Publications by authors named "Miao Jin"

182 Publications

A fluid-driven soft robotic fish inspired by fish muscle architecture.

Bioinspir Biomim 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No.5988 Renmin Street , Nanling Compus, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, jllin University, Changchun, jilin, 130022, CHINA.

Artificial fish-like robots developed to date often focus on the external morphology of fish and have rarely addressed the contribution of the structure and morphology of biological muscle. However, biological studies have proven that fish utilize the contraction of muscle fibers to drive the protective flexible connective tissue to swim. This paper introduces a pneumatic silicone structure prototype inspired by the red muscle system of fish and applies it to the fish-like robot named Flexi-Tuna. The key innovation is to make the fluid-driven units simulate the red muscle fiber bundles of fish and embed them into a flexible tuna-like matrix. The driving units act as muscle fibers to generate active contraction force, and the flexible matrix as connective tissue to generate passive deformation. Applying alternant pressure to the driving units can produce a bending moment, causing the tail to swing. As a result, the structural design of Flexi-Tuna has excellent bearing capacity compared with the traditional cavity-type and keeps the body smooth. On this basis, a general method is proposed for modeling the fish-like robot based on the independent analysis of the active and passive body, providing a foundation for Flexi-Tuna's size design. Followed by the robot's static and underwater dynamic tests, we used finite element static analysis and fluid numerical simulation to compare the results. The experimental results showed that the maximum swing angle of the tuna-like robot reached 20°, and the maximum thrust reached 0.185 N at the optimum frequency of 3.5 Hz. In this study, we designed a unique system that matches the functional level of biological muscles. As a result, we realized the application of fluid-driven artificial muscle to bionic fish and expanded new ideas for the structural design of flexible bionic fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/ac4afbDOI Listing
January 2022

Identification and a phased pH control strategy of diosgenin bio-synthesized by an endogenous Bacillus licheniformis Syt1 derived from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Dec 29;105(24):9333-9342. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, People's Republic of China.

Diosgenin is widely used as one precursor of steroidal drugs in pharmaceutical industry. Currently, there is no choice but to traditionally extract diosgenin from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright (DZW) or other plants. In this work, an environmentally friendly approach, in which diosgenin can be bio-synthesized by the endophytic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis Syt1 isolated from DZW, is proposed. Diosgenin produced by the strain was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the melting point of the diosgenin product was 204 °C. The optical rotation measurement exhibited that the optical rotation was α =  - 126.1° ± 1.5° (chloroform, c = 1%): negative sign means that the product is left-handed, which is very important to further produce steroid hormone drugs. Cholesterol may be the intermediate product in the diosgenin biosynthesis pathway. In the batch fermentation process to produce diosgenin using the strain, pH values played an important role. A phased pH control strategy from 5.5 to 7.5 was proved to be more effective to improve production yield than any single pH control, which could get the highest diosgenin yield of 85 ± 8.6 mg L. The proposed method may replace phyto-chemistry extraction to produce diosgenin in the industry in the future.Key points• An endophytic Bacillus licheniformis Syt1 derived from host can produce diosgenin.• A dynamic pH industrial control strategy is better than any single pH control.• Proposed diosgenin-produced method hopefully replaces phyto-chemistry extraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11679-zDOI Listing
December 2021

Norovirus GII.2[P16] strain in Shenzhen, China: a retrospective study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Oct 30;21(1):1122. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.

Background: Norovirus (NoV) is the main cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks worldwide. From September 2015 through August 2018, 203 NoV outbreaks involving 2500 cases were reported to the Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

Methods: Faecal specimens for 203 outbreaks were collected and epidemiological data were obtained through the AGE outbreak surveillance system in Shenzhen. Genotypes were determined by sequencing analysis. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary characteristics of NoV in Shenzhen, molecular evolution and mutations were evaluated based on time-scale evolutionary phylogeny and amino acid mutations.

Results: A total of nine districts reported NoV outbreaks and the reported NoV outbreaks peaked from November to March. Among the 203 NoV outbreaks, 150 were sequenced successfully. Most of these outbreaks were associated with the NoV GII.2[P16] strain (45.3%, 92/203) and occurred in school settings (91.6%, 186/203). The evolutionary rates of the RdRp region and the VP1 sequence were 2.1 × 10 (95% HPD interval, 1.7 × 10-2.5 × 10) substitutions/site/year and 2.7 × 10 (95% HPD interval, 2.4 × 10-3.1 × 10) substitutions/site/year, respectively. The common ancestors of the GII.2[P16] strain from Shenzhen and GII.4 Sydney 2012[P16] diverged from 2011 to 2012. The common ancestors of the GII.2[P16] strain from Shenzhen and previous GII.2[P16] (2010-2012) diverged from 2003 to 2004. The results of amino acid mutations showed 6 amino acid substitutions (*77E, R750K, P845Q, H1310Y, K1546Q, T1549A) were found only in GII.4 Sydney 2012[P16] and the GII.2[P16] recombinant strain.

