Publications by authors named "Mi-Seon Park"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

ST2 blockade mitigates peritoneal fibrosis induced by TGF-β and high glucose.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 10 9;23(10):6872-6884. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is an intractable complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) that leads to peritoneal membrane failure. This study investigated the role of suppression of tumorigenicity (ST)2 in PF using patient samples along with mouse and cell-based models. Baseline dialysate soluble (s)ST2 level in patients measured 1 month after PD initiation was 2063.4 ± 2457.8 pg/mL; patients who switched to haemodialysis had elevated sST2 levels in peritoneal effluent (1576.2 ± 199.9 pg/mL, P = .03), which was associated with PD failure (P = .04). Baseline sST2 showed good performance in predicting PD failure (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.780, P = .001). In mice with chlorhexidine gluconate-induced PF, ST2 was expressed in fibroblasts and mesothelial cells within submesothelial zones. In primary cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), transforming growth factor-β treatment increased ST2, fibronectin, β-galactosidase and Snail protein levels and decreased E-cadherin level. Anti-ST2 antibody administration reversed the up-regulation of ST2 and fibronectin expression; it also reduced fibrosis induced by high glucose (100 mmol/L) in HPMCs. Thus, high ST2 level in dialysate is a marker for fibrosis and inflammation during peritoneal injury, and blocking ST2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for renal preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6787438PMC
October 2019

Comparative study of antiretroviral drug regimens and drug-drug interactions between younger and older HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South Korea.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 12;14:2229-2241. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea,

Background: With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV have lived to older age. So they have experienced age-related illnesses and have taken non-antiretroviral (ARV) medications to manage these illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the use patterns of ARV agents in HIV-positive patients by age and to evaluate potential or contraindicated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between ARV and non-ARV.

Methods: This study was retrospectively conducted with HIV-infected patients receiving ART medications between October 2011 and September 2017 at Chonbuk National University Hospital in South Korea. Data were collected by reviewing patients' electronic medical charts.

Results: Among 207 patients diagnosed with HIV infection, 183 (86.9% males; 104 aged <50 years and 79 aged ≥50 years) were selected based on inclusion criteria. In 2017, the most frequently prescribed ART regimen was nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)/integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs; total, 66.3%; <50 years, 36.3%; ≥50 years, 30.0%) followed by NRTIs/protease inhibitors (PIs; total, 23.8%; <50 years, 15.0%; ≥50 years, 8.8%). In 2017, the most frequently prescribed NRTI combination was abacavir/lamivudine (total, 34.4%; <50 years, 20.6%; ≥50 years, 13.8%) followed by tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (FTC; total, 31.3%; <50 years, 16.3%; ≥50 years, 15.0%) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/FTC (total, 28.1%; <50 years, 16.9%; ≥50 years, 11.3%). In 2017, elvitegravir (EVG)/cobicistat (COBI; total, 57.1%; <50 years, 30.4%; ≥50 years, 26.8%) was most frequently prescribed followed by dolutegravir (total, 32.1%; <50 years, 19.6%; ≥50 years, 12.5%). Potential or contraindicated DDIs between boosted PIs with ritonavir or EVG/COBI and coprescribed drugs occurred most frequently.

Conclusion: Currently, NRTIs/INSTIs is the most frequently prescribed ARV combination. Abacavir/lamivudine, tenofovir alafenamide/FTC, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/FTC are the most used NRTIs, and EVG/COBI followed by dolutegravir is the most prescribed INSTIs. Potential or contraindicated DDIs occur mainly between boosted PIs or EVG/COBI and non-ARV medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S175704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237144PMC
November 2018

Effects of Antifouling Biocides on Molecular and Biochemical Defense System in the Gill of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(12):e0168978. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Department of Marine Science, College of Natural Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon, South Korea.

Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168978PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5179263PMC
July 2017

Anti-septic effects of pelargonidin on HMGB1-induced responses in vitro and in vivo.

