Publications by authors named "Mia Hashibe"

201 Publications

Nonmedical Cannabis Use: Patterns and Correlates of Use, Exposure, and Harm, and Cancer Risk.

J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2021 Nov;2021(58):53-67

Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Cannabis has certain health benefits, but some people may experience harms from use. Co-use of tobacco and cannabis is common. Smoke from cannabis contains many of the same carcinogens and toxicants as the smoke from tobacco, raising concerns that cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for cancer. With growing access to and acceptance of medical and nonmedical cannabis, there is an urgent need to understand the risks and benefits of the current modes of cannabis use and how cannabis may be associated with cancer risk. This monograph summarizes a session from a National Cancer Institute Symposium on nonmedical cannabis use and cancer risk. We had 3 objectives: describe the relation between nonmedical cannabis use and cancer risk, delineate patterns and correlates of cannabis co-use with tobacco, and document potentially harmful inhalational exposure resulting from smoked and vaped cannabis. Methodological limitations in the literature and future research recommendations are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncimonographs/lgab006DOI Listing
November 2021

Association of Treatment Modality, Functional Outcomes, and Baseline Characteristics With Treatment-Related Regret Among Men With Localized Prostate Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Importance: Treatment-related regret is an integrative, patient-centered measure that accounts for morbidity, oncologic outcomes, and anxiety associated with prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Objective: To assess the association between treatment approach, functional outcomes, and patient expectations and treatment-related regret among patients with localized prostate cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This population-based, prospective cohort study used 5 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-based registries in the Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation cohort. Participants included men with clinically localized prostate cancer from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed from August 2, 2020, to March 1, 2021.

Exposures: Prostate cancer treatments included surgery, radiotherapy, and active surveillance.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Patient-reported treatment-related regret using validated metrics. Regression models were adjusted for demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment approach, and patient-reported functional outcomes.

Results: Among the 2072 men included in the analysis (median age, 64 [IQR, 59-69] years), treatment-related regret at 5 years after diagnosis was reported in 183 patients (16%) undergoing surgery, 76 (11%) undergoing radiotherapy, and 20 (7%) undergoing active surveillance. Compared with active surveillance and adjusting for baseline differences, active treatment was associated with an increased likelihood of regret for those undergoing surgery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.40 [95% CI, 1.44-4.01]) but not radiotherapy (aOR, 1.53 [95% CI, 0.88-2.66]). When mediation by patient-reported functional outcomes was considered, treatment modality was not independently associated with regret. Sexual dysfunction, but not other patient-reported functional outcomes, was significantly associated with regret (aOR for change in sexual function from baseline, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.52-0.81]). Subjective patient-perceived treatment efficacy (aOR, 5.40 [95% CI, 2.15-13.56]) and adverse effects (aOR, 5.83 [95% CI, 3.97-8.58]), compared with patient expectations before treatment, were associated with treatment-related regret. Other patient characteristics at the time of treatment decision-making, including participatory decision-making tool scores (aOR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.69-0.92]), social support (aOR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), and age (aOR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.62-0.97]), were significantly associated with regret. Results were comparable when assessing regret at 3 years rather than 5 years.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that more than 1 in 10 patients with localized prostate cancer experience treatment-related regret. The rates of regret appear to differ between treatment approaches in a manner that is mediated by functional outcomes and patient expectations. Treatment preparedness that focuses on expectations and treatment toxicity and is delivered in the context of shared decision-making should be the subject of future research to examine whether it can reduce regret.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.5160DOI Listing
November 2021

Age-Related Disease Risks in Younger versus Older B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Survivors.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: Younger cancer survivors may develop age-related diseases due to the cancer treatment that they undergo. The aim of this population-based study is to estimate incidence of age-related diseases besides cardiovascular disease among younger versus older B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) survivors compared with their respective general population cohorts.

Methods: Survivors of B-NHL were diagnosed between 1997 and 2015 from the Utah Cancer Registry. Using the Utah Population Database, up to 5 cancer-free individuals from the general population were matched with a B-NHL survivor on sex, birth year, and state of birth. Hazard ratios (HR) for age-related disease outcomes, which were identified from medical records and statewide health care facility data, were estimated using Cox Proportional Hazards models for B-NHL survivors diagnosed at <65 years versus ≥65 years at least 5 years since B-NHL diagnosis.

Results: Comparing 2,129 B-NHL survivors with 8,969 individuals from the general population, younger B-NHL survivors had higher relative risks of acute renal failure [HR, 2.24; 99% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-3.39; = 0.017), pneumonia (HR, 2.42; 99% CI, 1.68-3.49; = 0.055), and nutritional deficiencies (HR, 2.08; 99% CI, 1.48-2.92; = 0.051) ≥5 years after cancer diagnosis.

Conclusion: Younger B-NHL survivors had higher relative risks of acute renal failure, pneumonia, and nutritional deficiencies than older B-NHL survivors compared with their respective general population cohorts, ≥5 years after cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0190DOI Listing
November 2021

Infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and risk of subsites within the oral cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Dec 9;75:102020. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Stony Brook Cancer Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between high-risk genotypes of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and cancer of different subsites of the oral cavity.

Material And Methods: A pooled analysis of five studies included on the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium was conducted. HPV 16 and HPV 18 were considered. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for HPV and each oral cavity subsites were simultaneously estimated using multinomial logistic regression models.

Results: The analysis included 1157 cases and 3272 controls. This study showed a slightly higher prevalence of HPV infection among oral cancer cases than controls. In particular, an increased risk of other and not otherwise specified (NOS) sites within the oral cavity, oral tongue, palate and floor of mouth cancer was observed for overall HPV16 positivity (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.72; OR = 1.97, 95 % CI: 1.36-2.85; OR = 2.48, 95 % CI: 1.50-4.11; OR = 2.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-6.95, respectively). In particular, HPV16E7 was related to cancer of floor of mouth, oral cavity NOS and palate (OR = 2.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-6.95; OR = 3.32, 95 % CI:1.53-7.19; OR = 3.34, 95 % CI:1.38-8.06). Results were inconsistent for HPV18 due to low prevalence of infection.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that HPV16 infection may increase the risk of developing floor of mouth, gum, tongue, and palate cancers.

