Publications by authors named "Miaoni Zhou"

12 Publications

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[Corrigendum] The role of VIT1/FBXO11 in the regulation of apoptosis and tyrosinase export from endoplasmic reticulum in cultured melanocytes.

Int J Mol Med 2022 Feb 8;49(2). Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Department of Dermatology, Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310009, P.R. China.

Following the publication of the above article, an interested reader drew to the authors' attention that the Transwell cell migration assay data shown in Fig. 4A appeared to be partly overlapping with data presented for experiments performed under different experimental conditions in Figs. 4D and E. The authors independently examined the figure and realized that inadvertent errors had been made during the assembly of Fig. 4; furthermore, owing to the time that has elapsed since this paper was published, the authors no longer had access to the original data. Accordingly, to further verify the conclusions reported in the study, the authors repeated these experiments, and the results obtained were found to be consistent with the original findings. The new version of Fig. 4 is shown below. The authors are grateful to the Editor of International Journal of Molecular Medicine for allowing them the opportunity to publish this Corrigendum, and apologize to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in International Journal of Molecular Medicine 26: 57-65, 2010; DOI: 10.3892/ijmm_00000435].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8711596PMC
February 2022

Inhibition of Fam114A1 protects melanocytes from apoptosis through higher RACK1 expression.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 11 27;13(22):24740-24752. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

The Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Fam114A1 is a gene closely related to the development of nerve cells, melanocytes, and nerve cells that originate from the neural crest of the embryonic ectoderm. Recent studies showed that Fam114A1 has a role in the occurrence of ankylosing myelitis spondylitis and autoimmune enteritis; still, its cellular function remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Fam114A1 on the biological activity of melanocytes. We found that the expression of Fam114A1 in vitiligo melanocytes (MCV-L, MCV-N, PI3V) was higher than that in normal melanocytes, and the biological function of melanocytes was significantly affected when the Fam114A1 gene was silenced. Inhibition of Fam114A1 increased proliferation, migration, and melanin synthesis proteins, decreased apoptosis, while its overexpression reversed this process. Mechanistically, we discovered that RACK1 is a target protein of Fam114A1 and that RACK1 can be negatively regulated by Fam114A1. Further study showed that Fam114A1 inhibition could not protect melanocytes from apoptosis once the expression of RACK1 protein was silenced. In summary, Fam114A1 is an effective regulatory protein for regulating the function of melanocytes. Inhibition Fam114A1 protects melanocytes from apoptosis through increasing RACK1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8660612PMC
November 2021

CXCL9 as a key biomarker of vitiligo activity and prediction of the success of cultured melanocyte transplantation.

Sci Rep 2021 09 14;11(1):18298. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Dermatology, Hangzhou Third People's Hospital, Affiliated Hangzhou Dermatology Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

This study aimed to investigate the potential biomarkers of vitiligo by evaluating the disease activity and curative effect of autologous cultured pure melanocyte transplantation (CMT) on patients. Altogether, 36patients with stable vitiligo were treated with CMT. Blister fluid samples were collected from patients with stable vitiligo. Patients with active vitiligo were matched with healthy controls. The chemokine levels in the serum and blister fluid samples were measured using Luminex. The curative effect on patients with stable vitiligo was evaluated 6 months after treatment. Treatment responses were defined according to the extent of repigmentation as effective (if 50% or more repigmentation was achieved) or ineffective (if less than 50% or worse repigmentation was achieved). Patients received re-transplantation if the initial treatment was ineffective. The levels of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)9 and CXCL10 in blister fluid samples were significantly lower in stable patients than in active participants. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were sensitive and specific in diagnosing active vitiligo. Further, 65.6% (21/32) of patients who received CMT had effective treatment responses. The high CXCL9 level in the blister fluid was a significant predictor of ineffective treatment responses. The treatment response was significantly enhanced after treatment. Four patients with ineffective treatment responses received anti-inflammatory treatment and re-transplantation. The CXCL9 and CXCL10 levels in the blister fluid were related to the presence of active vitiligo. Also, the CXCL9 level was a predictor of the effectiveness of CMT in treating vitiligo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97296-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440594PMC
September 2021

Topical epigallocatechin-3-gallate in the treatment of vitiligo.

Australas J Dermatol 2021 Aug 28;62(3):e404-e407. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Dermatology, Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, China.

Objective: To preliminarily assess the efficacy and safety of the topical application of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in treating vitiligo, a 6-month clinical trial was carried out.

Method: Patients were randomly given topical application of EGCG on the assigned lesions, with pimecrolimus being used as the control for twice a day over a 6-month treatment period. Responses to treatment were assessed based on the changes in VASI score for percentage reduction in body surface area and the PGA scores.