Arch Pharm Res 2016 Dec 24;39(12):1726-1738. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Multi-Omics Based Creative Drug Research Team, Kyungpook National University, 80 Dahak-ro, Buk-Gu, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

A certain nucleosomal protein-high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)-has recently been established as a late mediator of sepsis, with a relatively wide therapeutic window for pharmacological intervention. Pelargonidin (PEL) is a well-known red pigment found in plants; it has important biological activities that are potentially beneficial for human health. In the present study, we investigated whether PEL can modulate HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in mice. The anti-inflammatory activities of PEL were determined by measuring permeability, leukocyte adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated HUVECs and mice, as well as the beneficial effects of PEL on survival rate in the mouse sepsis model. The data showed that PEL had effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of HMGB1 and suppressed HMGB1-mediated septic responses, such as hyperpermeability, adhesion and migration of leukocytes, and expression of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, PEL inhibited the HMGB1-mediated production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), as well as the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Collectively, these results indicate that PEL could be used to treat various severe vascular inflammatory diseases via the inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-016-0834-5DOI Listing
December 2016

Stress responses of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus (Pallas) following water temperature rise.

J Environ Biol 2015 Sep;36(5):1057-62

Stress responses of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus (Pallas) following water temperature rise were investigated to establish the influence of ambient temperature on this species. The physiological indicators of stress were plasma cortisol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sodium, chloride, osmolality and triiodothyronine (T3). No significant difference in plasma parameters were observed among the experimental groups of 15 degrees C, 18 degrees C and 21 degrees C. Level of plasma cortisol (49.0-95.0 ng ml(-1)) and glucose (56.1-58.1 mg dl(-1)) of starry flounders kept at 24 degrees C-27 degrees C were significantly higher than those (cortisol: 20.4-23.6 ng ml(-1), glucose: 40.6-47.1 mg dl(-1)) observed in the 15 degrees C-21 degrees C groups. Changes in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase following water temperature rise showed a similar pattern to plasma cortisol and glucose. Starry flounders exposed to 27 degrees C exhibited higher plasma sodium (164.7 mmol l(-1)), chloride (147.6 mmol l(-1)), and osmolality (450.7 mOsm kg(-1)) than those (sodium: 154.0-158.7 mmol l(-1), chloride: 139.1-140.4 mmol l(-1), osmolality: 375.1-383.8 mOsm kg(-1)) fish exposed to 15-21 degrees C. Though plasma T3 (29.4 ng ml(-1)) of starry flounder increased at 24 degrees C, this hormone was significantly lower (19.3 ng ml(-1)) in fish kept at 27 degrees C than those (24.6 ng ml(-1)) the fish at 15 degrees C. This phenomenon seems to be directly associated with long-term fasting. Accordingly, the results suggested that starry flounders got stressed with osmoregulatory disturbances above 24 degrees C.
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September 2015

Perfluoroheptanoic acid affects amphibian embryogenesis by inducing the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK.

Int J Mol Med 2015 Dec 12;36(6):1693-700. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

ABRC, CMRI, School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of Korea.

Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are globally distributed synthetic compounds that are known to adversely affect human health. Developmental toxicity assessment of PFCs is important to facilitate the evaluation of their environmental impact. In the present study, we assessed the developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of PFCs with different numbers of carbon atoms on Xenopus embryogenesis. An initial frog embryo teratogenicity assay-Xenopus (FETAX) assay was performed that identified perfluorohexanoic (PFHxA) and perfluoroheptanoic (PFHpA) acids as potential teratogens and developmental toxicants. The mechanism underlying this teratogenicity was also investigated by measuring the expression of tissue-specific biomarkers such as phosphotyrosine‑binding protein, xPTB (liver); NKX2.5 (heart); and Cyl18 (intestine). Whole‑mount in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase‑polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and histologic analyses detected severe defects in the liver and heart following exposure to PFHxA or PFHpA. In addition, immunoblotting revealed that PFHpA significantly increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while PFHxA slightly increased these, as compared with the control. These results suggest that PFHxA and PFHpA are developmental toxicants and teratogens, with PFHpA producing more severe effects on liver and heart development through the induction of ERK and JNK phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2015.2370DOI Listing
December 2015

Caffeoyl glucosides from Nandina domestica inhibit LPS-induced endothelial inflammatory responses.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2015 Nov 12;25(22):5367-71. Epub 2015 Sep 12.