Conclusions: This study illustrates the molecular epidemiological patterns in Shenzhen, China, from September 2015 to August 2018 and provides evidence that the epidemic trend of GII.2[P16] recombinant strain had weakened and the non-structural proteins of the recombinant strain might have played a more significant role than VP1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06746-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8556823PMC
October 2021

[Screening of Priority Pollutants and Risk Assessment for Surface Water from Shengjin Lake].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Oct;42(10):4727-4738

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

Shengjin Lake, which serves as an important National Nature Reserve, is suffering from chemical pollution due to rapid industrial and agricultural development in the circumjacent basin. Therefore, 168 anthropogenic toxic chemicals were determined to examine their spatial distribution and identify priority pollutants using a ranking system based on occurrence(O), persistence(P), bioaccumulation(B), ecological risk(E), and human health risk(H). Ecosystem and human health risks were also assessed. The spatial distribution of pollutants indicated that higher concentrations occur in the upper lake area compared to the middle and lower lake areas because of Jiang Dam. According to the derived priority pollutant list, phthalate esters(PAEs), organochlorine pesticides(OCPs), and heavy metals(HMs) are high-priority pollutants; polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), and volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are medium-priority pollutants; and antibiotics(ANTs) are low-priority pollutants. The ecology risk quotient(RQ) of the high-priority pollutants ranged from 4.3 to 15.9, indicating severe ecology risk to the aquatic organism, and higher risks were found in the upper lake areas. Additionally, the human health risk assessment revealed negligible carcinogenic risks associated with high-priority pollutants. The comprehensive ranking system established in this study can be applied to other lake basins by altering the measured concentrations to screen for priority pollutants, offering a scientific foundation for identifying priority control pollutants for watershed management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202102117DOI Listing
October 2021

An increase of phosphatidylcholines in follicular fluid implies attenuation of embryo quality on day 3 post-fertilization.

BMC Biol 2021 09 9;19(1):200. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Background: Although oocyte quality is the dominant factor determining embryo quality, few studies have been conducted to evaluate embryo quality based on the metabolites related to the oocyte. With quantification of the follicular fluid (FF) metabolites, in assisted reproductive technology (ART), this study sought to evaluate the embryo or oocyte quality through an informative approach.

Results: An evaluation model consisting of 17 features was generated to distinguish the embryo quality on day 3 post-fertilization, and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were the key contributors to the evaluation. The model was extended to the patients under different ages and hyperstimulations, and the features were further enriched to facilitate the evaluation of the embryo quality. The metabolites were clustered through pathway analysis, leading to a hypothesis that accumulation of arachidonic acid induced by PCs might weaken embryo quality on day 3 post-fertilization.

Conclusions: A discriminating model with metabolic features elicited from follicular fluid was established, which enabled the evaluation of the embryo or oocyte quality even under certain clinical conditions, and the increase of PCs in follicular fluid implies the attenuation of embryo quality on day 3 post-fertilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-021-01118-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428131PMC
September 2021

Hydrochemical characteristics, trace element sources, and health risk assessment of surface waters in the Amu Darya Basin of Uzbekistan, arid Central Asia.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Nanjing, 210008, China.

Thorough knowledge of hydrochemical characteristics and trace element concentrations in surface waters is crucial for protection of this resource, especially in arid regions. Uzbekistan lies in central, arid Central Asia, and is experiencing severe water scarcity as a consequence of warming climate and accelerated human impacts. Fifty-five surface water samples were collected from the Amu Darya Basin of Uzbekistan (ADBU) and measured for relevant variables, to determine hydrochemical characteristics and evaluate water quality. River water samples from the middle reach and Amu Darya Delta (ADD) were dominantly HCO-Ca and SO-Ca·Mg types, respectively, whereas water samples collected near the former shoreline and sewage outlets in the ADD were predominantly Cl-Ca·Mg and Cl-Na types, consistent with the distribution of sites that display high concentrations of trace elements and are seriously affected by human activities. Principal component analysis indicated that Pb and Cd in surface waters of the ADBU had industrial origins. Local agricultural activities are thought to have contributed to the concentrations of NO, Zn, Ni, Hg, and Mn, through pesticide and fertilizer applications, and concentrations of Cu, Cr, As, and Co are controlled by mixed natural and anthropogenic sources. Water quality and health risk assessments indicated that unsuitable drinking waters are distributed mainly near the former shoreline and sewage outlets in the ADD, making human health risks in these areas high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15799-xDOI Listing
August 2021

Environmental implications from the priority pollutants screening in impoundment reservoir along the eastern route of China's South-to-North Water Diversion Project.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 25;794:148700. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment Research, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

Screening priority pollutants from vast anthropogenic contaminants discharged into aquatic environment is urgent for protecting water quality definitely. The multi-criteria scoring method involved in the occurrence (O), persistence (P), bioaccumulation (B), ecological risk (Eco-T), and human health risk (Hum-T), was established for pollutants prioritization in waters and applied in Dongping Lake, the final impoundment reservoir along the eastern route of China's South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP). A total of 170 chemicals including heavy metals (HMs), volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalate esters (PAEs), and antibiotics (ANTs) were investigated as the candidates. Accordingly, 42 chemicals including 8 PAEs, 7 OCPs, 7 PCBs, 5 PAHs, 13 HMs, and 2 VOCs were made up the list of priority pollutants for Dongping Lake, suggesting the necessity of routine monitoring high priority groups and revising the existing list. Multiple risk assessment indicated higher ecological and human health risks induced by HMs than by organic pollutants. Spatial distribution of risks stressed the retention of toxic organic chemicals by the lake body and the accumulation of HMs along the transfer route, respectively, thus triggering ecosystem responses and potential effects on the water-receiving areas as expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148700DOI Listing
November 2021

Blocking the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in premature infants by combined disinfection method.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Nosocomial Infection Control, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, China.