Clinical Relevance: Subjects with HPV infection have a higher risk of cancer from all sites of the oral cavity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2021.102020DOI Listing
December 2021

Evaluation of Family Characteristics and Multiple Hospitalizations at the End of Life: Evidence from the Utah Population Database.

J Palliat Med 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

College of Nursing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Scant research has examined the relationship between family characteristics and end-of-life (EOL) outcomes despite the importance of family at the EOL. This study examined factors associated with the size and composition of family relationships on multiple EOL hospitalizations. Retrospective analysis of the Utah Population Database, a statewide population database using linked administrative records. We identified adults who died of natural causes in Utah, United States ( = 216,913) between 1998 and 2016 and identified adult first-degree family members ( = 743,874; spouses = 13.2%; parents = 3.6%; children = 51.7%; siblings = 31.5%). We compared demographic, socioeconomic, and death characteristics of decedents with and without first-degree family. Using logistic regression models adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, comorbidity, and causes of death, we examined the association of first-degree family size and composition, on multiple hospitalizations in the last six months of life. Among decedents without documented first-degree family members in Utah (16.0%), 57.7% were female and 7 in 10 were older than 70 years. Nonmarried (aOR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.88-0.92) decedents and decedents with children (aOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94-0.99) were less likely to have multiple EOL hospitalizations. Family size was not associated with multiple EOL hospitalizations. First-degree family characteristics vary at the EOL. EOL care utilization may be influenced by family characteristics-in particular, presence of a spouse. Future studies should explore how the quality of family networks, as well as extended family, impacts other EOL characteristics such as hospice and palliative care use to better understand the EOL care experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2021.0071DOI Listing
August 2021

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Knowledge, Barriers, and Recommendations Among Healthcare Provider Groups in the Western United States.

J Cancer Educ 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.

This study compared human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination occurrences on the same day as provider recommendations at clinics in the Western United States stratified by healthcare provider groups. In addition, the relationships between provider groups' perceived challenges associated with HPV vaccination, HPV vaccination knowledge, HPV recommendation practices, and same-day HPV vaccinations and recommendations are described. Eligible participants included pediatric healthcare providers and staff with influence on patient/parental-level decisions regarding HPV vaccination. Participants filled out a 40-question survey. Results for study participants (N = 99) showed providers reported a higher number of challenges limiting HPV vaccination, higher HPV vaccination knowledge, and more favorable HPV vaccination recommendation practices compared to other healthcare team members (OTM) suggesting providers may have a better overall understanding of the HPV vaccination climate than OTMs. Clinics should examine OTMs' training, expectations, and opportunities to increase the frequency and strength of HPV vaccination recommendations to adolescent patients and parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-021-02047-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between pelvic nodal radiotherapy and patient-reported functional outcomes through 5 years among men undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: An assessment of the comparative effectiveness analysis of surgery and radiation (CEASAR) cohort.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Center, Houston, TX.

Background: The role of pelvic irradiation in men receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer is unclear, in part due to a lack of data on patient-reported outcomes. We sought to compare functional outcomes for men receiving prostate and pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy, longitudinally over 5 years.

Materials And Methods: We performed a population-based, prospective cohort study of men with clinically-localized prostate cancer undergoing EBRT. We examined the effect of prostate and pelvic (n = 102) versus prostate-only (n = 485) radiotherapy on patient-reported disease-specific (using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite[EPIC]-26) and general health-related (using the SF-36) function, over 5 years. Regression models were adjusted for outcome-specific baseline function, clinicopathologic characteristics, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).

Results: 587 men (median [quartiles] age 69 [64-73] years) met inclusion criteria and completed ≥1 post-treatment survey. More men treated with prostate and pelvic radiotherapy had high-risk disease (58% vs. 18%, P < 0.01) and received ADT (75% vs. 41%, P < 0.01). These men reported worse sexual (6 months-5 years), hormonal (at 6 months), and physical (6 months-5 years) function. Accounting for baseline function, patient and tumor characteristics, and use of ADT, pelvic irradiation was not associated with statistically or clinically significant differences in bowel function, urinary incontinence, irritative voiding symptoms or sexual function through 5-years (all P > 0.05). Marginally clinically important differences were noted in hormonal function at 3-years (adjusted mean difference 4.7, 95% confidence interval [1.2-8.3]; minimally clinically important difference (MCID) 4 to 6) and 5-years (4.2, [0.4-8.0]) following treatment. After adjustment, there was a transient statistically significant, but not clinically important, difference in emotional well-being at 6 months (3.0, [0.19-5.8]; MCID 6) that resolved by 1 year and no differences in physical functioning or energy and fatigue.

Conclusion: This prospective, population-based cohort study of men with localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT, showed no clinically important differences in disease-specific or general health-related quality of life with the addition of pelvic irradiation to prostate radiotherapy, supporting the use of pelvic radiotherapy when it may be of clinical benefit, such as men with increased risk of nodal involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.04.035DOI Listing
June 2021

Understanding the Prevalence of Prediabetes and Diabetes in Patients With Cancer in Clinical Practice: A Real-World Cohort Study.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Mar 10;19(6):709-718. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

2Huntsman Cancer Institute, and.

Background: This study aimed to understand the prevalence of prediabetes (preDM) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with cancer overall and by tumor site, cancer treatment, and time point in the cancer continuum.

Methods: This cohort study was conducted at Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah. Patients with a first primary invasive cancer enrolled in the Total Cancer Care protocol between July 2016 and July 2018 were eligible. Prevalence of preDM and DM was based on ICD code, laboratory tests for hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, nonfasting blood glucose, or insulin prescription.