College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Endothelial dysfunction is a key pathological feature of many inflammatory diseases, including sepsis. In the present study, a new caffeoyl glucoside (1) and two known caffeoylated compounds (2 and 3) were isolated from the fruits of Nandina domestica Thunb. (Berberidaceae). The compounds were investigated for their effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated endothelial inflammatory responses. At 20 μM, 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced hyperpermeability, adhesion, and migration of leukocytes across a human endothelial cell monolayer in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that 1 and 2 may serve as potential scaffolds for the development of therapeutic agents to treat vascular inflammatory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.09.031DOI Listing
November 2015

Characterization of ticlopidine-induced developmental and teratogenic defects in Xenopus embryos and human endothelial cells.

Chem Biol Interact 2015 Oct 29;240:172-8. Epub 2015 Aug 29.

ABRC, CMRI, School of Life Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, South Korea. Electronic address:

Ticlopidine is an anti-platelet drug that inhibits platelet aggregation via the functional alteration of platelet membranes. However, the mechanism underlying the adverse developmental effects of ticlopidine has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we evaluated the developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of ticlopidine on Xenopus laevis embryos and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) and blood and lymph vessel formation assays. Ticlopidine induced teratogenicity and inhibited growth, as evidenced by mortality rates and embryo lengths, respectively. Moreover, ticlopidine induced severe hemorrhages and inhibited both blood and lymph vessel formation by modulating the expression of xMsr and Prox1 in Xenopus embryos. Additionally, Nkx2.5 and Cyl104 levels were perturbed by ticlopidine exposure, and more extensive aberrations were observed in the liver and heart using whole-mount in situ hybridization. In addition, ticlopidine reduced branching in HUVECs by blocking the effect of the angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Results from this study suggest that ticlopidine is a developmental toxicant and teratogen and therefore this is a step forward in our understanding of the effects of ticlopidine during developmental processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2015.08.017DOI Listing
October 2015

Trophic structure in a pilot system for the integrated multi-trophic aquaculture off the east coast of Korean peninsula as determined by stable isotopes.

Mar Pollut Bull 2015 Jun 24;95(1):207-14. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

School of Environmental Science & Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To assess the potential for nutritional exploitation of caged-fish-derived waste through the use of extractive co-cultured species in a pilot system for an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), we compared their C and N stable isotope ratios with those of uncultured macroinvertebrates in and around the system. Black rockfish were co-cultured with sea cucumber, oyster, and two macroalgae as extractive species. Isotope signatures of the co-cultured sea cucumber at the IMTA site differed from those at the control site, indicating their assimilation of aquaculture wastes. In contrast, δ(13)C and δ(15)N of individual taxa of the cultured oyster and uncultured invertebrates were consistent between sites, suggesting a minor contribution of the aquaculture waste to benthic and pelagic food chains in and around the IMTA system. These results provide evidence of the suitability of using sea cucumber as an extractive species to reduce the impact of a monoculture system on the ambient environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.04.019DOI Listing
June 2015

Evaluation of developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of diclofenac using Xenopus embryos.

Chemosphere 2015 Feb 30;120:52-8. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422, South Korea. Electronic address:

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. This compound is therefore used to treat pain, inflammatory disorders, and dysmenorrhea. Due to its multimodal mechanism of action and ability to penetrate placenta, diclofenac is known to have undesirable side effects including teratogenicity. However, limited data exist on its teratogenicity, and a detailed investigation regarding harmful effects of this drug during embryogenesis is warranted. Here, we analyzed the developmental toxic effects of diclofenac using Xenopus embryos according to the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) protocol. Diclofenac treatment exerted a teratogenic effect on Xenopus embryos with a teratogenic index (TI) value of 2.64 TI; if this value is higher than 1.2, the cut-off value indicative of toxicity. In particular, mortality of embryos treated with diclofenac increased in a concentration-dependent manner and a broad spectrum of malformations such as shortening and kinking of the axis, abdominal bulging, and prominent blister formation, was observed. The shape and length of internal organs also differed compared to the control group embryos and show developmental retardation on histological label. However, the expression of major tissue-specific markers did not change when analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In conclusion, diclofenac treatment can promote teratogenicity that results in morphological anomalies, but not disrupt the developmental tissue arrangement during Xenopus embryogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.063DOI Listing
February 2015