This study aimed to determine the cause behind the outbreak of nosocomial adenoviral conjunctivitis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and the impact of infection control measures. The objectives of the present study include investigation of the hospital-borne infection associated with adenoviral conjunctivitis, analysis of the possible risk factors, setting bundle infection control measures, which were adjusted according to the control effect. The present study also aims to observe the effect of different intervention measures on controlling adenoviral conjunctivitis. During the first and second intervention periods, overall 635 and 597 NICU patients were enrolled, respectively. Ophthalmoscopy was conducted among 188 (in the first intervention) and 184 (in the second intervention) patients (P>0.05). The times of ophthalmoscopy the patients received were 417 and 457 (P<0.001). During the first intervention, 13 patients suffered from adenoviral conjunctivitis, while no patients with adenoviral conjunctivitis were found during the second intervention (P<0.001). All adenoviral conjunctivitis cases were reported 6-27 days (mean 12 days) after ophthalmoscopy. The hydrogen peroxide disinfection bundle measures can effectively restrict the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis associated with ophthalmoscopy in premature infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.099DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence and profile of nocturnal disturbances in Chinese patients with advanced-stage Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional epidemiology study.

BMC Neurol 2021 May 12;21(1):194. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The impact of nocturnal disturbance (ND) in Parkinson's disease on quality of life of patients in Western Countries is increasingly understood. Our study aimed to investigate ND prevalence and its quality of life impact in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease in China.

Methods: In a multicenter, tertiary-care hospital, outpatient-based, cross-sectional study, patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (Modified Hoehn & Yahr [H&Y] Stage II-IV with ≥3 h awake "off" time/day) from 10 tertiary hospitals throughout China completed the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-2 (PDSS-2) and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with significant ND (PDSS-2 total score ≥ 15). Additional endpoints were demographic and clinical characteristics, PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 total and subscale scores, correlation between PDSS-2 and PDQ-39, and risk factors for ND and higher PDSS-2 or PDQ-39 scores.

Results: Of 448 patients analyzed (mean age 63.5 years, 47.3% female), 70.92% (95% confidence interval: 66.71, 75.13) had significant ND. Presence of ND and higher PDSS-2 scores were associated with longer disease duration and higher H&Y stage. Presence of ND was also associated with more awake "off" time/day and female sex. PDQ-39 scores were significantly worse for patients with ND versus those without ND; worse scores were associated with more awake "off" time/day, female sex, and higher H&Y stage. PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 total scores were associated: Pearson correlation coefficient 0.62 (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In China, ND was highly prevalent in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and adversely impacted quality of life. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and optimized management of ND in patients with Parkinson's disease in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02217-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114718PMC
May 2021

Electrospun nanofibers promote wound healing: theories, techniques, and perspectives.

J Mater Chem B 2021 04 24;9(14):3106-3130. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Life Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, Anhui, China.

At present, the clinical strategies for treating chronic wounds are limited, especially when it comes to pain relief and rapid wound healing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative treatment methods. This paper provides a systematic review on recent researches on how electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promote wound healing and how the electrospinning technology has been used for fabricating multi-dimensional, multi-pore and multi-functional nanofiber scaffolds that have greatly promoted the development of wound healing dressings. First, we provide a review on the four stages of wound healing, which is followed by a discussion on the evolvement of the electrospinning technology, what is involved in electrospinning devices, and factors affecting the electrospinning process. Finally, we present the possible mechanisms of electrospun nanofibers to promote wound healing, the classification of electrospun polymers, cell infiltration favoring fiber scaffolds, antibacterial fiber scaffolds, and future multi-functional scaffolds. Although nanofiber scaffolds have made great progress as a type of multi-functional biomaterial, major challenges still remain for commercializing them in a way that fully meets the needs of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00067eDOI Listing
April 2021

Recording and response of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in urban lake sediments to anthropogenic activities.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 27;777:145977. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, PR China.

Owing to the intensification of human activities, urban lakes serving as important freshwater resources are becoming seriously deteriorated, especially due to persistent toxic substance (PTS) pollution. Therefore, the spatial distribution and sediment record of PTS in urban lake sediments in the middle Yangtze River Basin were investigated to indicate its response to anthropogenic emission and pollution reduction actions. Spatial distribution of typical PTSs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) included) showed that pollutants were concentrated in the southeast and center of the urban lake due to riverine inputs suffering from both petrochemical and municipal wastewaters. The sedimentary record of PAH concentrations indicated an increase from the 1960s to a peak level in the 2000s, which was induced mainly by increased PAH emissions, with PAH levels decreasing subsequently due to craft improvement of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Source apportionment results revealed that historical PAH emissions transferred from petrogenic sources to a mixture of energy combustion and petrochemical industry. Furthermore, OCP and PCB pollutions reached peak levels in 1980s, which is consistent with their historical usage for agricultural and industrial production. From the synthetic sediment quality index (SeQI) analysis, sediment quality in nearly half of sites was poor, while the sediment record suggested that sediment quality had turned better since 2000s maybe due to the WWTP improvement. Furthermore, significant correlations (p < 0.05) between PTS levels and the ratio of PAH emissions to the number of WWTPs documented the PTS levels in response to the surrounding anthropogenic pollution and WWTPs in urban lakes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145977DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification of Biomarkers Based on Bioinformatics Analysis: The Expression of Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2T (UBE2T) in the Carcinogenesis and Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Mar 4;27:e929023. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to screen and identify key genes in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on bioinformatics analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) series (GSE) - GSE121248, GSE87630, and GSE84598 - were downloaded from the GEO database. GEO2R was used to screen different genes and a Venn diagram was drawn to screen coexpressed differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Coexpressed DEGs were obtained by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis, a protein-protein interaction network diagram was produced by Cytoscape, and module genes were calculated by the Molecular Complex Detection Cytoscape plug-in. Finally, overall survival, progression-free survival, and relapse-free survival analysis of the key genes selected were performed using the online Kaplan-Meier plotter. For the target genes, the online network UCSC Cancer Genome Browser was used to analyze the gene expression profiles of the grade and vascular invasion of HCC. RESULTS A total of 296 coexpressed DEGs were obtained from the 3 GSEs and 12 key genes were obtained from the modular analysis. Survival analysis showed that the upregulated genes UBE2T and FBLN5 were involved in the poor prognosis of HCC. Furthermore, the expression of UBE2T was significantly related to the grade and vascular invasion of HCC. CONCLUSIONS The expression of the UBE2T gene was significantly upregulated in HCC tissue compared to in normal liver tissue. UBE2T may be a new marker for the diagnosis and subsequent therapy of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941760PMC
March 2021

