Publications by authors named "Miaw Yn Ling"

8 Publications

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Association of Internet Addiction with Adolescents' Lifestyle: A National School-Based Survey.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 29;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is an issue of growing concern with adverse effects on adolescents' health and social functioning. This study aims to determine the prevalence of IA among school-going adolescents in Malaysia and its associated factors-specifically, lifestyle factors. A nationwide cross-sectional school-based health survey was conducted in 2017 among 27,497 students from 212 randomly selected secondary schools. Information regarding sociodemography, lifestyle, and internet use was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. IA was measured using the Malay Version of Internet Addiction Test (MVIAT). The prevalence of internet addiction was 29.0%. A multivariable logistic analysis revealed that inadequate fruit and vegetable intakes, consumed carbonated soft drinks at least once a day, consumed fast food at least three days/week, sedentary behavior, current E-cigarette users, and ever/current alcohol drinkers were lifestyle factors significantly associated with IA. Adolescents from urban schools, of higher school grade, and those whose parents are married but living apart were also found to have a greater risk for internet addiction. A positive association was found between IA with unhealthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents. The modification of lifestyle factors needs to be considered while developing strategies and interventions for awareness-raising and prevention of IA among adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801949PMC
December 2020

A systematic review protocol on small/kiddie cigarette packaging size and its impact on smoking.

Syst Rev 2020 01 13;9(1):13. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Setia Alam, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Small/kiddie cigarette packs consist of less than 20 cigarette sticks. Kiddie packs were recently proposed to be reintroduced by the tobacco industry with an excuse to prevent consumers from buying illicit cigarettes. By reintroducing kiddie packs, cigarettes will inevitably be more affordable and this would appeal to lower-income consumers especially teens. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify the impact of kiddie packs on smoking, specifically on smoking initiation, the urge/tendency to buy cigarettes and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption.

Methods: This systematic review will be based on the review of original articles on the impact of kiddie packs on smoking. There is no restriction on the publication dates. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus will be searched to retrieve potential original articles. Additional records identified through other sources: Google Scholar, as well as Journal of Substance Use and Tobacco Control, are also to be searched. These will include original articles in any language which included all study designs (randomised controlled trials, quasi experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies) comparing kiddie packs with regular cigarette packs. The primary outcomes of interest will be initiation of smoking and urge/tendency to buy cigarettes in the general population and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption among current smokers. Secondary outcomes will be the prevalence of smoking using kiddie packs among the current smokers.

Discussion: This systematic review will provide evidence to support the impact of kiddie packs on smoking in terms of smoking initiation, smoking prevalence, urge/tendency to purchase cigarettes and attempts to reduce cigarette consumption. The findings from this review could be helpful to policymakers in regulating kiddie packs to control the consumption of tobacco.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42018102325.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1263-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6958659PMC
January 2020

Cigarette Smoking Among Secondary School-Going Male Adolescents in Malaysia: Findings From the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 19;31(8_suppl):80S-87S. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Smoking is a learned behavior during adolescence, and it is found predominantly among male adolescents in Malaysia. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictive factors of current cigarette smoking among school-going male adolescents in Malaysia. Data were derived from the National Health and Morbidity Survey: Adolescent Health Survey 2017, a cross-sectional study that utilized a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling to select a nationally representative sample of school-going adolescents in Malaysia (n = 27 497). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among male adolescents in Malaysia. Male adolescents aged 16 to 17 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.70), current illicit drug users (AOR = 8.14; 95% CI = 6.37-10.41), current alcohol users (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.65-2.23), those from rural schools (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.46-1.76), those whose parents were widowed/divorced/separated (AOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.21-1.55), and those whose parents/guardians were tobacco product users (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.33-5.16) were more likely to be current cigarette smokers. Tobacco control strategies should be aimed at both adolescents at risk and at promoting parental smoking cessation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519874948DOI Listing
November 2019

Source of cigarettes among youth smokers in Malaysia: Findings from the tobacco and e-cigarette survey among Malaysian school adolescents (TECMA).

Tob Induc Dis 2018 5;16:51. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Hospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, Malaysia.