Results: The final cohort comprised 3,512 patients with cancer, with a mean age of 57.8 years at cancer diagnosis. Of all patients, 49.1% (n=1,724) were female. At cancer diagnosis, the prevalence of preDM and DM was 6.0% (95% CI, 5.3%-6.8%) and 12.2% (95% CI, 11.2%-13.3%), respectively. One year after diagnosis the prevalence was 16.6% (95% CI, 15.4%-17.9%) and 25.0% (95% CI, 23.6%-26.4%), respectively. At the end of the observation period, the prevalence of preDM and DM was 21.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-22.6%) and 32.6% (95% CI, 31.1%-34.2%), respectively. Patients with myeloma (39.2%; 95% CI, 32.6%-46.2%) had the highest prevalence of preDM, and those with pancreatic cancer had the highest prevalence of DM (65.1%; 95% CI, 57.0%-72.3%). Patients who underwent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy had a higher prevalence of preDM and DM compared with those who did not undergo these therapies.

Conclusions: Every second patient with cancer experiences preDM or DM. It is essential to foster interprofessional collaboration and to develop evidence-based practice guidelines. A better understanding of the impact of cancer treatment on the development of preDM and DM remains critical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7653DOI Listing
March 2021

Sexual function outcomes of radiation and androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer in men with good baseline function.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, are common among men undergoing treatment for localized prostate cancer. Both local treatments and systemic androgen deprivation therapy may contribute to these outcomes and are differentially indicated based on disease characteristics. We sought to compare sexual function through 5 years after radiation treatment with and without androgen deprivation therapy in men with good baseline sexual function to better understand long-term effects in this understudied subset of patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively assembled population-based cohort of men who underwent radiation with and without androgen deprivation therapy for intermediate or high-risk localized prostate cancer. Sexual function was assessed longitudinally over 5 years. Men with erections sufficient for intercourse at baseline were selected for inclusion.

Results: Out of 167 patients included, 73 underwent radiation alone and 94 received androgen deprivation therapy plus radiation (51 with intermediate and 43 with high-risk disease). Androgen deprivation therapy use was associated with worse sexual function through 1 year regardless of disease risk. This difference was no longer statistically significant at 3 years in the intermediate-risk group. Compared to radiation alone, androgen deprivation therapy in high-risk disease was associated with worse sexual function at 3 years (effect: -20.3 points, CI [-31.8, -8.8], p < 0.001) but not at 5 years (effect: -3.4, CI [-17.2, 10.5], p = 0.63).

Conclusions: Androgen deprivation therapy plus radiation is associated with worse sexual function through 3-years follow-up in men with high-risk prostate cancer compared to radiation alone. The addition of androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of intermediate-risk disease does not appear to result in worse sexual function at 3 or 5-year follow-up compared to radiation alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00405-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Cardiovascular disease risks in younger versus older adult B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors.

Cancer Med 2021 06 12;10(12):4117-4126. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Public Health, Department of Family & Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Introduction: Young cancer survivors may be at increased risk of early-onset chronic health conditions. The aim of this population-based study is to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among younger versus older B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) survivors compared with their respective general population cohorts.

Methods: B-NHL survivors diagnosed from 1997 to 2015 in the Utah Cancer Registry were matched with up to five cancer-free individuals on birth year, sex, and birth state, using the statewide Utah Population Database. Electronic medical records and statewide health care facility data were used to identify disease outcomes ≥5 years after cancer diagnosis. Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for B-NHL survivors diagnosed at <65 years and ≥65 years old.

Results: Younger B-NHL survivors had higher relative risks than older cancer survivors of chronic rheumatic disease of the heart valves (HR = 4.14, 99% CI = 2.17-7.89; P value = 0.004); peri-, endo-, and myocarditis (HR = 2.43, 99% CI = 1.38-4.28; P value = 0.016); diseases of the arteries (HR = 1.63, 99% CI = 1.21-2.21; P value = 0.044); and hypotension (HR = 2.44, 99% CI = 1.58-3.75; P value = 0.048). B-NHL survivors of both age groups had elevated relative risks of heart disease overall and congestive heart failure.

Conclusion: Younger B-NHL survivors had higher risks than older B-NHL survivors of specific cardiovascular diseases compared to their respective general population cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209610PMC
June 2021

Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors in a Population-Based Cohort.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Apr 15;5(2):pkab016. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Division of Public Health, Department of Family & Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among Hispanic women. The aim of our study was to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) breast cancer survivors compared with their respective general population cohorts.

Methods: Cohorts of 17 469 breast cancer survivors (1774 Hispanic and 15 695 NHW) in the Utah Cancer Registry diagnosed between 1997 and 2016, and 65 866 women (6209 Hispanic and 59 657 NHW) from the general population in the Utah Population Database were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD.

Results: The risk of diseases of the circulatory system was higher in Hispanic than NHW breast cancer survivors 1-5 years after cancer diagnosis, in comparison with their respective general population cohorts (HR = 1.94, 99% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49 to 2.53; H = 1.38, 99% CI = 1.33 to 1.43; 2-sided = .01, respectively). Increased risks were observed for both Hispanic and NHW breast cancer survivors for diseases of the heart and the veins and lymphatics, compared with the general population cohorts. More than 5 years after cancer diagnosis, elevated risk of diseases of the veins and lymphatics persisted in both ethnicities. The CVD risk due to chemotherapy and hormone therapy was higher in Hispanic than NHW breast cancer survivors but did not differ for distant stage, higher baseline comorbidities, or baseline smoking.

Conclusions: We observed a risk difference for diseases of the circulatory system between Hispanic and NHW breast cancer survivors compared with their respective general population cohorts but only within the first 5 years of cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052955PMC
April 2021

Occupational socioeconomic risk associations for head and neck cancer in Europe and South America: individual participant data analysis of pooled case-control studies within the INHANCE Consortium.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 08 23;75(8):779-787. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Background: The association between socioeconomic disadvantage (low education and/or income) and head and neck cancer is well established, with smoking and alcohol consumption explaining up to three-quarters of the risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of and explanations for head and neck cancer risk associated with occupational socioeconomic prestige (a perceptual measure of psychosocial status), occupational socioeconomic position and manual-work experience, and to assess the potential explanatory role of occupational exposures.