Results: According to our results, both drugs were discovered to be markedly effective on repigmentation. The VASI of lesion had diminished from 1.19 ± 0.42 to 0.63 ± 0.38, in the EGCG-treated lesions, while from 1.18 ± 0.43 to 0.61 ± 0.36 in the pimecrolimus-treated lesions, and there was no statistically significant difference in VASI score between the EGCG-treated lesions and pimecrolimus-treated lesions (P = 0.755). Meanwhile, the mean PGA score on the EGCG applied side was 4.39 ± 2.23, while that was 4.43 ± 2.02 on the pimecrolimus applied side (P = 0.886). Furthermore, difference in the improvement degree between pimecrolimus side and EGCG side was not statistically significant (P = 0.845). Notably, no serious side effects were observed throughout the study.

Conclusion: Findings of the study indicate that topical EGCG can be effective on treating vitiligo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajd.13612DOI Listing
August 2021

Decreased SUMOylation of the retinoblastoma protein in keratinocytes during the pathogenesis of vitiligo.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Sep 19;18(3):3469-3475. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Dermatology, Hangzhou Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, P.R. China.

The role of SUMOylation in the pathogenesis of vitiligo has not been reported previously. The present study aimed to reveal abnormalities in small ubiquitin‑like modifier (SUMO) conjugation in keratinocytes from depigmented lesions of patients with vitiligo and confirm the role of SUMOylation in keratinocytes from patients with vitiligo. Skin samples used for immunohistochemistry were obtained by punch biopsy from the depigmented lesions of 6 patients. Blisters were produced by vacuum and the roofs were collected for keratinocyte culture. HaCaT cells were transduced with SUMO1 knockdown vectors. The protein expression of SUMO1, SUMO‑specific peptidase 1 (SENP1), ubiquitin‑conjugating enzyme E2 I (Ubc9), SUMO‑activating enzyme subunit 1 (SAE1), cyclin‑dependent kinase (CDK)2, CDK6, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), retinoblastoma protein (Rb), phosphorylated Rb (pRb) and β‑actin was assessed by western blotting. The SUMOylation status of proteins was assessed by immunoprecipitation. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and cell proliferation rate was investigated using a Cell Counting Kit‑8. The results demonstrated that the levels of SUMO1‑conjugated proteins were decreased in vitiligo lesions and vitiligo keratinocytes compared with normal controls. The protein expression of Ubc9 was decreased and SENP1 was increased in vitiligo keratinocytes compared with normal keratinocytes, with no alterations in SAE1 expression. Following knockdown of SUMO1 in HaCaT cells, the proliferation of HaCaT cells was reduced and the cell cycle was arrested in G1 phase. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of PCNA, CDK2, CDK6 and pRb were reduced in SUMO1‑knockdown HaCaT cells, and SUMOylated Rb was also decreased markedly in keratinocytes from lesions of patients with vitiligo compared with normal keratinocytes. In conclusion, vitiligo lesions in the present study exhibited dysregulated SUMOylation and deSUMOylation balance and dysregulation of cell cycle progression may be present in SUMO1 knockdown HaCaT cells. These results indicate that deSUMOylation of Rb of keratinocytes may serve an important role in vitiligo, providing a novel direction for the study into the mechanism of vitiligo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2018.9299DOI Listing
September 2018

Quercetin attenuates the effects of H2O2 on endoplasmic reticulum morphology and tyrosinase export from the endoplasmic reticulum in melanocytes.

Mol Med Rep 2015 Jun 22;11(6):4285-90. Epub 2015 Jan 22.

Department of Dermatology, Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, P.R. China.

Swollen endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is commonly observed in the melanocytes of vitiligo patients; however, the cause and proteins involved in this remain to be elucidated. Oxidative stress has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo and previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced melanocyte apoptosis, whereas quercetin exhibited cytoprotective activities against the effects of H2O2. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of H2O2 in the ER of melanocytes as well as its role in the export of tyrosinase from ER; in addition, the present study aimed to determine the mechanism by which quercetin protects against the effects of H2O2. The results demonstrated that melanocyte cells treated with H2O2 presented with swollen ER; however, a normal ER configuration was observed in untreated cells as well as quercetin/H2O2‑treated cells. Furthermore, H2O2 inhibited tyrosinase export from the ER and decreased expression levels of tyrosinase; however, quercetin was found to attenuate the effects induced by H2O2. In conclusion, the results of the present study confirmed the hypothesis that H2O2 induced ER dilation and hindered functional tyrosinase export from the ER of melanocytes. It was also found that quercetin significantly weakened these effects mediated by H2O2, therefore it may have the potential for use in the treatment of vitiligo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2015.3242DOI Listing
June 2015

Interferon-γ induces senescence in normal human melanocytes.

