Publications by authors named "Mi-Ra Lee"

55 Publications

Relationship between Vitamin D Deficiency and Periodontitis in Korean Adults Aged ≥60 Years: Analysis of Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013-2014).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 15;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Gachon University, Incheon 21936, Korea.

There have been contradictory reports on the effects of vitamin D in the prevention of periodontitis. We analyzed the association between vitamin D status (levels of plasma 25(OH)D) and periodontitis using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2013-2014 database. Among the participants in the KNHANES (2013-2014), only those aged ≥60 years who completed a health interview survey, periodontal examination, and blood test were included in the study. Thus, data from 701 participants were used in the final analysis. Periodontal status was evaluated using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and periodontitis was defined as having a CPI score of 3 or 4. Plasma 25(OH)D levels were classified according to two criteria: 20 ng/mL and quartile value. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the prevalence of periodontitis according to plasma 25(OH)D levels. Univariate analyses showed that periodontitis was not significantly associated with plasma 25(OH)D levels. In the multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, the difference in the prevalence of periodontitis between those with a normal range of 25(OH)D and those with low plasma of 25(OH)D levels was not statistically significant. Vitamin D intake has been reported to have benefits in maintaining periodontal health; however, total plasma 25(OH)D levels showed no significant association with periodontitis based on CPI scores in this study. Additionally, these findings reaffirmed the importance of toothbrushing and smoking cessation to prevent periodontitis in people aged ≥60 years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071325PMC
April 2021

Sarcopenia and Muscle Aging: A Brief Overview.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2020 12 23;35(4):716-732. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

The world is facing the new challenges of an aging population, and understanding the process of aging has therefore become one of the most important global concerns. Sarcopenia is a condition which is defined by the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with age. In research and clinical practice, sarcopenia is recognized as a component of geriatric disease and is a current target for drug development. In this review we define this condition and provide an overview of current therapeutic approaches. We further highlight recent findings that describe key pathophysiological phenotypes of this condition, including alterations in muscle fiber types, mitochondrial function, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) metabolism, myokines, and gut microbiota, in aged muscle compared to young muscle or healthy aged muscle. The last part of this review examines new therapeutic avenues for promising treatment targets. There is still no accepted therapy for sarcopenia in humans. Here we provide a brief review of the current state of research derived from various mouse models or human samples that provide novel routes for the development of effective therapeutics to maintain muscle health during aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803599PMC
December 2020

The Intertester Reliability of a Modified Movement System Impairment Classification System Used to Evaluate Individuals With Prolonged Sitting: A Preliminary Study.

J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2020 05 21;43(4):294-302. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: Prolonged sitting while working at a computer leads to poor sitting postures, which can aggravate low back pain in many individuals. We examined the intertester reliability of using the modified musculoskeletal impairment schema for classifying participants sitting at computers for prolonged times.

Methods: Fifty participants were examined independently by each therapist using a test-retest design. Each therapist assigned an musculoskeletal impairment classification upon completion of the examination. The agreement percentages and the kappa coefficient were used to evaluate intertester reliability in classifying participants with prolonged sitting.

Results: The percentage agreement between the 2 examiners for participants who maintained the sitting posture for prolonged times was 84%. The calculated kappa coefficient was 0.73, reflecting a substantial level of agreement.

Conclusions: The present findings provide some evidence to support the classification of individuals who sit at computers for prolonged times and participants with rotation with flexion pattern would need to manage asymmetry pattern in a subclinical group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2019.10.003DOI Listing
May 2020

Lycopus lucidus Turcz. ex Benth. Attenuates free fatty acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

Phytomedicine 2019 Mar 18;55:14-22. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 70 Cheomdan-ro, Dong-gu, Daegu 41062, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to metabolic diseases such as obesity and insulin resistance.

Purpose: We studied whether an ethanol extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. ex Benth (LLE) exhibited effects on lipid metabolism in NAFLD.

Study Design: An in vitro modelwas established by treatment of HepG2 cells with a 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) mixture (oleic acid/palmitic acid, 2:1). C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 60 kcal% fat) for 14 weeks to induce obesity and were treated with or without LLE (100 or 200  mg/kg daily by oral gavage).

Methods: HepG2 cells were exposed to 1 mM FFA, with or without LLE (250 - 1000  mg/ml). Intracellular lipid contents were measured by Oil Red O staining and a Nile Red assay. The body weight, relative liver weight, hepatic lipids, triglycerides (TGs), and total cholesterol (TC) were measured in the mice. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TG, TC, glucose, insulin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were determined by biochemical or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Histologic analysis was performed in the liver. Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze the expression of key enzymes of hepatic lipid metabolism.