Methods: Pooled analysis included 5818 patients with head and neck cancer (and 7326 control participants) from five studies in Europe and South America. Lifetime job histories were coded to: (1) occupational social prestige-Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS); (2) occupational socioeconomic position-International Socio-Economic Index (ISEI); and (3) manual/non-manual jobs.

Results: For the longest held job, adjusting for smoking, alcohol and nature of occupation, increased head and neck cancer risk estimates were observed for low SIOPS OR=1.88 (95% CI: 1.64 to 2.17), low ISEI OR=1.74 (95% CI: 1.51 to 1.99) and manual occupations OR=1.49 (95% CI: 1.35 to 1.64). Following mutual adjustment by socioeconomic exposures, risk associated with low SIOPS remained OR=1.59 (95% CI: 1.30 to 1.94).

Conclusions: These findings indicate that low occupational socioeconomic prestige, position and manual work are associated with head and neck cancer, and such risks are only partly explained by smoking, alcohol and occupational exposures. Perceptual occupational psychosocial status (SIOPS) appears to be the strongest socioeconomic factor, relative to socioeconomic position and manual/non-manual work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2020-214913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292575PMC
August 2021

Five-year outcomes from a prospective comparative effectiveness study evaluating external-beam radiotherapy with or without low-dose-rate brachytherapy boost for localized prostate cancer.

Cancer 2021 Jun 17;127(11):1912-1925. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: To inform patients who are in the process of selecting prostate cancer treatment, the authors compared disease-specific function after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone versus EBRT plus a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost (EBRT-LDR).

Methods: For this prospective study, men who had localized prostate cancer in 2011 and 2012 were enrolled. Assessments at baseline, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 years included the patient-reported Expanded Prostate Index Composite, the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey, and treatment-related regret. Regression models were adjusted for baseline function and for patient and treatment characteristics. The minimum clinically important difference in scores on the Expanded Prostate Index Composite 26-item instrument was from 5 to 7 for urinary irritation and from 4 to 6 for bowel function.

Results: Six-hundred ninety-five men met inclusion criteria and received either EBRT (n = 583) or EBRT-LDR (n = 112). Patients in the EBRT-LDR group were younger (median age, 66 years [interquartile range [IQR], 60-71 years] vs 69 years [IQR, 64-74 years]; P < .001), were less likely to receive pelvic radiotherapy (10% vs 18%; P = .040), and had higher baseline 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey physical function scores (median score, 95 [IQR, 86-100] vs 90 [IQR, 70-100]; P < .001). Over a 3-year period, compared with EBRT, EBRT-LDR was associated with worse urinary irritative scores (adjusted mean difference at 3 years, -5.4; 95% CI, -9.3, -1.6) and bowel function scores (-4.1; 95% CI, -7.6, -0.5). The differences were no longer clinically meaningful at 5 years (difference in urinary irritative scores: -4.5; 95% CI, -8.4, -0.5; difference in bowel function scores: -2.1; 95% CI, -5.7, -1.4). However, men who received EBRT-LDR were more likely to report moderate or big problems with urinary function bother (adjusted odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5-8.2) and frequent urination (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6) through 5 years. There were no differences in survival or treatment-related regret between treatment groups.

Conclusions: Compared with EBRT alone, EBRT-LDR was associated with clinically meaningful worse urinary irritative and bowel function over 3 years after treatment and more urinary bother at 5 years.

Lay Summary: In men with prostate cancer who received external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without a brachytherapy boost (EBRT-LDR), EBRT-LDR was associated with clinically worse urinary irritation and bowel function through 3 years but resolved after 5 years. Men who received EBRT-LDR continued to report moderate-to-big problems with urinary function bother and frequent urination through 5 years. There was no difference in treatment-related regret or survival between patients who received EBRT and those who received EBRT-LDR. These intermediate-term estimates of function may facilitate counseling for men who are selecting treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33388DOI Listing
June 2021

Patient-Reported Financial Toxicity Associated with Contemporary Treatment for Localized Prostate Cancer.

J Urol 2021 03 30;205(3):761-768. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: Contemporary treatment modalities for localized prostate cancer provide comparable overall and cancer-specific survival. However, the degree of financial burden imposed by treatment, the factors contributing to that burden, and how different treatments compare with regard to financial toxicity remain poorly understood.

Materials And Methods: The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (CEASAR) study enrolled men with localized prostate cancer from 2011 to 2012. Questionnaires were collected at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after enrollment. Differences in patient-reported financial burden were compared between active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, and external beam radiotherapy using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Among 2,121 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 15% reported large or very large burden of treatment costs within 6 months, declining to 3% by year 5. When controlling for age, education, income and other covariates, external beam radiotherapy was associated with greater financial burden than active surveillance and radical prostatectomy at 1 year (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1 and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3, respectively) and 3 years (OR 3.1 95% CI 1.1-8.8 and OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7, respectively). Radical prostatectomy and active surveillance had similar rates of financial burden at all time points. Age, race, education, and D'Amico risk group were associated with financial burden.

Conclusions: External beam radiotherapy was associated with the highest financial burden, even when controlling for age, education and income. Prospective studies that directly measure out-of-pocket and indirect costs and account more thoroughly for baseline socioeconomic differences are warranted in order to identify those most at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001423DOI Listing
March 2021

Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and lung cancer risk: A case-control study in Los Angeles County.

Cancer Epidemiol 2020 12 8;69:101824. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Although there is some evidence of positive associations between both the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with cancer risk, the relationships with lung cancer risk remain largely unexplored. We evaluated the associations between GI and GL with lung cancer.

Methods: The analyses were performed using data from a population-based case-control study recruited between 1999 and 2004 in Los Angeles County. Dietary factors were collected from 593 incident lung cancer cases and 1026 controls using a modified food frequency questionnaire. GI and GL were estimated using a food composition table. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: Dietary GI was positively associated with lung cancer (OR for upper vs. lower tertile = 1.62; 95 % CI: 1.17, 2.25). For histologic subtypes, positive associations were observed between GI and adenocarcinoma (OR for upper vs. lower tertile = 1.82; 95 % CI: 1.22, 2.70) and small cell carcinoma (OR for upper vs. lower tertile = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.25, 5.74). No clear association between GL and lung cancer was observed.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that high dietary GI was associated with increased lung cancer risk, and the positive associations were observed for both lung adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Replication in an independent dataset is merited for a broader interpretation of our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734880PMC
December 2020

Alcohol drinking and head and neck cancer risk: the joint effect of intensity and duration.