The biological pump effects of phytoplankton on the occurrence and benthic bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in a hypereutrophic lake.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 11;213:112017. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, PR China. Electronic address:

The distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in eutrophic ecosystems has been widely studied, but how phytoplankton blooms affect their occurrence and benthic bioaccumulation is poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, the biological pump effects of phytoplankton on the fate of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and benthos (Corbicula fluminea) from Lake Taihu, a hypereutrophic lake in China, were identified. The spatial-temporal distribution of HOCs suggests that higher phytoplankton biomass, coupled with sediment organic matter (SOM) content, greatly increased the concentration of HOCs in sediments in both winter and summer seasons. This could be attributed to the biological pump effects sequestering more HOCs from water to sediments with settling phytoplankton, especially during the summer. The biological pump effects further promoted the uptake of sediment-bound HOCs by benthos. The significant positive relationships between concentrations of HOCs in sediments and benthos were observed during the winter dormancy phase of benthos. Furthermore, the benthic bioaccumulation of HOCs could be strengthened by phytoplankton, due to their contribution to SOM and the following increased bioavailability of HOCs in sediments. Further research is needed to elucidate the phytoplankton biological pump effects on the fate of HOCs in benthic food chain, especially for hypereutrophic waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112017DOI Listing
April 2021

Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in waters of the Ili-Balkhash Basin, arid Central Asia: Concentrations and risk assessment.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 23;273:129705. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Release and transport of contaminants in watersheds can have adverse effects on aquatic organisms and human health. Little attention, however, has been paid to chemical contamination of aquatic environments in arid regions by persistent organic pollutants. We analyzed the concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in waters of the Ili-Balkhash Basin, in arid central Asia. ΣOCP concentrations ranged from 4.02 to 122.80 ng L and ΣPAH concentrations were between 7.58 and 70.98 ng L. On a global scale, OCP and PAH concentrations in waters of the Ili-Balkhash system were relatively low, with only a few exceptions, i.e., highest concentrations near cities and relatively high values in some headwater areas. Source identification revealed that the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) may come from recent use, whereas endosulfans stem from historic applications. Lindane, a common insecticide, may be responsible for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Low-molecular-weight PAHs, primarily originating from wood and coal combustion and petroleum-derived sources, were the primary components of PAHs in waters. Furthermore, the primary sources of PAHs at different sites were identified using a Positive Matrix Factorization model: 1) oil leakage (33.9%), 2) biomass burning (29.5%), 3) coal combustion (22.6%), and 4) petroleum-powered vehicles (14.1%). Agricultural, industrial and domestic activities are all potential pollution sources. Besides, contaminated headwater areas indicate that long-range transport has probably become a non-negligible mechanism for pollutant distribution. Risk assessment showed low to moderate toxicity for aquatic organisms, but no marked carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risks for human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129705DOI Listing
June 2021

Low Barometric Pressure Enhances Tethered-Flight Performance and Reproductive of the Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

J Econ Entomol 2021 04;114(2):620-626

Institute of Plant Protection, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, P. R. China.

Barometric pressure is an important factor influencing several insect traits. Most studies have been conducted on the behavior of insects in relation to rapid and slight changes in pressure magnitudes or short-term pressure trends, but there is little information on the effect of long-term and large pressure variations on insect traits. Here, we assessed the effects of static low barometric pressure on the tethered flight, lifespan and reproductive performance of Mythimna separata (Walker), a long-distance migratory insect, using an apparatus simulating low barometric pressure at altitudes of 500 m above sea level. We found that both the flight distance and flight duration of M. separata moths were significantly longer under low barometric pressure conditions. Exposure to low barometric pressure conditions for 24 and 48 h significantly shortened the lifespan of female moths but had no influence on male moths. The ovaries of female moths developed earlier, and the preoviposition and oviposition periods were significantly shortened under low atmospheric pressure. Moreover, low atmospheric pressure reduced the respiration rate of female moths. However, there was an increase in the respiration rate of female moths after being returned to standard barometric pressure conditions. Our results show that the behavior and physiological traits of insects are affected by the low-pressure environment during migration. The low barometric pressure conditions at high altitudes is one of important factors accelerating reproductive behavior of M. separata after migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa291DOI Listing
April 2021