Pick1 modulates ephrinB1-induced junctional disassembly through an association with ephrinB1.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014 Jul 14;450(1):659-65. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

ABRC, School of Life Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea. Electronic address:

Members of the Eph family have been implicated in the formation of cell-cell boundaries, cell movement, and positioning during development in the context of cancer progression. De-regulation of this signaling system is linked to the promotion of more aggressive and metastatic tumor phenotypes in a large variety of human cancers, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer, melanoma, and leukemia. Thus, it is interesting to consider the case of cancer progression where de-regulation of the Eph/ephrin signaling system results in invasion and metastasis. Here, we present evidence that Pick1, one of the essential components of the adherens junction, recovers ephrinB1-induced cell-cell de-adhesion. Loss of Pick1 leads to dissociation of epithelial cells via disruption of the adherens junction, a phenotype similar to ephrinB1 overexpression. In addition, overexpressed ephrinB1-induced disruption of the adherens junction is rescued via binding to Pick1. These data indicate that Pick1 is involved in regulating the cell-cell junction in epithelial cells, and this may influence therapeutic strategy decisions with regards to cell adhesion molecules in metastatic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.06.027DOI Listing
July 2014

Blood physiological responses and growth of juvenile starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus exposed to different salinities.

J Environ Biol 2013 Sep;34(5):885-90

Department ofAquaculture, Pukyong National University, Busan, 608 737, Republic of Korea.

Blood physiological responses, growth and survial rates were examined in juvenile starry flounder, Plotichthys stellatus exposed to different salinities (5, 10, 20, 33 ppt) for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, the plasma levels of Na+and osmolality were similar at 10, 20, 33 ppt, however, the values were significantly lower at 5 ppt compared to those at other salinities. Stress responses such as plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels in all groups showed no significant difference. Although no differences in growth were observed, body weight at 20 ppt tended to be higher than others. Survival in all groups was greater than 99% with no significant differences. These results suggest that starry flounder is euryhalin species, thus this fish can be reared with normal growth and survival rate at 5-33 ppt salinity without osmoregulatory disturbance and stress.
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September 2013

In vivo evaluation and comparison of developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of perfluoroalkyl compounds using Xenopus embryos.

Chemosphere 2013 Oct 30;93(6):1153-60. Epub 2013 Jul 30.

ABRC, CMRI, School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, South Korea.

Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are environmental toxicants that persistently accumulate in human blood. Their widespread detection and accumulation in the environment raise concerns about whether these chemicals might be developmental toxicants and teratogens in ecosystem. We evaluated and compared the toxicity of PFCs of containing various numbers of carbon atoms (C8-11 carbons) on vertebrate embryogenesis. We assessed the developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of various PFCs. The toxic effects on Xenopus embryos were evaluated using different methods. We measured teratogenic indices (TIs), and investigated the mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity and teratogenicity by measuring the expression of organ-specific biomarkers such as xPTB (liver), Nkx2.5 (heart), and Cyl18 (intestine). All PFCs that we tested were found to be developmental toxicants and teratogens. Their toxic effects were strengthened with increasing length of the fluorinated carbon chain. Furthermore, we produced evidence showing that perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFuDA) are more potent developmental toxicants and teratogens in an animal model compared to the other PFCs we evaluated [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)]. In particular, severe defects resulting from PFDA and PFuDA exposure were observed in the liver and heart, respectively, using whole mount in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, pathologic analysis of the heart, and dissection of the liver. Our studies suggest that most PFCs are developmental toxicants and teratogens, however, compounds that have higher numbers of carbons (i.e., PFDA and PFuDA) exert more potent effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.053DOI Listing
October 2013

Studies on technology for seaweed forest construction and transplanted Ecklonia cava growth for an artificial seaweed reef.