Br J Cancer 2020 10 24;123(9):1456-1463. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, Havana, Cuba.

Background: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk.

Methods: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking.

Results: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx).

Conclusions: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01031-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592048PMC
October 2020

Radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: Effect of timing of postprostatectomy radiation on functional outcomes.

Urol Oncol 2020 12 29;38(12):930.e23-930.e32. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. Electronic address:

Introduction And Objective: The timing of radiotherapy (RT) after prostatectomy is controversial, and its effect on sexual, urinary, and bowel function is unknown. This study seeks to compare patient-reported functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) and postprostatectomy radiation as well as elucidate the timing of radiation to allow optimal recovery of function.

Methods: The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (CEASAR) study is a prospective, population-based, observational study of men with localized prostate cancer. Patient-reported sexual, urinary, and bowel functional outcomes were measured using the 26-item Expanded Prostate Index Composite at baseline and at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after enrollment. Functional outcomes were compared among men undergoing RP alone, post-RP adjuvant radiation (RP + aRT), and post-RP salvage radiation (RP + sRT) using multivariable models controlling for baseline clinical, demographic, and functional characteristics.

Results: Among 1,482 CEASAR participants initially treated with RP for clinically localized prostate cancer, 11.5% (N = 170) received adjuvant (aRT, N = 57) or salvage (sRT, N = 113) radiation. Men who received post-RP RT had worse scores in all domains (sexual function [-9.0, 95% confidence interval {-14.5, -3.6}, P < 0.001], incontinence [-8.8, {-14.0, -3.6}, P < 0.001], irritative voiding [-5.9, {-9.0, -2.8}, P < 0.001], bowel irritative [-3.5, {-5.8, -1.2}, P = 0.002], and hormonal function [-4.5, {-7.2, -1.7}, P = 0.001]) compared to RP alone at 5 years of follow-up. Compared to men treated with RP alone in an adjusted linear model, sRT was associated with significantly worse scores in all functional domains. aRT was associated with significantly worse incontinence, urinary irritation, and hormonal function domain scores compared to RP alone at 5 years of follow-up. On multivariable modeling, RT administered approximately 24 months after RP was associated with the smallest decline in sexual domain score, with an adjusted mean decrease of 8.85 points (95% confidence interval [-19.8, 2.1]) from post-RP, pre-RT baseline.

Conclusions: In men with localized prostate cancer, post-RP RT was associated with significantly worse sexual, urinary, and bowel function domain scores at 5 years compared to RP alone. Radiation delayed for approximately 24 months after RP may be optimal for preserving erectile function compared to radiation administered closer to the time of RP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.06.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095316PMC
December 2020

Lessons learned from the INHANCE consortium: An overview of recent results on head and neck cancer.

Oral Dis 2021 Jan 16;27(1):73-93. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Branch of Medical Statistics, Biometry, and Epidemiology "G. A. Maccacaro", Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Objective: To summarize the latest evidence on head and neck cancer epidemiology from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium.

Subjects And Methods: INHANCE was established in 2004 to elucidate the etiology of head and neck cancer through pooled analyses of individual-level data on a large scale. We summarize results from recent INHANCE-based publications updating our 2015 overview.

Results: Seventeen papers were published between 2015 and May 2020. These studies further define the nature of risks associated with tobacco and alcohol, and occupational exposures on head and neck cancer. The beneficial effects on incidence of head and neck cancer were identified for good oral health, endogenous and exogenous hormonal factors, and selected aspects of diet related to fruit and vegetables. INHANCE has begun to develop risk prediction models and to pool follow-up data on their studies, finding that ~30% of cases had cancer recurrence and 9% second primary cancers, with overall- and disease-specific 5-year-survival of 51% and 57%, respectively.

Conclusions: The number and importance of INHANCE scientific findings provides further evidence of the advantages of large-scale internationally collaborative projects and will support the development of prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7752834PMC
January 2021

Assessing the Quality of Surgical Care for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Results from the CEASAR Study.

J Urol 2020 12 22;204(6):1236-1241. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: Prior studies suggest that nationally endorsed quality measures for prostate cancer care are not linked closely with outcomes. Using a prospective, population based cohort we measured clinically relevant variation in structure, process and outcome measures in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

Materials And Methods: The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (CEASAR) Study enrolled men with clinically localized prostate cancer diagnosed from 2011 to 2012 with 1,069 meeting the final inclusion criteria. Quality of life was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26) and clinical data by chart review. Six quality measures were assessed, including pelvic lymphadenectomy with risk of lymph node involvement 2% or greater, appropriate nerve sparing, negative surgical margins, urinary and sexual function, treatment by high volume surgeon, and 30-day and 1-year complications. Receipt of high quality care was compared across categories of race, age, surgeon volume and surgical approach via multivariable analysis.

Results: There were no significant differences in quality across race, age or surgeon volume strata, except for worse urinary incontinence in Black men. However, robotic surgery patients experienced fewer complications (3% vs 9.3% short-term and 11% vs 16% long-term), were more likely to be treated by a high volume surgeon (47% vs 25%) and demonstrated better sexual function.

Conclusions: In this cohort we did not identify meaningful variation in quality of care across racial groups, age groups and surgeon volume strata, suggesting that men are receiving comparable quality of care across these strata. However, we did find variation between open and robotic surgery with fewer complications, improved sexual function and increased use of high volume surgeons in the robotic group, possibly reflecting differences in quality between approaches, differences in practice patterns and/or biases in patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001198DOI Listing
December 2020

Higher Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Among Rural-Dwelling Versus Urban-Dwelling Adults and Children: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention.