Riverine transport and water-sediment exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along the middle-lower Yangtze River, China.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 15;403:123973. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment Research, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

We examined the riverine transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) based on their spatial-temporal distributions in water and sediments from the mainstream along the middle and lower Yangtze River. According to the fugacity fraction (ff) estimation, sediments performed as a secondary emission source of two-, three-, and four-ringed PAHs and as a sink for five- and six-ringed congeners, leading to higher ecological and human health risks especially towards the lower reaches. The higher PAH levels observed in the more developed delta and megacities were highly linked to economic parameters. This was further supported by the source apportionment performed using the principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) model, which showed major contributions of coal and coke combustions along with vehicle emissions. The spatial-temporal distribution revealed that water runoff was the major contribution to PAHs transport along the middle-lower Yangtze River, whereas a sharp decrease in sediment discharge due to the dam impoundment along the upper reaches would lead to an increase in the catchment retention effect of PAHs. Hence, the biogeochemical processes of PAHs and their impacts on the fragile ecosystems as a consequence of the further modification of the sedimentary system in rivers need to be fully explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123973DOI Listing
February 2021

An outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with a novel GII.8 sapovirus variant-transmitted by vomit in Shenzhen, China, 2019.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Dec 1;20(1):911. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Viral Diarrhea, NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 155 Changbai Rd, Chang-ping District, Beijing, 102206, China.

Background: Human Sapoviruses (SaVs) has been reported as one of the causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. An outbreak of SaVs affected 482 primary school students during spring activities from February 24 to March 11, 2019 in Shenzhen City, China. Our study was aimed at determining the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigating its origins, and making a clear identification of the SaVs genetic diversity.

Methods: Epidemiological investigation was conducted for this AGE outbreak. Stool samples were collected for laboratory tests of causative agents. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and conventional RT-PCR were used for detecting and genotyping of SaVs. The nearly complete genome of GII.8 SaV strains were amplified and sequenced by using several primer sets designed in this study. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the genome of GII.8 SaV strains.

Results: The single factor analysis showed that the students who were less than 1.5 m away from the vomitus in classroom or playgroundwere susceptible (P < 0.05). Seven of 11 fecal samples from patients were positive for GII.8 SaV genotype. In this study, we obtained the genome sequence of a SaV GII.8 strain Hu/SaV/2019008Shenzhen/2019 /CHN (SZ08) and comprehensively analyzed the genetic diversity. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the GII.8 strain SZ08 formed an independent branch and became a novel variant of GII.8 genotype. Strain SZ08 harbored 11 specific amino acid variations compared with cluster A-D in full-length VP1.

Conclusions: This study identified SaVs as the causative agents for the AGE outbreak. Strain Hu SZ08 was clustered as independent branch and there was no recombination occurred in this strain SZ08. Further, it might become the predominant strain in diarrhea cases in the near future. Constant surveillance is required to monitor the emerging variants which will improve our knowledge of the evolution of SaVs among humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05643-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706173PMC
December 2020

On-line attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR): a powerful tool for investigating the methyl cyclopentenone synthesis process.

Analyst 2020 Nov 1;145(21):6987-6991. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai, 201418, China.

On-line attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was used to gain a good understanding of the kinetics and mechanism for methyl cyclopentenone (MCP) synthesis from 2-methylfuran and formaldehyde in a four-step reaction. Combining in situ IR monitoring and a quantitative univariate model, the mechanisms for the main side reactions were discussed in depth. The presence and forming mechanism of the side product generated in step 1 (Mannich reaction) were reported for the first time. Off-line H NMR and GC-MS were used as reference tools to further clarify the structure of the side product. Results also show that an undesirable side reaction will take place if the reaction time for step 2 is longer than 3 h. Possible mechanisms for side reactions and optimized experimental conditions were suggested for the purpose of improving the selectivity of the main reaction to efficiently facilitate the yield of MCP. The present study demonstrates that on-line ATR-IR can be a powerful tool to gain insight into the process understanding of various chemical reactions, providing a solid theoretical foundation for highly efficient, large-scale synthesis of MCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an01327gDOI Listing
November 2020

Orsay Virus CP-δ Adopts a Novel β-Bracelet Structural Fold and Incorporates into Virions as a Head Fiber.

J Virol 2020 10 14;94(21). Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of BioSciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA

Fiber proteins are commonly found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic viruses, where they play important roles in mediating viral attachment and host cell entry. They typically form trimeric structures and are incorporated into virions via noncovalent interactions. Orsay virus, a small RNA virus which specifically infects the laboratory model nematode , encodes a fibrous protein δ that can be expressed as a free protein and as a capsid protein-δ (CP-δ) fusion protein. Free δ has previously been demonstrated to facilitate viral exit following intracellular expression; however, the biological significance and prevalence of CP-δ remained relatively unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Orsay CP-δ is covalently incorporated into infectious particles, the first example of any attached viral fibers known to date. The crystal structure of δ(1-101) (a deletion mutant containing the first 101 amino acid [aa] residues of δ) reveals a pentameric, 145-Å long fiber with an N-terminal coiled coil followed by multiple β-bracelet repeats. Electron micrographs of infectious virions depict particle-associated CP-δ fibers with dimensions similar to free δ. The δ proteins from two other nematode viruses, Le Blanc and Santeuil, which both specifically infect , were also found to form fibrous molecules. Recombinant Le Blanc δ was able to block Orsay virus infection in worm culture and vice versa, suggesting these two viruses likely compete for the same cell receptor(s). Thus, we propose that while CP-δ likely mediates host cell attachment for all three nematode viruses, additional downstream factor(s) ultimately determine the host specificity and range of each virus. Viruses often have extended fibers to mediate host cell recognition and entry, serving as promising targets for antiviral drug development. Unlike other known viral fibers, the δ proteins from the three recently discovered nematode viruses are incorporated into infectious particles as protruding fibers covalently linked to the capsid. Crystal structures of δ revealed novel pentameric folding repeats, which we term β-bracelets, in the intermediate shaft region. Based on sequence analysis, the β-bracelet motif of δ is conserved in all three nematode viruses and could account for ∼60% of the total length of the fiber. Our study indicated that δ plays important roles in cell attachment for this group of nematode viruses. In addition, the tightly knitted β-bracelet fold, which presumably allows δ to survive harsh environments in the worm gut, could be applicable to bioengineering applications given its potentially high stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01560-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565637PMC
October 2020

MicroRNA-138 promotes neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis by directly targeting DEK in Alzheimer's disease cell model.

BMC Neurosci 2020 07 31;21(1):33. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neuro-degenerative disease with a major manifestation of dementia. MicroRNAs were reported to regulate the transcript expression in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the roles of miR-138, a brain-enriched miRNA, in the AD cell model.

Methods: The targets of miRNA-138 was predicted by bioinformatic analysis. The expression levels of DEK at both mRNA and protein levels were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Luciferase assays were carried out to examine cell viabilities. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect cell apoptosis.

Results: Our results demonstrated that the expression levels of miR-138 were increased in AD model, and DEK was a target of miR-138. Overexpression of miR-138 in SH-SY5Y cells obviously down-regulated the expression of DEK in SH-SY5Y cells, resulting in the inactivation of AKT and increased expression levels of proapoptotic caspase-3. MiR-138 mediated-suppression of DEK increased the susceptibility of cell apoptosis.

Conclusions: MicroRNA-138 promotes cell apoptosis of SH-SY5Y by targeting DEK in SH-SY5Y AD cell model. The regulation of miR-138 may contribute to AD via down-regulation of the DEK/AKT pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12868-020-00579-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393818PMC
July 2020

Aberrant DNA Methylation of and in Stool Specimens as an Integrated Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer Early Detection.

Front Genet 2020 18;11:643. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Zhejiang University Kunshan Biotechnology Laboratory, Zhejiang University Kunshan Innovation Institute, Kunshan, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become the second leading cause of new cancer cases and the fifth of cancer deaths in China, and early detection is the most effective way to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. A number of methylated DNA biomarkers have been found to associate with CRC and precancerous lesions in stool samples, indicating stool methylated DNA biomarkers are potential tools for CRC early detection. In this study, approximately 5 g of stool specimen was collected from 230 subjects (124 in the training set and 106 in the validation set). Stool DNA was extracted and bisulfite-converted, followed by ColoDefense test, a multiplex qPCR assay, that simultaneously detects methylated (m and methylated (m). Youden index was employed to determine the cut-off value of ColoDefense test for stool specimens. In the training set, the optimized cut-off value of stool ColoDefense test was: m analyzed with 3/3 algorithm and mean m Ct values of <38, or m with 2/3 algorithm. Stool ColoDefense test achieved Youden indexes of 79.9 and 57.4% in detecting CRC and advanced adenomas (AA), respectively. Its sensitivities in the training set for AA and CRC were 66.7% (95% CI: 24.1-94.0%) and 89.1% (95% CI: 77.1-95.5%) with a 90.8% (95% CI: 80.3-96.2%) specificity, and AUC was 0.956 (95% CI: 0.924-0.988). In the validation set, its sensitivities for AA and CRC were 66.7% (95% CI: 24.1-94.0%) and 92.3% (95% CI: 78.0-98.0%) with a 93.2% (95% CI: 82.7-97.8%) specificity, and AUC was 0.977 (95% CI: 0.952-1.000). Positive detection rate of stool ColoDefense test has been found to be independent of age, gender, tumor location, and tumor size. In conclusion, stool ColoDefense test demonstrated high sensitivities and specificity for the detection of AA and CRC. Therefore, it has the potential to become a low-cost, convenient, and highly effective tool for CRC early detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314930PMC
June 2020

Feasibility of Plasma-Methylated for Early Detection of Gastric Cancer.

Cancer Control 2020 Apr-Jun;27(2):1073274820922559

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou Jiangsu, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer in China. More than 80% of GC are diagnosed at an advanced stage due to low uptake rate of invasive screening method. The performance of methylated test was evaluated in 236 plasma samples, including 92 patients with GC, 16 intestinal metaplasia patients, 26 gastric fundic gland polyp patients, 13 small adenoma patients, 39 hyperplastic polyp patients, and 50 control patients. The sensitivity of plasma methylated was compared to serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA242 results in 79 patients with GC. The sensitivities for detecting GC and gastric intestinal metaplasia by methylated test were 60.9% and 56.3% with a specificity of 86.0%. Methylated test had significantly higher positive detection rate for patients with GC than gastric fundic gland polyp, small adenoma, and hyperplastic polyp patients. In 79 patients with GC, the sensitivities of CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA242 for detecting GC were 22.8%, 16.5%, 12.7%, and 11.4%. In comparison, the sensitivity of methylated test for detecting GC was 58.2%. Plasma methylated test may become a valuable tool for the noninvasive detection of GC and precursor lesions and showed higher sensitivity than serum tumor markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073274820922559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218304PMC
January 2021

Performance Comparison Between Plasma and Stool Methylated Tests for Detecting Colorectal Cancer.