PLoS One 2014 28;9(3):e93232. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

Department of Dermatology, Hangzhou Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plays an important role in the proceedings of vitiligo through recruiting lymphocytes to the lesional skin. However, the potential effects of IFN-γ on skin melanocytes and the subsequent contribution to the vitiligo pathogenesis are still unclear.

Objective: To investigate the effects of IFN-γ on viability and cellular functions of melanocytes.

Methods: Primary human melanocytes were treated with IFN-γ. Cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle melanin content and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were measured. mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR. The release of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) was monitored by ELISA. β-galactosidase staining was utilized to evaluate melanocyte senescence.

Results: Persistent IFN-γ treatment induced viability loss, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence in melanocytes. Melanocyte senescence was characterized as the changes in pigmentation and morphology, as well as the increase of β-galactosidase activity. Increase of p21Cip1/Waf1 protein was evident in melanocytes after IFN-γ treatment. IFN-γ induction of senescence was attenuated by siRNAs against p21, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), but not by JAK1 siRNA nor by p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α. IFN-γ treatment increased the accumulation of intracellular ROS in melanocytes, while ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) effectively inhibited IFN-γ induced p21 expression and melanocyte senescence. IL-6 and HSP-70 release was significantly induced by IFN-γ treatment, which was largely inhibited by NAC. The increase of IL-6 and HSP-70 release could also be observed in senescent melanocytes.

Conclusion: IFN-γ can induce senescence in melanocytes and consequently enhance their immuno-competency, leading to a vitiligo-prone milieu.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0093232PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969336PMC
June 2015

CD8+ T cells from vitiligo perilesional margins induce autologous melanocyte apoptosis.

Mol Med Rep 2013 Jan 8;7(1):237-41. Epub 2012 Oct 8.

Department of Dermatology, The Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310009, PR China.

Cell-mediated autoimmunity has been suggested to be involved in the melanocyte apoptosis that occurs in vitiligo. We investigated the cytotoxicity to autologous melanocytes of CD8+ T cells from the perilesional margins and peripheral blood samples of vitiligo patients. CD8+ T cells isolated from skin biopsied from the edges of depigmented skin patches of vitiligo patients or from peripheral blood samples of the same donors were proliferated in culture medium. The primary cultures of CD8+ T cells and autologous melanocytes were mixed at ratios of 1:1, 1:2 or 1:5 and incubated for 3 days. The apoptosis of the melanocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. Secreted cytokines in selected samples were measured by cytokine arrays. The results show that the CD8+ T cells were successfully isolated from the vitiligo perilesional margins. This cell population showed a significantly higher percentage of CD69 expression (56.13±3.55 versus 29.93±2.35%, p<0.01) and CD137 expression (41.74±1.06 versus 25.97±1.63%, p<0.01) compared with CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood from the same donors. The co-culturing of CD8+ T cells from lesional skin with autologous melanocytes induced apoptosis in the melanocytes (16.63±1.21, 16.71±0.63 and 18.32±1.60% for CD8+ T cells and autologous melanocytes at ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5, respectively). IL-6 levels were much higher in the co-culture (3.01-fold higher than in a melanocyte monoculture and 17.32-fold higher than in a CD8+ T-cell monoculture). The CD8+ T cells were also demonstrated to secrete more IL-13. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the infiltration of active CD8+ T cells takes place in the vitiligo perilesional margins. Those CD8+ T cells present significantly higher activation levels and higher cytotoxicity to autologous melanocytes than their counterparts from peripheral blood samples. These data suggest that CD8+ T cells are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2012.1117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3572717PMC
January 2013

Niacin protects against UVB radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured human skin keratinocytes.

Int J Mol Med 2012 Apr 12;29(4):593-600. Epub 2012 Jan 12.

Department of Dermatology, Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310009, PR China.

Niacin and its related derivatives have been shown to have effects on cellular activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its reduced immunosuppressive effects and photoprotective effects remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of niacin in ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). We found that niacin effectively suppressed the UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis of HaCaT cells. Existing data have shown that AKT activation is involved in the cell survival process. Yet, the potential mechanism of niacin in protection against UV-induced skin damage has thus far not fully been eluvidated. We observed that niacin pretreatment enhances UV induced activation of AKT (Ser473 phosphorylation) as well as that of the downstream signal mTOR (S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation). The PI3K/AKT inhibitor, LY294002, and the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, largely neutralized the protective effects of niacin, suggesting that AKT and downstream signaling mTOR/S6 activation are necessary for the niacin-induced protective effects against UV-induced cell death and cell apoptosis. Collectively, our data suggest that niacin may be utilized to prevent UV-induced skin damage and provide a novel mechanism of its photoprotective effects against the UV radiation of sunlight by modulating both AKT and downstream mTOR signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2012.886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3577345PMC
April 2012

Immunodetection of the MCHR1 antibody in vitiligo patient sera.