J Community Health 2021 02;46(1):147-155

Huntsman Cancer Institute, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is a primary risk factor for the development of melanoma. However, adults and adolescents often do not engage in preventive behaviors to reduce UVR exposure. Rural residents may be at higher risk for melanoma due to lower use of sun protection strategies, which increases their overall UVR exposure compared to those who live in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in UVR exposure between rural and urban residents in a geographic area with high incidence of melanoma. Children (aged 8-17 years) and adults (≥ 18 years) from rural and urban areas of Utah were asked to wear a UVR monitoring device for 14 days. The sample included 97 children and 97 adults. Data was collected from June to October 2018. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests and quantile regression were used to compare UVR exposure levels between urban and rural participants, separately for adults and children. For adults, rural residence significantly increased total UVR dose ( β: 24.6; 95% CI 3.75, 42.74) and the UVR dose during peak UVR hours among participants with the highest UVR doses (β: 16.3; 95% CI 17.4, 24.63). Rural children exhibited significantly higher UVR doses for peak UVR hours for the entire study period (β: 4.14; 95% CI 0.83, 7.46) and on weekdays (β: 0.39; 95% CI 0.05, 0.73). The findings from this study indicate that rural residents may receive higher levels of UVR exposure than urban residents, and that prevention efforts could be tailored to address these geographical differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00860-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736287PMC
February 2021

Vitamin D, melanoma risk, and tumor thickness in PLCO cancer screening trial patients.

JAAPA 2020 Jun;33(6):35-41

At the University of Utah Health Sciences Center in Salt Lake City, Mark A. Hyde is an assistant professor of dermatology at the Huntsman Cancer Institute and an assistant professor in the department of community and public health at Utah Valley University, Douglas Grossman is a professor in the Department of Dermatology and codirector of the melanoma and cutaneous oncology program at the Huntsman Cancer Institute, Yelena P. Wu is an assistant professor in the Department of Dermatology, Saundra Buys is a professor in the Department of Medicine and medical director of the High Risk Breast Cancer Clinic at the Huntsman Cancer Institute, Lisa H. Gren is an associate professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, and Mia Hashibe is an associate professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine and at the Huntsman Cancer Institute. This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the National Institutes of Health (K07CA196985). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or NCI. The authors have disclosed no other potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Objective: The incidence of melanoma is increasing. Other than limiting UV exposure, few factors prevent or reduce the risk of melanoma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial.

Methods: A secondary data analysis was performed on PLCO data. More than 1,300 participants developed melanoma.

Results: Melanoma risk may be increased among men within the highest quartile of vitamin D intake (HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.99, 1.61). Women in the highest quartile of vitamin D intake had a decreased risk of invasive melanoma (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41, 0.96). Higher education and being white corresponded with deeper tumors (P < .001).

Conclusion: High reported vitamin D intake resulted in an increased risk of melanoma among men. Vitamin D intake yielded a protective effect against invasive melanoma in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000662388.18867.42DOI Listing
June 2020

Genitourinary disease risks among ovarian cancer survivors in a population-based cohort study.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 05 29;157(2):529-535. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, and Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: While genitourinary complications during treatment for ovarian cancer are well-known, long-term adverse outcomes have not been well characterized. The number of ovarian cancer survivors has been increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term adverse genitourinary outcomes in a population-based cohort.

Methods: We identified a cohort of 1270 ovarian cancer survivors diagnosed between 1996 and 2012 from the Utah Cancer Registry, and 5286 cancer-free women were matched on birth year and state from the Utah Population Database. Genitourinary disease diagnoses were identified through ICD-9 codes from electronic medical records and statewide healthcare facilities data. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for genitourinary outcomes at 1 to <5 years and 5+ years after ovarian cancer diagnosis.

Results: Ovarian cancer survivors had increased risks for urinary system disorders (HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 2.12-3.01) and genital organ disorders (HR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.57-2.27) between 1 and <5 years after cancer diagnosis compared to the general population cohort. Increased risks were observed for acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease, calculus of kidney, hydronephrosis, pelvic peritoneal adhesions, and pelvic organ inflammatory conditions. Increased risks of several of these diseases were observed 5+ years after cancer diagnosis.

Conclusions: Ovarian cancer survivors experience increased risks of various genitourinary diseases compared to women in the general population in the long-term. Understanding the multimorbidity trajectory among ovarian cancer survivors is important to improve clinical care after cancer treatment is completed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.02.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869723PMC
May 2020

Development and Internal Validation of a Web-based Tool to Predict Sexual, Urinary, and Bowel Function Longitudinally After Radiation Therapy, Surgery, or Observation.

Eur Urol 2020 08 22;78(2):248-255. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Shared decision making to guide treatment of localized prostate cancer requires delivery of the anticipated quality of life (QOL) outcomes of contemporary treatment options (including radical prostatectomy [RP], intensity-modulated radiation therapy [RT], and active surveillance [AS]). Predicting these QOL outcomes based on personalized features is necessary.

Objective: To create an easy-to-use tool to predict personalized sexual, urinary, bowel, and hormonal function outcomes after RP, RT, and AS.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prospective, population-based cohort study was conducted utilizing US cancer registries of 2563 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer in 2011-2012.

Intervention: Patient-reported urinary, sexual, and bowel function up to 5 yr after treatment.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Patient-reported urinary, sexual, bowel, and hormonal function through 5 yr after treatment were collected using the 26-item Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26) questionnaire. Comprehensive models to predict domain scores were fit, which included age, race, D'Amico classification, body mass index, EPIC-26 baseline function, treatment, and standardized scores measuring comorbidity, general QOL, and psychosocial health. We reduced these models by removing the instrument scores and replacing D'Amico classification with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason score. For the final model, we performed bootstrap internal validation to assess model calibration from which an easy-to-use web-based tool was developed.

Results And Limitations: The prediction models achieved bias-corrected R-squared values of 0.386, 0.232, 0.183, 0.214, and 0.309 for sexual function, urinary incontinence, urinary irritative, bowel, and hormonal domains, respectively. Differences in R-squared values between the comprehensive and parsimonious models were small in magnitude. Calibration was excellent. The web-based tool is available at https://statez.shinyapps.io/PCDSPred/.