Front Genet 2020 16;11:324. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common type of malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. Plasma methylated test has been used clinically for CRC screening for several years, but the study about the performance comparison between plasma and stool has rarely been reported. In this study, 124 plasma samples, 100 stool samples, and 60 sets of plasma and paired stool samples were collected and tested by a methylated test in three PCR replicates. The results indicated methylated levels in stool samples were significant higher than those in plasma samples ( < 0.0001). When a plasma sample was called positive if 1 out of 3 PCR replicates was positive and a stool sample was called positive if 3 out of 3 PCR replicates were positive with a mean Cp value of less than 40.0, stool methylated test achieved similar sensitivity (83.3% vs 85.6%) and specificity (92.1% vs 90.1%) to those by plasma methylated test, and the overall concordance rate is 78.3%. However, stool methylated test showed 35.9 and 7.9% improvement in detecting advanced adenomas (AA) and stage I-II CRC in comparison to plasma methylated test. The AUC for plasma methylated and stool methylated in detecting CRC were 0.885 (95% CI: 0.832-0.938) and 0.935 (95% CI: 0.895-0.975), respectively. In conclusion, stool methylated test showed higher sensitivities for detection AA and early stage CRC compared with plasma methylated SEPT9 test, and stool methylated test may be a more suitable tool for early stage CRC screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176978PMC
April 2020

Cohesin SA1 and SA2 are RNA binding proteins that localize to RNA containing regions on DNA.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 06;48(10):5639-5655

Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Cohesin SA1 (STAG1) and SA2 (STAG2) are key components of the cohesin complex. Previous studies have highlighted the unique contributions by SA1 and SA2 to 3D chromatin organization, DNA replication fork progression, and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Recently, we discovered that cohesin SA1 and SA2 are DNA binding proteins. Given the recently discovered link between SA2 and RNA-mediated biological pathways, we investigated whether or not SA1 and SA2 directly bind to RNA using a combination of bulk biochemical assays and single-molecule techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the DNA tightrope assay. We discovered that both SA1 and SA2 bind to various RNA containing substrates, including ssRNA, dsRNA, RNA:DNA hybrids, and R-loops. Importantly, both SA1 and SA2 localize to regions on dsDNA that contain RNA. We directly compared the SA1/SA2 binding and R-loops sites extracted from Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and DNA-RNA Immunoprecipitation sequencing (DRIP-Seq) data sets, respectively. This analysis revealed that SA1 and SA2 binding sites overlap significantly with R-loops. The majority of R-loop-localized SA1 and SA2 are also sites where other subunits of the cohesin complex bind. These results provide a new direction for future investigation of the diverse biological functions of SA1 and SA2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261166PMC
June 2020

Differential kinase activity of ACVR1 G328V and R206H mutations with implications to possible TβRI cross-talk in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

Sci Rep 2020 04 9;10(1):6140. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Center for the Study of Systems Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 950 Atlantic Drive, NW, Atlanta, Georgia, 30332, United States.

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal pediatric brain cancer whose median survival time is under one year. The possible roles of the two most common DIPG associated cytoplasmic ACVR1 receptor kinase domain mutants, G328V and R206H, are reexamined in the context of new biochemical results regarding their intrinsic relative ATPase activities. At 37 °C, the G328V mutant displays a 1.8-fold increase in intrinsic kinase activity over wild-type, whereas the R206H mutant shows similar activity. The higher G328V mutant intrinsic kinase activity is consistent with the statistically significant longer overall survival times of DIPG patients harboring ACVR1 G328V tumors. Based on the potential cross-talk between ACVR1 and TβRI pathways and known and predicted off-targets of ACVR1 inhibitors, we further validated the inhibition effects of several TβRI inhibitors on ACVR1 wild-type and G328V mutant patient tumor derived DIPG cell lines at 20-50 µM doses. SU-DIPG-IV cells harboring the histone H3.1K27M and activating ACVR1 G328V mutations appeared to be less susceptible to TβRI inhibition than SF8628 cells harboring the H3.3K27M mutation and wild-type ACVR1. Thus, inhibition of hidden oncogenic signaling pathways in DIPG such as TβRI that are not limited to ACVR1 itself may provide alternative entry points for DIPG therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63061-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145857PMC
April 2020

Actively surveillance and appropriate patients placements' contact isolation dramatically decreased Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection and colonization in pediatric patients in China.

J Hosp Infect 2020 Mar 31. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Nosocomial Infection Control and the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: With the increasing use of carbapenems in clinic practice, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has also increased, thus posing a significant threat to human health.

Aim: To assess the effects of CRE colonization active screening and various CRE patient placements implemented in decreasing CRE infection risk.

Methods: CRE colonization screening and various CRE patient placements were performed across CRE high-risk departments (PICU, NICU, neonatal wards and hematology departments) between 2017 and 2018, respectively.