J Environ Biol 2012 Sep;33(5):969-75

National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Gangneung, 210- 861, Korea.

We installed seaweed reef for restoration of barron ground coast. We hollowed out a U-shaped groove in a cross-shaped artificial seaweed reef and covered it with a zinc sheet (U-bar) to transplant Ecklonia cava growing on Dellenia wood by hand, installing the U-bar on the artificial seaweed reef, fixing it with concrete. Thus seaweed can be attached easily, with pre-installed stainless bolts and nuts. The length of Ecklonia cava leaf transplanted to the cross-shaped reef was 7.2 cm in February 2005 reached its maximum size, 35.9 cm (n = 30) by July. Thereafter, it decreased to 18.9 cm in October due to shedding. The leaf weight after the experiment was 24.8 from the initial 0.4 cm (n = 30). Regression analysis showed Y = 0.7875X-4.6488 (R2 = 0.7225) for blade length and Y = 0.0025X2.6733 (R2 = 0.8711) for leaf weight. The high values of the R2 values for the two measurements were highly reliable, with the reliability of the linear regression function higher than that of the functions of 2 variables. The artificial seaweed forest constructed in the barren ground was highly comparable with natural seaweed forest in terms of growth, indicating that the artificial seaweed construction can be done in an easy, efficient and economically viable way. This further indicates that the technology developed by the present study can be extensively used for the project for artificial seaweed forest construction.
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September 2012

Effects of varying dilutions, pH, temperature and cations on spermatozoa motility in fish Larimichthys polyactis.

J Environ Biol 2011 May;32(3):271-6

Department of Aquaculture, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea.

The objectives of this present study were to assess the effects of varying dilutions, pH, temperature and cations on spermatozoa motile parameters (SMPs) in fish Larimichthys polyactis. Optimal SMPs were observed when emen was diluted in artificial seawater (ASW) at a ratio of 1 to 100, with temperature of 10 degreesC and pH 8.0. The spermatozoa of L. polyactis were immotile in distilled water and motile in solution containing different cations. Maximum SMPs were obtained in each solution containing 0.4 mol NaCI, 0.4 mol KCI, 0.2 mol CaCI2 and 0.2 mol MgCl2. This study provides baseline knowledge of L. polyactis spermatozoa sensitivity of pH, temperature and cationic effects.
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May 2011

Infection status of hospitalized diarrheal patients with gastrointestinal protozoa, bacteria, and viruses in the Republic of Korea.

Korean J Parasitol 2010 Jun 17;48(2):113-20. Epub 2010 Jun 17.

Department of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Seoul, Korea.

To understand protozoan, viral, and bacterial infections in diarrheal patients, we analyzed positivity and mixed-infection status with 3 protozoans, 4 viruses, and 10 bacteria in hospitalized diarrheal patients during 2004-2006 in the Republic of Korea. A total of 76,652 stool samples were collected from 96 hospitals across the nation. The positivity for protozoa, viruses, and bacteria was 129, 1,759, and 1,797 per 10,000 persons, respectively. Especially, Cryptosporidium parvum was highly mixed-infected with rotavirus among pediatric diarrheal patients (29.5 per 100 C. parvum positive cases), and Entamoeba histolytica was mixed-infected with Clostridium perfringens (10.3 per 100 E. histolytica positive cases) in protozoan-diarrheal patients. Those infected with rotavirus and C. perfringens constituted relatively high proportions among mixed infection cases from January to April. The positivity for rotavirus among viral infection for those aged < or = 5 years was significantly higher, while C. perfringens among bacterial infection was higher for > or = 50 years. The information for association of viral and bacterial infections with enteropathogenic protozoa in diarrheal patients may contribute to improvement of care for diarrhea as well as development of control strategies for diarrheal diseases in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2010.48.2.113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892565PMC
June 2010

Detection of cytolethal distending toxin and other virulence characteristics of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from diarrheal patients in Republic of Korea.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2009 May;19(5):525-9

Division of Enteric Bacterial Infections, Center for Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Seoul 122-701, Korea.

Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) represent an emerging family of newly described bacterial products that are produced by a number of pathogens. The genes encoding these toxins have been identified as a cluster of three adjacent genes, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, plus 5 cdt genetic variants, designated as cdt-I, cdt-II, cdt-III, cdt-IV, and cdt- V, have been identified to date. In this study, a general multiplex PCR system designed to detect Escherichia coli cdts was applied to investigate the presence of cdt genes among isolates. As a result, among 366 E. coli strains, 2.7% were found to carry the cdtB gene. In addition, the use of type-specific primers revealed the presence of cdt-I, cdtIV, and cdt-V types of the cdt gene, yet no cdt-II or cdt- III strains. The presence of other virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, bfp, espA, espB, and espD) was also investigated using a PCR assay. Among the 10 cdtB gene-positive strains, 8 were identified as CDT-producing typical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains (eae(+), bfp(+)), whereas 2 were identified as CDT-producing atypical EPEC strains (eae(+), bfp(-)). When comparing the cytotoxic activity of the CDT-producing typical and atypical EPEC strains, the CDT-producing atypical EPEC strains appeared to be less toxic than the CDT-producing typical EPEC strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.0801.033DOI Listing
May 2009

Quantitative mRNA expression of sox3 and DMRT1 during sex reversal, and expression profiles after GnRHa administration in black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2009 Sep 31;154(1):150-6. Epub 2009 May 31.

Division of Marine Environment & Bioscience, Korea Maritime University, Busan 606-791, Republic of Korea.

We cloned full-length sox3 cDNA from testis of black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Black porgy sox3 cDNA consists of 897 base pairs (bp) and encodes a protein of 298 amino acids. We have investigated the expression pattern of sox3 and DMRT1 mRNA during the sex-reverse process from male to female (immature testis, mature testis, testicular portion of mostly testis, ovarian portion of mostly testis, testicular portion of mostly ovary, ovarian portion of mostly ovary and ovary). The expression of sox3 and DMRT1 mRNA was high in mature testis of black porgy during sex-reverse process. In a histological analysis, testicular portion of gonad was degenerated and the ovary portion was increased during sex reversal from male to female, and then oocytes were increased in ovary. Also we examined the expression of sox3 and DMRT1 mRNA after gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment in immature black porgy. The expression of sox3 and DMRT1 mRNA was increased after GnRHa treatment (in vivo and in vitro experiment) in immature black porgy. Therefore, we concluded that sox3 and DMRT1 were involved in the development of testis than ovary in black porgy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2009.05.013DOI Listing
September 2009

Application of multiplex bead array assay for Yq microdeletion analysis in infertile males.

Mol Cell Probes 2008 Apr 30;22(2):76-82. Epub 2007 Jun 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Hanyang University & GenoCheck Co. Ltd., Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-791, Republic of Korea.

The purpose of this study was to apply the multiplex bead array as a diagnostic tool for male infertility. The multiplex bead array offers a new platform in high-throughput nucleic acid detection. Six loci, including sex-determining regions on the Y (SRY) chromosome as a control and five sequence-tagged sites (STS) in azoospermia-factor regions, were used in this system. Extracted genomic DNA from infertile male blood was used for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After multiplex PCR using specific Cy3-labeled primer sets, the PCR product was hybridized with capture probes. A multiplexed PCR-liquid bead was arrayed for simultaneous detection using the Luminex system. This assay system correctly identified the presence or deletion of the Y chromosome. Therefore, this method provides a sensitive and high-throughput method for probing the deletion of the Y chromosome, and offers a completely new approach to male infertility screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2007.06.004DOI Listing
April 2008

Endocrine disrupting chemicals: human exposure and health risks.