Conclusions: Functional outcomes after treatment for localized prostate cancer can be predicted at the time of diagnosis based on age, race, PSA, biopsy grade, baseline function, and a general question regarding overall health. Providers and patients can use this prediction tool to inform shared decision making.

Patient Summary: In this report, we studied patient-reported sexual, urinary, hormonal, and bowel function through 5 yr after treatment with radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, or active surveillance for localized prostate cancer. We developed a web-based predictive tool that can be used to predict one's outcomes after treatment based on age, race, prostate-specific antigen, biopsy grade, pretreatment baseline function, and a general question regarding overall health. We hope both patients and providers can use this tool to better understand expected outcomes after treatment, further enhancing shared decision making between providers and patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.02.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384934PMC
August 2020

Individualized prediction of late-onset dysphagia in head and neck cancer survivors.

Head Neck 2020 04 7;42(4):708-718. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: Limited data exist regarding which head and head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors will suffer from long-term dysphagia.

Methods: From a population-based cohort of 1901 Utah residents with HNC and ≥3 years follow-up, we determined hazard ratio for dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, or gastrostomy associated with various risk factors. We tested prediction models with combinations of factors and then assessed discrimination of our final model.

Results: Cancer site in the hypopharynx, advanced tumor classification, chemoradiation, preexisting dysphagia, stroke, dementia, esophagitis, esophageal spasm, esophageal stricture, gastroesophageal reflux, thrush, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were associated with increased risk of long-term dysphagia. Our final prediction tool gives personalized risk calculation for diagnosis of dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, or gastrostomy tube placement at 5, 10, and 15 years after HNC based on 18 factors.

Conclusion: We developed a clinically useful risk prediction tool to identify HNC survivors most at risk for dysphagia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.26039DOI Listing
April 2020

Rural-urban disparities in colorectal cancer survival and risk among men in Utah: a statewide population-based study.

Cancer Causes Control 2020 Mar 30;31(3):241-253. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Family & Preventive Medicine, University of Utah, 375 Chipeta Way, Suite A, Salt Lake City, UT, 84108, USA.

Rural areas of the U.S. experience disproportionate colorectal cancer (CRC) death compared to urban areas. The authors aimed to analyze differences in CRC survival between rural and urban Utah men and investigate potential prognostic factors for survival among these men. A cohort of Utah men diagnosed with CRC between 1997 and 2013 was identified from the Utah Cancer Registry. Survival and prognostic factors were analyzed via 5-year CRC survival and Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by rural/urban residence. Among 4,660 men diagnosed with CRC, 15.3% were living in rural Utah. Compared with urban men, rural CRC patients were diagnosed at older ages and in different anatomic subsites; more were overweight, and current smokers. Differences in stage and treatment were not apparent between rural and urban CRC patients. Compared with urban counterparts, rural men experienced a lower CRC survival (Hazard Ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.53, 0.58 vs. 0.58, 95% CI 0.56, 0.59). Race and cancer treatment influenced CRC survival among men living in both urban and rural areas. Factors of CRC survival varied greatly among urban and rural men in Utah. The influence of social and environmental conditions on health behaviors and outcomes merits further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01268-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033015PMC
March 2020

Patient-Reported Outcomes Through 5 Years for Active Surveillance, Surgery, Brachytherapy, or External Beam Radiation With or Without Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

JAMA 2020 01;323(2):149-163

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Importance: Understanding adverse effects of contemporary treatment approaches for men with favorable-risk and unfavorable-risk localized prostate cancer could inform treatment selection.

Objective: To compare functional outcomes associated with prostate cancer treatments over 5 years after treatment.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1386 men with favorable-risk (clinical stage cT1 to cT2bN0M0, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≤20 ng/mL, and Grade Group 1-2) prostate cancer and 619 men with unfavorable-risk (clinical stage cT2cN0M0, PSA of 20-50 ng/mL, or Grade Group 3-5) prostate cancer diagnosed in 2011 through 2012, accrued from 5 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program sites and a US prostate cancer registry, with surveys through September 2017.

Exposures: Treatment with active surveillance (n = 363), nerve-sparing prostatectomy (n = 675), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; n = 261), or low-dose-rate brachytherapy (n = 87) for men with favorable-risk disease and treatment with prostatectomy (n = 402) or EBRT with androgen deprivation therapy (n = 217) for men with unfavorable-risk disease.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Patient-reported function, based on the 26-item Expanded Prostate Index Composite (range, 0-100), 5 years after treatment. Regression models were adjusted for baseline function and patient and tumor characteristics. Minimum clinically important difference was 10 to 12 for sexual function, 6 to 9 for urinary incontinence, 5 to 7 for urinary irritative symptoms, and 4 to 6 for bowel and hormonal function.

Results: A total of 2005 men met inclusion criteria and completed the baseline and at least 1 postbaseline survey (median [interquartile range] age, 64 [59-70] years; 1529 of 1993 participants [77%] were non-Hispanic white). For men with favorable-risk prostate cancer, nerve-sparing prostatectomy was associated with worse urinary incontinence at 5 years (adjusted mean difference, -10.9 [95% CI, -14.2 to -7.6]) and sexual function at 3 years (adjusted mean difference, -15.2 [95% CI, -18.8 to -11.5]) compared with active surveillance. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was associated with worse urinary irritative (adjusted mean difference, -7.0 [95% CI, -10.1 to -3.9]), sexual (adjusted mean difference, -10.1 [95% CI, -14.6 to -5.7]), and bowel (adjusted mean difference, -5.0 [95% CI, -7.6 to -2.4]) function at 1 year compared with active surveillance. EBRT was associated with urinary, sexual, and bowel function changes not clinically different from active surveillance at any time point through 5 years. For men with unfavorable-risk disease, EBRT with ADT was associated with lower hormonal function at 6 months (adjusted mean difference, -5.3 [95% CI, -8.2 to -2.4]) and bowel function at 1 year (adjusted mean difference, -4.1 [95% CI, -6.3 to -1.9]), but better sexual function at 5 years (adjusted mean difference, 12.5 [95% CI, 6.2-18.7]) and incontinence at each time point through 5 years (adjusted mean difference, 23.2 [95% CI, 17.7-28.7]), than prostatectomy.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort of men with localized prostate cancer, most functional differences associated with contemporary management options attenuated by 5 years. However, men undergoing prostatectomy reported clinically meaningful worse incontinence through 5 years compared with all other options, and men undergoing prostatectomy for unfavorable-risk disease reported worse sexual function at 5 years compared with men who underwent EBRT with ADT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.20675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990712PMC
January 2020

Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and head and neck cancer risk: a pooled analysis in an international consortium.