Finding: In 2018, more than 80% neonatal CRE positive patients were isolated using single room or same room isolation, and more than 50% non-neonatal patients were, with no cohort placement. The CRE nosocomial infection incidences decreased from 1.96% to 0.63% in NICU, and from 0.57% to 0.30% in neonatal wards (all P<0.05) while no significant changes were found in the other departments. The CRE colonization incidence at different length hospital stay (LOS) decreased at 8-14days and >14days LOS in CRE high-risk departments (all P<0.05). In addition, 62.5% clinical strains, 66.7% screening strains, and 74.1% nosocomial infection strains were belonged to CC17 complex group in neonatal isolates; while, 56.6%, 47.5% and 100% strains mentioned above were belonged to CC11 complex group in non-neonatal isolates respectively. The predominant carbapenemase gene was bla (98%) in neonatal and bla (70%) in non-neonatal CR-KP stains.

Conclusions: Active CRE colonization surveillance and CRE positive patient propriety placement may decrease the CRE infection risk. Neonatal and non-neonatal CR-KP isolates showed different CRE molecular characteristics, which could further benefit CRE infection precaution and antibiotic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.03.031DOI Listing
March 2020

Norovirus Outbreak Surveillance, China, 2016-2018.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 03;26(3):437-445

CaliciNet China, a network of provincial, county, and city laboratories coordinated by the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was launched in October 2016 to monitor the epidemiology and genotype distribution of norovirus outbreaks in China. During October 2016-September 2018, a total of 556 norovirus outbreaks were reported, and positive fecal samples from 470 (84.5%) outbreaks were genotyped. Most of these outbreaks were associated with person-to-person transmission (95.1%), occurred in childcare centers or schools (78.2%), and were reported during November-March of each year (63.5%). During the 2-year study period, 81.2% of all norovirus outbreaks were typed as GII.2[P16]. In China, most norovirus outbreaks are reported by childcare centers or schools; GII.2[P16] is the predominant genotype. Ongoing surveillance by CaliciNet China will provide information about the evolving norovirus genotype distribution and outbreak characteristics important for the development of effective interventions, including vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2603.191183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045832PMC
March 2020

Chinese medicine Di-Huang-Yi-Zhi protects PC12 cells from HO-induced apoptosis by regulating ROS-ASK1-JNK/p38 MAPK signaling.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Feb 14;20(1):54. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Science & Technology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Oxidative stress mediates the nerve injury during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protecting against oxidative stress damage is an important strategy to prevent and treat AD. Di-Huang-Yi-Zhi (DHYZ) is a Chinese medicine used for the treatment of AD, but its mechanism remains unknown. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of DHYZ on HO induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells.

Methods: PC12 cells were treated with HO and DHYZ. Cell proliferation was detected by Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cytotoxicity of HO was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Apoptosis were identified by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Caspase 3 activity was detected by commercial kit. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected by JC-1 staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was 2', 7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining. Protein expression and phosphorylation was identified by western blot.

Results: The results showed that DHYZ antagonized HO-mediated cytotoxicity and proliferation inhibition. DHYZ reduced ROS production, stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibit Caspase-3 activity and apoptosis induced by HO. In addition, DHYZ inhibited the phosphorylation of ASK1, JNK1/2/3 and p38 MAPK which were up-regulated by HO.

Conclusions: The present study suggested that DHYZ protected PC12 cells from HO-induced oxidative stress damage and was related to inhibition of ROS production and ASK1-JNK/p38 MAPK signaling. The present study provides experimental evidence for the application of DHYZ for the management of oxidative stress damage and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-2834-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076825PMC
February 2020

A novel plasma based early colorectal cancer screening assay base on methylated SDC2 and SFRP2.

Clin Chim Acta 2020 Apr 18;503:84-89. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Background: Methylated SFRP2 was previously reported as a non-invasive biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection with a relatively low sensitivity for early stage CRC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new plasma based CRC screening assay, SpecColon test, which tested methylated SFRP2 and SDC2 simultaneously in a single qPCR reaction, in detecting CRC and advanced adenomas (AA).

Method: One milliliter plasma of 122 CRC patients, 12 AA patients, 93 patients with benign polyps, and 91 normal individuals were collected from the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, and all samples were examined by SpecColon test.

Results: The sensitivities for detecting AA and CRC by methylated SFRP2 alone were 50.0% (95% CI: 22.2-77.7%) and 63.1% (95% CI: 53.9-71.5%) with a specificity of 90.1% (95% CI: 81.6-95.1%). The sensitivities by methylated SDC2 alone were 33.3% (95% CI: 11.3-64.6%) and 56.6% (95% CI: 47.3-65.4%) with a specificity of 95.6% (95% CI: 88.5-98.6%). However, when methylated SFRP2 and methylated SDC2 were combined, the sensitivities for AA and CRC detection improved to 58.3% (95% CI: 28.6-83.5%) and 76.2% (95% CI: 67.5-83.3%) with a specificity of 87.9% (95% CI: 79.0-93.5%). The positive detection rates of benign polyp group and normal control group showed no significant difference (p > 0.01), whereas AA and CRC groups had significantly higher positive detection rates than normal individual group (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The sensitivities for AA and early stage CRC by combined test of methylated SFRP2 and methylated SDC2, the so called SpecColon test, improved upon those by either biomarker alone without significant impact on the specificity. It has the potential to become a powerful, convenient and highly effective screening tool for early CRC screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.01.010DOI Listing
April 2020
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