Results: LLE significantly decreased the intracellular lipid accumulation in FFA-treated HepG2 cells. LLE not only remarkably decreased the expression of lipogenesis genes but also increased β-oxidation in FFA-induced HepG2 cells. In the in vivo study, LLE treatment significantly decreased the body weight, relative liver weight, serum ALT, TC, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as the serum glucose, insulin, leptin, and TNF-α levels in HFD-fed mice. The hepatic TG and TC contents were significantly reduced in the LLE-treated groups. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1 decreased, while that of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α increased in the LLE-treated mice.

Conclusion: These results suggest that LLE may exert protective effects against NAFLD-related obesity and metabolic disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.07.008DOI Listing
March 2019

Effect of red and black ginseng on cholinergic markers, presynaptic markers, and neurotrophins in the brain of aged mice.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2017 16;26(6):1743-1747. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

2Department Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134 Korea.

This study investigated the effects of chronic administration of red ginseng extract (RGE) and black ginseng extract (BGE) on memory impairment in aged (18-month-old) mice. RGE and BGE (200 mg/kg) were orally administered for 16 weeks. Aging induced DNA damage; however, RGE and BGE protected DNA from damage and allowed for DNA recovery in blood lymphocytes. Choline acetyltransferase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, growth-associated protein 43, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, nerve growth factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression were significantly increased after treatment with RGE and BGE. These data suggest that chronic administration of red ginseng and black ginseng may decrease the cognitive deficits associated with normal aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0235-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6049720PMC
October 2017

Strategy on navigating obstacle in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: Relationship among trunk and pelvic movement, swing toe clearance, and muscle coordination of the stance limb.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2018 ;31(6):1131-1138

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Korea.

Background And Objective: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common spinal disorder that causes patients to assume a forward-trunk posture. Spinal alignment affects gait, muscle activity, and trunk-pelvis-limb coordination because the lumbar spine and muscles interact to allow load transfer between the lower back and pelvis during sagittal trunk movement. Therefore, we investigated the relationships among trunk and pelvic movement, swing toe clearance, and muscle coordination (isolated contraction ratios) of the stance limb during obstacle-crossing by patients with LSS.

Methods: Ten patients with LSS and ten control subjects were enrolled. All navigated an obstacle during walking. Kinematic data from the trunk and lower extremities were monitored using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. In addition, we measured the isolated contraction ratios of the gluteus medius (GMed) and vastus lateralis (VL) using surface electromyography.

Results: The normalized lead limb distance was significantly lower in the LSS group than in controls. The spine flexion angle when the swinging limb toe was above the obstacle was higher, but the pelvic anterior tilting angle was lower, in the LSS group. LSS patients also had a significantly lower isolated contraction ratio of the GMed in the trailing stance limb but a significantly higher VL.

Conclusions: Patients with LSS adapted a poor posture and their thoracic and spinal regions were hyperflexed with restricted pelvic obliquity. This created an inefficient gait, a shorter leading limb step, and less stable muscle coordination in the stance limb. Our findings may help healthcare professionals manage patients with LSS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-170927DOI Listing
January 2019

Activated STAT3 may participate in tumor progression through increasing CD133/survivin expression in early stage of colon cancer.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 02 9;497(1):354-361. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea; Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea. Electronic address:

The activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) by elevated interleukin (IL) levels has been reported to regulate tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. However, the clinical implication of p-STAT3 expression in colon cancer is still controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effect of STAT3 inactivation on biologic behavior of primary (Caco-2) and metastatic colon cancer cells (LoVo and SNU407) and the relation of p-STAT3 expression with the invasion of colon tumor. In vitro study, the STAT3 inhibition by siRNA and stattic treatment significantly reduced colony formation and cell migration and decreased CD133 and survivin the expression compared with a control in all three cell lines. Furthermore, primary cancer cells exhibited a marked decrease in CD133 expression and increased apoptosis compared to metastatic cells after stattic treatment. The immunohistochemical assay using clinical samples of colonic tumors with various invasion depth showed that p-STAT3 expression was inversely associated with tumor invasion (p = 0.001, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.328, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.170-0.632). In conclusion, p-STAT3 may participate in the progression of the early stage of colon cancer through the up-regulation of CD133, which in turn induces survivin expression. However, the regulatory mechanism of these molecules in tumor progression in vivo is need to be more verified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.02.084DOI Listing
February 2018

Leonurus japonicus Houtt Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Free Fatty Acid-Induced HepG2 Cells and Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

Nutrients 2017 Dec 25;10(1). Epub 2017 Dec 25.

Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 70 Cheomdan-Ro, Dong-Gu, Daegu 41062, Korea.

We investigated the effects of a ethanol extract (LJE) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). An in vitro model of hepatic steatosis was treated with 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) in HepG2 cells. An in vivo NAFLD model was established using C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and administered LJE (100 or 200 mg/kg) orally for 14 weeks. LJE treatment suppressed lipid accumulation and intracellular triglyceride levels significantly in a concentration-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. Moreover, LJE significantly reduced the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1-c, and its downstream genes, which are associated with lipogenesis, in HepG2 cells. In HFD-fed mice, LJE treatment decreased body weight significantly and decreased serum alanine transaminase levels to normal values, concurrent with a decrease in hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, LJE supplementation ameliorated insulin sensitivity by decreasing serum glucose and insulin levels. LJE improved hepatic steatosis by increasing the expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in HFD-fed mice and FFA-treated HepG2 cells. The results suggested that LJE might be a potential therapeutic agent to treat NAFLD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10010020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793248PMC
December 2017

Antibacterial activity and effects of Colla corii asini on Salmonella typhimurium invasion in vitro and in vivo.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Dec 4;17(1):520. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Korean Medicine (KM)-Application Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), 70 Cheomdan-ro, Dong-gu, Daegu, 41062, Republic of Korea.

Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen that triggers inflammatory responses in the intestines of humans and livestock. Colla corii asini is a traditional medicine used to treat gynecologic and chronic diseases in Korea and China. However, the antibacterial activity of Colla corii asini has been unknown. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity and effects of Colla corii asini extract on Salmonella typhimurium invasion.

Methods: To tested for antibacterial effects of Colla corii asini extracts, we confirmed the agar diffusion using Luria solid broth medium. Also, we determined the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and the MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) value of the Colla corii asini ethanol extract (CEE) by using two-fold serial dilution methods. We evaluated the expression of salmonella invasion proteins including SipA, SipB and SipC by using Western blot and qPCR at the concentration of CEE without inhibition of bacterial growth. In vitro and vivo, we determined the inhibitory effect of invasion of S. typhimurium on CEE by using gentamicin assay and S. typhimurium-infected mice.

Results: CEE significantly inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium in an agar diffuse assay and had an MIC of 0.78 mg/ml and an MBC of 1.56 mg/ml. Additionally, CEE reduced Salmonella typhimurium cell invasion via the inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium invasion proteins, such as SipA, SipB and SipC. Furthermore, CEE significantly suppressed invasion in the small intestines (ilea) of mice injected with Salmonella typhimurium.

Conclusion: These findings show that Colla corii asini exerts antibacterial activity and suppresses Salmonella typhimurium invasion in vitro and in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate that Colla corii asini is a potentially useful therapeutic herbal medicine for treating salmonella-mediated diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-2020-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5715514PMC
December 2017

Chronic dietary ginseng extract administration ameliorates antioxidant and cholinergic systems in the brains of aged mice.

J Ginseng Res 2017 Oct 20;41(4):615-619. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Black ginseng has a more potent biological activity than non-steamed ginseng. We investigated the effects of long-term intake of dietary black ginseng extract (BG) on antioxidant activity in aged mice. We also compared the effects of BG on cognitive deficits with those of white ginseng extract (WG) and red ginseng extract (RG).

Methods: Ten-month-old mice were fed an AIN-93G-based diet containing 10 g/kg (low dose, L) or 30 g/kg (high dose, H) WG powder, RG powder, or BG powder for 24 wk. We measured serum lipids, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde levels. Additionally, the protein expression levels of choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter, which are presynaptic cholinergic markers in the cortex and hippocampus of the brain, were measured by western blotting.

Results: Triglyceride levels were reduced in all the extract-treated mice, except those in the LBG group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the HBG group were higher than those in the control group. Total cholesterol levels were reduced in the LBG group. Additionally, glucose levels in the HBG group were significantly reduced by 41.2%. There were lower levels of malondialdehyde in the LBG group than in the control group. Furthermore, glutathione reductase activity increased in the HWG group and the HRG group. The protein expression levels of choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter significantly increased in all the ginseng-treated groups.