Br J Cancer 2020 03 13;122(6):745-748. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Venezian, 1, 20133, Milano, Italy.

High dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) may increase cancer risk. However, limited information was available on GI and/or GL and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk. We conducted a pooled analysis on 8 case-control studies (4081 HNC cases; 7407 controls) from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of HNC, and its subsites, from fixed- or mixed-effects logistic models including centre-specific quartiles of GI or GL. GI, but not GL, had a weak positive association with HNC (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.02-1.31). In subsites, we found a positive association between GI and laryngeal cancer (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.30-1.96) and an inverse association between GL and oropharyngeal cancer (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.63-0.97). This pooled analysis indicates a modest positive association between GI and HNC, mainly driven by laryngeal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0702-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078183PMC
March 2020

Long-term diabetes risk among endometrial cancer survivors in a population-based cohort study.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 01 12;156(1):185-193. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; Utah Cancer Registry, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The majority of endometrial cancer patients are overweight or obese at cancer diagnosis. Obesity is a shared risk factor for both endometrial cancer and diabetes, but it is unknown whether endometrial cancer patients have increased diabetes risks. The aim of our study was to investigate diabetes risk among endometrial cancer patients.

Methods: Endometrial cancer patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2012 in Utah (n = 2,314) were identified. Women from the general population (n = 8,583) were matched to the cancer patients on birth year and birth state. Diabetes diagnoses were identified from electronic medical records and statewide healthcare facility databases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for diabetes after cancer diagnosis.

Results: Endometrial cancer survivors had a significantly higher risk of type II diabetes when compared to women from the general population in the first year after cancer diagnosis (HR = 5.22, 95% CI = 4.05, 6.71), >1-5 years after cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.31, 2.12), and >5 years after cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.29, 2.11). Endometrial cancer patients who were obese at cancer diagnosis had a three-fold increase in type II diabetes risk (HR = 2.99, 95%CI = 2.59, 3.45). Although endometrial cancer patients diagnosed at distant stage had a higher risk of diabetes, cancer treatment did not appear to contribute to any diabetes risks.

Conclusions: In conclusion, endometrial cancer survivors had a higher risk of diabetes than women in the general population. These results suggest that long term monitoring for diabetes is indicated for endometrial cancer survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.10.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083523PMC
January 2020

Tobacco smoking, chewing habits, alcohol drinking and the risk of head and neck cancer in Nepal.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 27;147(3):866-875. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Division of Public Health, Department of Family & Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, and Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT.

Although tobacco smoking, pan chewing and alcohol drinking are important risk factors for head and neck cancer (HNC), the HNC risks conferred by products available in Nepal for these habits are unknown. We assessed the associations of tobacco smoking, chewing habits, and alcohol drinking with HNC risk in Nepal. A case-control study was conducted in Nepal with 549 incident HNC cases and 601 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. We observed increased HNC risk for tobacco smoking (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.06), chewing habits (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.77, 3.23), and alcohol drinking (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.18). The population attributable fraction (PAF) was 24.3% for tobacco smoking, 39.9% for chewing habits and 23.0% for alcohol drinking. Tobacco smoking, chewing habits, and alcohol drinking might be responsible for 85.3% of HNC cases. Individuals who smoked tobacco, chewed products and drank alcohol had a 13-fold increase in HNC risk (OR: 12.83; 95% CI: 6.91, 23.81) compared to individuals who did not have any of these habits. Both high frequency and long duration of these habits were strong risk factors for HNC among the Nepalese with clear dose-response trends. Preventive strategies against starting these habits and support for quitting these habits are necessary to decrease the incidence of HNC in Nepal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906484PMC
August 2020

Prediction of survival of HPV16-negative, p16-negative oral cavity cancer patients using a 13-gene signature: A multicenter study using FFPE samples.

Oral Oncol 2020 01 10;100:104487. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Section of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary Alberta, Canada.

Objectives: To test the performance of an oral cancer prognostic 13-gene signature for the prediction of survival of patients diagnosed with HPV-negative and p16-negative oral cavity cancer.

Materials And Methods: Diagnostic formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oral cavity cancer tumor samples were obtained from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/University of Washington, University of Calgary, University of Michigan, University of Utah, and seven ARCAGE study centers coordinated by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. RNA from 638 Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-negative and p16-negative samples was analyzed for the 13 genes using a NanoString assay. Ridge-penalized Cox regressions were applied to samples randomly split into discovery and validation sets to build models and evaluate the performance of the 13-gene signature in predicting 2-year oral cavity cancer-specific survival overall and separately for patients with early and late stage disease.

Results: Among AJCC stage I/II patients, including the 13-gene signature in the model resulted in substantial improvement in the prediction of 2-year oral cavity cancer-specific survival. For models containing age and sex with and without the 13-gene signature score, the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) and partial AUC were 0.700 vs. 0.537 (p < 0.001), and 0.046 vs. 0.018 (p < 0.001), respectively. Improvement in predicting prognosis for AJCC stage III/IV disease also was observed, but to a lesser extent.

Conclusions: If confirmed using tumor samples from a larger number of early stage oral cavity cancer patients, the 13-gene signature may inform personalized treatment of early stage HPV-negative and p16-negative oral cavity cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2019.104487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386199PMC
January 2020
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