 203 +/- 14; D1: 218 +/- 22; D2: 227 +/- 23 microm) with no change in basal diameter and flow, peak flow, and trinitrine responses.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that a fixed combination of ACEI/diuretic at low dose significantly improves radial artery FMD in hypertensive patients and suggest a direct effect on conduit artery endothelium that may contribute to vascular protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajh.2008.39DOI Listing
June 2008

AT1 receptor blockade prevents the decrease in conduit artery flow-mediated dilatation during NOS inhibition in humans.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2007 Jun;112(7):393-401

Department of Pharmacology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) U644, Institut Federatif de Recherche Multidisciplinaire sur les Peptides 23, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen Cedex, France.

Whether AT(1) (angiotenin II type 1) receptor blockade can prevent the decrease in conduit artery FMD (flow-mediated dilatation) during NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibition by alternative endothelial pathways has not been explored previously in humans. In 12 healthy subjects, we measured radial artery diameter (echotracking) and flow (Doppler) during FMD induced by sustained reactive hyperaemia during a control period and following NOS inhibition [1.5 mg.min(-1).l(-1) L-NMMA (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine)], after a single oral administration of telmisartan (80 mg) or placebo, using a randomized double-blind cross-over design. In six volunteers, we also assessed the roles of prostacyclin and EDHF (endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor) during radial FMD after AT(1) receptor blockade by oral administration of aspirin (500 mg) alone, aspirin+L-NMMA or aspirin+L-NMMA+fluconazole (a cytochrome epoxygenases inhibitor; 0.37 mg.min(-1).l(-1)). Telmisartan did not affect radial artery FMD in the control period (10.9+/-0.6% with placebo compared with 9.9+/-0.7% with telmisartan), but prevented its decrease after L-NMMA (9.3+/-0.8% with placebo compared with 12.6+/-1.2% with telmisartan; P<0.05) with no modification in baseline parameters, hyperaemia and radial artery endothelium-independent dilatation to sodium nitroprusside. Moreover, in telmisartan-treated subjects, radial artery FMD, compared with control (9.0+/-1.0%), was not modified by aspirin alone (9.4+/-0.7%) or associated with L-NMMA (9.5+/-0.5%), but was reduced by the combination of aspirin, L-NMMA and fluconazole (7.5+/-0.6%; P<0.05). These results demonstrate that AT(1) receptor blockade prevents the decrease in conduit artery FMD during NOS inhibition in humans, suggesting the development of a compensatory endothelial mechanism. This mechanism appears to be independent of prostacyclin and could possibly be related to an EDHF release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20060236DOI Listing
June 2007

Crucial role of NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in human sustained conduit artery flow-mediated dilatation.

Hypertension 2006 Dec 30;48(6):1088-94. Epub 2006 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U644, Institut Fédératif de Recherche Multidisciplinaire sur les Peptides 23, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire-Hopitaux de Rouen, Rouen, France.

Whether NO is involved or not in sustained conduit artery flow-mediated dilatation in humans remains unclear. Moreover, the role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), synthesized by cytochrome epoxygenases and acting through calcium-activated potassium channels, and its relationship with NO during flow-mediated dilatation have never been investigated previously. In 12 healthy subjects we measured radial artery diameter (echotracking) and blood flow (Doppler) during flow-mediated dilatation induced by gradual distal hand skin heating (34 to 44 degrees C), during the local infusion of saline and inhibitors of NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine [l-NMMA]: 8 to 20 micromol/min per liter), calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium chloride: 9 micromol/min per liter), and cytochrome epoxygenases (fluconazole: 0.4 to 1.6 micromol/min per liter), alone and in combination. Mean wall shear stress, the flow-mediated dilatation stimulus, was calculated at each level of flow, and the diameter-wall shear stress relationship was constructed. During heating, compared with saline, the diameter-shear stress relationship was shifted downward by l-NMMA, tetraethylammonium, fluconazole, and, in a more pronounced manner, by the combinations of l-NMMA with tetraethylammonium or with fluconazole. Therefore, maximal radial artery flow-mediated dilatation, compared with saline (0.62+/-0.03 mm), was decreased under our experimental conditions by l-NMMA (-39+/-4%), tetraethylammonium chloride (-14+/-4%), fluconazole (-18+/-6%), and to a greater extent, by the combinations of l-NMMA with tetraethylammonium (-64+/-4%) or with fluconazole (-71+/-3%). This study demonstrates that NO and a cytochrome-related EDHF are involved in peripheral conduit artery flow-mediated dilatation in humans during sustained flow conditions. Moreover, the synergistic effects of the inhibitors strongly suggest a functional interaction between NO and EDHF pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000246672.72188.bdDOI Listing
December 2006

Evidence for a basal release of a cytochrome-related endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in the radial artery in humans.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2006 Apr 9;290(4):H1347-52. Epub 2005 Dec 9.