Introduction: Understanding how and where youth obtain tobacco products are major factors in the development of suitable intervention programs to reduce youth smoking. This study aimed to determine the source of cigarettes and the associated factors among Malaysian school adolescent smokers.

Methods: Our sample consisted of 1348 youth aged 10-17 years who were current smokers (having smoked at least once in the last 30 days). The source of cigarettes (commercial, over-the-counter purchases; or social, borrowing or obtaining from someone else) was the dependent variable, and multivariable logistic regression was employed to determine its association with independent variables (i.e. sociodemographics, smoking behavior, and knowledge of laws prohibiting sales of cigarettes to youth).

Results: Over half (54.3%) of current smokers obtained cigarettes from commercial sources, with a proportion nearly two times higher (84.2% vs 43.7%) among frequent smokers (i.e. those smoking more than 20 days per month) compared to less-frequent smokers, and among young males (56.5% vs 32.0%) compared young females. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that in urban areas, young females (AOR=12.5, 95% CI: 1.38-99.8) frequent smokers (AOR=4.41, 95% CI: 2.05-9.46), and those studying in lower (AOR=3.76, 95% CI: 1.41-10.02) and upper secondary (AOR=4.74, 95% CI: 1.72-13.06) school students were more likely to obtain cigarettes from a commercial source. On the other hand, in rural areas, only frequent smokers were more likely to get their cigarettes from commercial sources, whilst other variables were not significant.

Conclusions: The proportion of youth smokers who obtained cigarettes from commercial sources appeared to be high, suggesting that law enforcement and health promotion activities should be enhanced to reduce the rate of smoking among Malaysian youth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/96297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659477PMC
November 2018

Support for smoke-free policy among Malaysian adults: findings from a population-based study.

BMJ Open 2019 02 12;9(2):e020304. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objective: Public opinion and support can be powerful mandates for smoke-free policy. However, the scarcity of evidence on public opinion among Malaysians necessitates further investigation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the level of support for smoke-free policy at various public domains and its associated factors among Malaysian adults.

Design: Data were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Malaysia (GATS-M). GATS-M is a nationwide study that employed a multistage, proportionate-to-size sampling strategy to select a representative sample of 5112 Malaysian adults aged 15 years and above. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with support for smoke-free policy in selected public domains that is, workplaces, restaurants, bars, hotels, casinos, karaoke centres, public transport terminals and shopping centres.

Results: The level of support for enactment of a smoke-free policy at selected public domains varied from 37.8% to 94.4%, with the highest support was for gazetted smoke-free domains, namely, shopping centres (94.4%, 95% CI: 93.2% to 95.3%) and public transport terminals (85.2%, 95% CI: 83.3% to 86.9%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that non-smokers were more likely to support smoke-free policy at all domains. In addition, respondents who worked in workplaces with total or partial smoking restrictions were more likely to support a smoke-free policy ((total restriction adjusted OR (AOR): 14.94 (6.44 to 34.64); partial restriction AOR: 2.96 (1.138 to 6.35); non-restriction was applied as a reference).

Conclusion: A majority of the Malaysian adult population supported the smoke-free policy, especially at gazetted smoke-free domains. Therefore, expansion of a total smoking ban to workplaces, restaurants, bars, hotels, casinos and karaoke centres is strongly recommended to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and to denormalise smoking behaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377523PMC
February 2019

Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

Tob Induc Dis 2018 26;16:01. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Hospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.

Introduction: The continuous monitoring of smoking prevalence and its associated factors is an integral part of anti-smoking programmes and valuable for the evaluation of the effectiveness of anti-smoking measures and policies. This study aimed at determining prevalence of smoking and identifying socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among adults in Malaysia aged 15 years and over.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 21 445 adults in Malaysia, aged 15 years and over, selected via a stratified, two-stage proportionate-to-size sampling method. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews by trained research assistants, using a standard validated questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine socio-demographic factors associated with smoking among Malaysians.

Results: The overall prevalence of smoking was 22.8% (95% CI: 21.9-23.8%), with males having a significantly higher prevalence compared to females (43.0%, 95% CI: 41.1-44.6 vs 1.4%, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). The highest smoking prevalence was observed among other ethnicities (35.7%), those aged 25-44 years (59.3%), and low educational attainment (25.2%). Males, those with lower educational attainment and Malays were significantly associated with smoking.

Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among Malaysians, aged 15 years and over, remains high despite the implementation of several anti-smoking measures over the past decades. Specially tailored anti-smoking policies or measures, particularly targeting males, the Malays, younger adults and those with lower educational attainment, are greatly warranted to reduce the prevalence of smoking in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/82190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659615PMC
January 2018

Exposure to tobacco secondhand smoke and its associated factors among non-smoking adults in smoking-restricted and non-restricted areas: findings from a nationwide study in Malaysia.

BMJ Open 2018 01 8;8(1):e017203. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Hospital Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, Pahang, Malaysia.

Objectives: Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aims of the paper are to assess SHS exposure among non-smoking adults in Malaysia attending various smoking-restricted and non-restricted public areas according to the Control of Tobacco Product Regulations (CTPR) as well as its relationship with various sociodemographic variables.

Design: Data were extracted from a cross-sectional study, the Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2011 which involved 3269 non-smokers in Malaysia. Data was obtained through face-to-face interviews using a validated pre-tested questionnaire. Factors associated with exposure to SHS were identified via multivariable analysis.

Results: The study revealed that almost two-thirds of respondents were exposed to SHS in at least one public area in the past 1 month, with a significantly higher exposure among males (70.6%), those with higher educational attainment (81.4%) and higher income (quintile 1%-73.9%). Besides, the exposure to SHS was almost four times higher in non-restricted areas compared with restricted areas under the CTPR (81.9% vs 22.9). Multivariable analysis revealed that males and younger adults at non-restricted areas were more likely to be exposed to SHS while no significant associated factors of SHS exposure was observed in restricted areas.

Conclusions: The study revealed the prevalence of SHS exposure was higher among Malaysian adults. Although smoke-free laws offer protection to non-smokers from exposure to SHS, enforcement activities in restricted areas should be enhanced to ensure strict public abidance. In addition, legislation of restricted areas should also be extended to greatly reduce the SHS exposure among non-smokers in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5780697PMC
January 2018

Physical activity and overweight/obesity among Malaysian adults: findings from the 2015 National Health and morbidity survey (NHMS).

BMC Public Health 2017 09 21;17(1):733. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Jalan Bangsar, 50590, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Overweight and obesity are growing health problems both worldwide and in Malaysia due to such lifestyle changes as decreased physical activity (PA), increased sedentary behavior and unhealthy eating habits. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA among normal-weight and overweight/obese adults and to investigate the association between PA level and overweight/obesity in Malaysian adults.

Methods: This study used data from the 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey that implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Respondents aged 18 years and above (n = 17,261) were included in the analysis. The short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was administered to assess the respondents' PA levels. The respondents' height and weight were objectively measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The respondents were categorized according to BMI as either normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m) or overweight/obese (≥ 25 kg/m). Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate.

Results: Overall, approximately 1 in 2 respondents (51.2%) were overweight/obese, even though the majority (69.0%) reporting at least a moderate level of PA (total PA ≥ 10 MET-hours/week). In both normal-weight and overweight/obese groups, a significantly higher prevalence of high PA (total PA ≥ 50 MET-hours/week) was observed among men than women (p < 0.001), but women reported a significantly higher prevalence of low and moderate PA than men (p < 0.001). Men reported significantly higher activity levels (in MET-hours/week) than women with regard to walking, vigorous-intensity PA and total PA (p < 0.001). Overweight/obese men reported a significantly lower level of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA than normal-weight men (p < 0.001). A low level of PA was associated with the risk of overweight/obesity (Adjusted OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30) compared to a high level of PA among men but not among women.

Conclusions: The levels of PA were inversely related to the risk of overweight/obesity in men but not in women. Programs designed to reduce overweight/obesity rates should encourage the practice of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. Future research should consider using longitudinal and prospective approaches that simultaneously measure dietary intake, PA and BMI among Malaysian adults to investigate the actual relationship between PA and overweight/obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4772-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5609047PMC
September 2017