J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 2006 ;24(2):183-224

Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University, Yongsan-Ku, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been emphasized due to their threats in fertility, intelligence, and survival. For the last decade, many researchers have investigated EDC-health outcome. However, EDC responses in human were not clearly clarified through experimental and epidemiological data. Therefore, considering particular status of EDC endpoints, we suggest that one of the best ways to prevent unknown health risks from EDCs is to perform exposure monitoring or to do surveillance for EDC release into the environment. For this purpose, this review considers exposure status of EDCs, and EDC-related health risks, focusing on the mainly highlighted EDCs, such as dioxins/PCBs, DDT/DDE, bisphenol A, phthalates, alkylphenols, and phytoestrogens. We also reviewed tobacco, a mixed source of EDC-related endocrine disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10590500600936474DOI Listing
February 2007

Phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein gene of iridovirus isolates from cultured flounders Paralichthys olivaceus in Korea.

Dis Aquat Organ 2005 May;64(3):193-200

Pathology Division, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Kijang, Busan 619-902, Korea.

In 2003, 13 isolates of iridovirus were obtained from cultured flounders Paralichthys olivaceus during epizootics in Korea. The full open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the major capsid protein (MCP) (1362 bp) from the 13 flounder iridoviruses (FLIVs) were sequenced and the deduced amino acid sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP revealed that all 13 FLIVs were the same species as rock bream iridovirus (RBIV), red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), and infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), and were grouped into an unknown genus which was different from the 2 genera known to infect fish, Ranavirus and Lymphocystivirus. This is the first report on the isolation and phylogenetic analysis of the iridovirus of unknown genus from flounders during epizootics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao064193DOI Listing
May 2005

Ultrastructural identification of a herpes-like virus infection in common carp Cyprinus carpio in Korea.

Dis Aquat Organ 2004 Oct;61(1-2):165-8

Pathology Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, 408-1 Silang, Gijang, Busan 612-900, Republic of Korea.

We report on a herpes-like virus, which was found to be associated with mass mortality of common carp Cyprinus carpio for the first time in Korea in 1998. The external signs of infection in moribund fish were darkened coloration and severe branchial necrosis in the gill. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of herpes-like viruses in spleen tissue. Infected spleen cells showed hypertrophied nuclei and degeneration. Numerous nucleocapsids of about 82 nm in diameter were found within the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells, and extracellular enveloped particles were also observed. We conclude that this virus was a likely significant cause of the high mortality of common carp in Korea in 1998.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao061165DOI Listing
October 2004

Viral gametocytic hypertrophy caused by a papova-like virus infection in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Korea.

Dis Aquat Organ 2004 Jun;59(3):205-9

Pathology Division National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Gijang, Busan 619-902, Republic of Korea.

During a routine survey of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Tongyoung (previously Chungmu) on the southern coast of Korea, basophilic inclusions were observed in the gonadal tissues. They were detected from March to May at a prevalence rate of 3.3 to 7.1%. The inclusion bodies were Feulgen-positive and stained orange-red with phloxine tartrazine. Electron microscopic observation revealed non-enveloped, icosahedral particles 40 to 45 nm in diameter. These morphological characteristics resemble those of papova virus-like inclusions previously described from Pacific and eastern (American) oysters C. virginica in North America. Although many mitochondrial bodies and intact sperm cells were observed around the inclusion body, no host reaction, such as hemocytic infiltration, was detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao059205DOI Listing
June 2004

Complete genomic DNA sequence of rock bream iridovirus.

Virology 2004 Aug;325(2):351-63

Pathology Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Kijang, Pusan 626-900, South Korea.

Iridovirus is a causative agent of epizootics among cultured rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) in Korea. Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of rock bream iridovirus (RBIV). The genome of RBIV was 112080 bp long and contained at least 118 putative open reading frames (ORFs), and its genome organization was similar to that of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV). Of the RBIV's 118 ORFs, 85 ORFs showed 60-99% amino acid identity to those of ISKNV. Phylogenetic analysis of major capsid protein (MCP), DNA repair protein RAD2, and DNA polymerase type-B family indicated that RBIV is closely related to red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), Grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV), Dwarf gourami iridovirus (DGIV), and ISKNV. The genome sequence provides useful information concerning the evolution and divergence of iridoviruses in cultured fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2004.05.008DOI Listing
August 2004
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