Department of Pharmacology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U644, Rouen University Hospital, France.

Whether a cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-related endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), acting through calcium-activated potassium (K(Ca)) channels, interacts with nitric oxide (NO) to regulate the basal diameter of human peripheral conduit arteries is unexplored in vivo. Radial artery diameter (echo tracking) and blood flow (Doppler) were measured, after oral aspirin (500 mg), in eight healthy volunteers during local infusion for 8 min of tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 9 micromol/min), as K(Ca) channel inhibitor, and fluconazole (0.4 micromol/min), as CYP inhibitor, alone and in combination with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 8 micromol/min), as endothelial NO synthase inhibitor. Endothelium-independent dilatation was assessed by using sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Radial diameter was unaffected by L-NMMA (0.4 +/- 0.9%) and fluconazole (-1.6 +/- 0.8%) but was decreased by TEA (-5.0 +/- 1.0%), L-NMMA + fluconazole (-5.3 +/- 0.5%), and L-NMMA + TEA (-9.9 +/- 1.3%). These effects are still significant even when the concomitant decreases in blood flow induced by L-NMMA (-24 +/- 4%), TEA (-21 +/- 3%), L-NMMA + fluconazole (-26 +/- 5%), and L-NMMA + TEA (-35 +/- 4%) were taken as covariate into analysis. Conversely, fluconazole alone slightly but not significantly increased radial flow (13 +/- 6%). L-NMMA alone or with TEA and with fluconazole enhanced radial artery dilatation to SNP, whereas TEA and fluconazole alone did not modify this response. These results confirm in humans the involvement of NO and K(Ca) channels in the regulation of basal conduit artery diameter. Moreover, the synergistic effect of combined inhibition of NO synthesis and CYP on the decrease in radial diameter in the absence of such effect after L-NMMA and fluconazole alone unmasks the role of CYP in this regulation and shows the presence of an interaction between NO and a CYP-related EDHF to maintain peripheral conduit artery diameter in vivo. Furthermore, the higher vasoconstrictor effect of TEA compared with fluconazole suggests that different K(Ca) channel-dependent hyperpolarizing mechanisms could exist in conduit arteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.01079.2005DOI Listing
April 2006

Calcium-activated potassium channels and NO regulate human peripheral conduit artery mechanics.

Hypertension 2005 Jul 2;46(1):210-6. Epub 2005 May 2.

Département de Pharmacologie, Rouen University Hospital, France.

The role of NO in the regulation of the mechanical properties of conduit arteries is controversial in humans, and the involvement of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), acting through calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels, has never been investigated at this level in vivo. We assessed in healthy volunteers, after oral administration of aspirin (500 mg), the effect of local infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 8 mumol/min for 8 minutes), an NO synthase inhibitor, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 9 mumol/min for 8 minutes), a KCa channels inhibitor, and the combination of both on radial artery internal diameter, wall thickness (echo tracking), blood flow (Doppler), and pressure. The incremental elastic modulus and compliance were fitted as functions of midwall stress. L-NMMA decreased modulus and increased compliance at high levels of midwall stress (all P<0.05) without affecting radial diameter. TEA reduced radial diameter from 2.68+/-0.07 to 2.50+/-0.08 10(-3) m, increased the modulus, and decreased the compliance at all levels of stress (all P<0.05). Combination of both inhibitors synergistically enhanced the increase in modulus, the decrease in diameter (from 2.71+/-0.10 to 2.42+/-0.09 10(-3) m), and compliance compared with TEA alone (all P<0.05). These results confirm that inhibition of NO synthesis is associated with a paradoxical isometric smooth muscle relaxation of the radial artery. They demonstrate the involvement of KCa channels in the regulation of the mechanical properties of peripheral conduit arteries, supporting a role for EDHF at this level in vivo. Moreover, the synergistic effect of l-NMMA and TEA shows that KCa channels compensate for the loss of NO synthesis to maintain peripheral conduit artery diameter and mechanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000165685.83620.31DOI Listing
July 2005