Int J Mol Med 2011 May 28;27(5):725-9. Epub 2011 Feb 28.

Department of Dermatology, the Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310009, PR China.

Human vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting skin disorder characterized by milk-white skin macules resulting from a chronic and progressive loss of melanocytes. It has been suggested that autoimmune mechanisms are involved in this disorder. We undertook this project to obtain an MCHR1-C linear peptide containing four main MCHR1 B-cell epitopes in an attempt to detect the IgG antibody against MCHR1 in vitiligo. The target gene encoding the MCHR1-C peptide was cloned into a pGEX-4T-2 expression vector, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and purified using a GST column. The molecular weight was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The IgG antibody response to MCHR1 was detected by ELISA with MCHR1-C as a coated antigen, and the absorption experiment was used to assess the binding ability of the Ab detected by MCHR1-C with a membrane protein in human epidermal melanocytes. The purified peptide MCHR1-C with a molecular weight of 33 kDa was obtained, and could bind to the MCHR1 antibody in human sera. Of the vitiligo patient sera examined, 24 of 145 (16.55%) tested positive for the MCHR1 antibody, and the frequency in the vitiligo patient group was significantly greater compared to the normal control. However, no significant difference between gender, disease duration, clinical subtype or family history between the two groups was observed. In addition, the Ab detected by MCHR1-C in sera was specifically absorbed by the membrane protein obtained from human epidermal melanocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that the MCHR1-C peptide can be used to detect the MCHR1 antibody in vitiligo patients as a coated antigen instead of MCHR1 protein. We conclude that the level of MCHR1 antibody in active vitiligo patients is significantly higher than that in healthy individuals, while gender, disease duration, clinical subtype and family history have no association with the level of MCHR1 antibody in vitiligo patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2011.629DOI Listing
May 2011

The role of VIT1/FBXO11 in the regulation of apoptosis and tyrosinase export from endoplasmic reticulum in cultured melanocytes.

Int J Mol Med 2010 Jul;26(1):57-65

Department of Dermatology, Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310009, PR China.

Our previous study has shown that VIT1 gene in Chinese vitiligo patients is de facto the FBXO11 gene, and the silencing of that gene has an impact on the ultrastructure of melanocytes. In this study, we further identified the role of the FBXO11 gene in melanocytes and the relationship between dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and tyrosinase by inhibition and overexpression of FBXO11 gene. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cycle and migration of melanocytes were examined when the FBXO11 gene was silenced or overexpressed. The results showed that FBXO11 gene promoted cell proliferation and suppressed cell apoptosis, and yet had little effect on cell migration. Obvious swelling of ER was found in the cells transfected with siRNA of FBXO11 gene. Interestingly, protein level of tyrosinase was extraordinarily high following inhibition of FBXO11 gene. Further examination revealed that tyrosinase and calreticulin were co-localized in ER of transfected cells following siRNA of FBXO11 gene, suggesting that tyrosinase could not be exported from ER effectively. Collectively, our results support the notion that FBXO11 plays an important role in regulating proliferation and apoptosis of melanocytes, and functional export of tyrosinase from ER in vitiligo melanocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm_00000435DOI Listing
July 2010

Melagenine modulates proliferation and differentiation of melanoblasts.

Int J Mol Med 2008 Aug;22(2):193-7

Department of Dermatology, the Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, PR China.

Melagenine, extracted from human placenta, has been shown to be effective in treating patients with vitiligo, yet the mechanisms of melagenine in inducing the repigmentation of vitiligo patients have not been fully investigated. Recent studies have suggested that melagenine stimulates melanocyte proliferation and melanogenesis. In this study, we utilized the NCCmelb4M5 melanoblast cell line to investigate the effects of melagenine on proliferation and differentiation of immature melanocytes or melanoblasts. NCCmelb4M5 cells were treated with different concentrations of melagenine (50-400 microg/ml), and MTT assay was performed to evaluate the effects of melagenine on proliferation of melanoblasts. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of c-KIT and tyrosinase (TYR). Our results show that melagenine stimulates proliferation of NCCmelb4M5 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 100 microg/ml. Multipolar and highly branched dendritic network, as well as cluster-like growing cell assembly were visible in melagenine-treated NCCmelb4M5 cells. Melagenine induced expression of c-KIT, TYR and MITF. Our results provide insights into the molecular mechanism of the beneficial effect of melagenine in the treatment of vitiligo.
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August 2008
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