Conclusion: The results suggest that supplementation with the tested ginseng extracts may suppress the cognitive decline associated with aging, via regulation of the cholinergic and antioxidant defense systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2017.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5628339PMC
October 2017

Fermented herbal formula KIOM-MA-128 protects against acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in mice.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Jul 5;17(1):354. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Korea Medicine (KM)-Application Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 70 Cheomdan-ro, Dong-gu, Daegu, 41062, Republic of Korea.

Background: Colitis is a well-known subtype of inflammatory bowel disease and is caused by diverse factors. Previous research has shown that KIOM-MA elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects on various diseases. KIOM-MA-128, our novel herbal formula, was generated from KIOM-MA using probiotics to improve the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated whether KIOM-MA-128 has protective activity in a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS).

Methods: Colitis was induced by DSS administered to ICR mice in drinking water. KIOM-MA-128 (125 or 250 mg/kg) was orally administered once per day. The body weights of the mice were measured daily, and colonic endoscopies were performed at 5 and 8 days. Colon length as well as histological and cytokine changes were observed at the end of drug administration.

Results: KIOM-MA-128 has pharmacological activity in an acute colitis model. KIOM-MA-128 reduced the loss of body weight and disease activity index (DAI) and inhibited the abnormally short colon lengths and the colonic damage in this mouse model of acute colitis. Moreover, KIOM-MA-128 suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and maintained the integrity of the tight junctions during DSS-induced colitis.

Conclusion: The results indicated that KIOM-MA-128 protects against DSS-induced colitis in mice and suggested that this formula might be a candidate treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1855-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5499052PMC
July 2017

Clinicopathologic Significance of Survivin Expression in Relation to CD133 Expression in Surgically Resected Stage II or III Colorectal Cancer.

J Pathol Transl Med 2017 Jan 15;51(1):17-23. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.

Background: Cancer stem cells have been investigated as new targets for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. We recently reported that CD133 colon cancer cells showed chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil through increased survivin expression and proposed the survivin inhibitor YM155 as an effective therapy for colon cancer in an study. Here, we investigate the relationship between survivin and CD133 expression in surgically resected CRC to identify whether the results obtained in our study are applicable to clinical samples.

Methods: We performed immunohistochemical staining for survivin and CD133 in surgically resected tissue from 187 stage II or III CRC patients. We also comparatively analyzed apoptosis according to survivin and CD133 expression using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling.

Results: The results of the Mantel-Haenszel test established a linear association between nuclear survivin and CD133 expression (p = .018), although neither had prognostic significance, according to immunohistochemical expression level. No correlation was found between survivin expression and the following pathological parameters: invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, or histologic differentiation (p > .05). The mean apoptotic index in survivin and CD133 tumors was higher than that in negative tumors: 5.116 ± 4.894 in survivin versus 4.103 ± 3.691 in survivin (p = .044); 5.165 ± 4.961 in CD133 versus 4.231 ± 3.812 in CD133 (p = .034).

Conclusions: As observed in our study, survivin expression is significantly related to CD133 expression. Survivin may be considered as a new therapeutic target for chemoresistant CRC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2016.09.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5267540PMC
January 2017

Orai1 Expression Is Closely Related with Favorable Prognostic Factors in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

J Korean Med Sci 2016 Jun 6;31(6):879-85. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea .

Store-operated calcium (Ca(2+)) entry (SOCE) is the principal Ca(2+) entry route in non-excitable cells, including cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that Orai1 and STIM1, the molecular components of SOCE, are involved in tumorigenesis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). However, a clinical relevance of Orai1 and STIM1 expression in CCRCC has been ill-defined. Here, we investigated the expression of Orai1 and STIM1 in CCRCC, and compared their expression with clinico-pathological parameters of CCRCC and the patients' outcome. Immunohistochemical staining for Orai1 and STIM1 was performed on 126 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue of CCRCC and western blot analysis for Orai1 was performed on the available fresh tissue. The results were compared with generally well-established clinicopathologic prognostic factors in CCRCC and patient survival. Membrane protein Orai1 is expressed in the nuclei in CCRCC, whereas STIM1 shows the cytosolic expression pattern in immunohistochemical staining. Orai1 expression level is inversely correlated with CCRCC tumor grade, whereas STIM1 expression level is not associated with tumor grade. The higher Orai1 expression is significantly associated with lower Fuhrman nuclear grade, pathologic T stage, and TNM stage and with favorable prognosis. The expression level of STIM1 is not correlated with CCRCC grade and clinical outcomes. Orai1 expression in CCRCC is associated with tumor progression and with favorable prognostic factors. These results suggest that Orai1 is an attractive prognostic marker and therapeutic target for CCRCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2016.31.6.879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4853666PMC
June 2016

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

J Korean Med Sci 2016 May 25;31(5):709-14. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

Department of Family Medicine, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, Korea .

Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2016.31.5.709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4835595PMC
May 2016

The small molecule survivin inhibitor YM155 may be an effective treatment modality for colon cancer through increasing apoptosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 Mar 15;471(2):309-14. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea; Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea. Electronic address:

Survivin has a known beneficial role in the survival of both cancer cells and normal cells. Therapies targeting survivin have been proposed as an alternative treatment modality for various tumors; however, finding the proper indication for this toxic therapy is critical for reducing unavoidable side effects. We recently observed that high survivin expression in CD133(+) cells is related to chemoresistance in Caco-2 colon cancer cells. However, the effect of survivin-targeted therapy on CD133(+) colon cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of CD133 and survivin expression in colon cancer biology in vitro and comparatively analyzed the anticancer effects of survivin inhibitor on CD133(+) cells (ctrl-siRNA group) and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced CD133(-) cells (CD133-siRNA group) obtained from a single colon cancer cell line. CD133 knockdown via siRNA transfection did not change the tumorigenicity of cells, although in vitro survivin expression levels in CD133(+) cells were higher than those in siRNA-induced CD133(-) cells. The transfection procedure seemed to induce survivin expression. Notably, a significant number of CD133(-) cells (33.8%) was found in the cell colonies of the CD133-siRNA group. In the cell proliferation assay after treatment, YM155 and a combination of YM155 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) proved to be far more effective than 5-FU alone. A significantly increased level of apoptosis was observed with increasing doses of YM155 in all groups. However, significant differences in therapeutic effect and apoptosis among the mock, ctrl-siRNA, and CD133-siRNA groups were not detected. Survivin inhibitor is an effective treatment modality for colon cancer; however, the role of CD133 and the use of survivin expression as a biomarker for this targeted therapy must be verified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.02.009DOI Listing
March 2016

Chemoresistance of CD133(+) colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015 Jul 20;463(3):229-34. Epub 2015 May 20.

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea; Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea. Electronic address:

CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133(+) colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133(-) cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133(+) and siRNA-induced CD133(-) cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133(+) cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133(+) cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133(+) cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133(+) cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133(+) colon cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.05.031DOI Listing
July 2015

Effect of initial position on the muscle activity of the hip extensors and amount of pelvic tilt during prone hip extension.

J Phys Ther Sci 2015 Apr 30;27(4):1195-7. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Inje University, Republic of Korea.

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of initial position of the hip joint with changes in the hip joint angle on the respective muscle activities of the bilateral erector spinae (ES), unilateral gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) and the amount of pelvic anterior tilt during prone hip extension (PHE). [Subjects] Fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed PHE in three positions: neutral, 20°, and 45° flexed hip joint. The activities of the ES, GM, and BF were measured using surface electromyography, and kinematic values for pelvic anterior tilt were calculated using a motion capture system. [Results] There was a significant decrease in muscle activity of the contralateral ES at 45°, and an increase in the GM muscle activity and decrease in the BF muscle activity at 20°. The amount of pelvic anterior tilt was lower at 20°. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a hip flexion position of 20° would have an advantage over the other measured positions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.1195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4434008PMC
April 2015

In vivo hair growth-stimulating effect of medicinal plant extract on BALB/c nude mice.

Pharm Biol 2015 Aug 23;53(8):1098-103. Epub 2015 Jan 23.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University , Daejeon , South Korea.

Context: Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (Asteraceae) (CZ) and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Polygonaceae) (PM) have been used traditionally to treat different systemic diseases and acclaimed for various biological activities including hair growth.

Objective: This study investigates the hair restoration efficacy of selected medicinal plant extracts on nude mice.

Materials And Methods: Nude mice genetically predisposed to pattern balding were used in this study. Topical methanol extracts of CZ and PM (10 mg/mouse/d) with standardized vehicle formulation, only vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol:dimethyl sulfoxide, 67:30:3% v/v) and Minoxidil (2%) were applied daily for 40 consecutive days.

Results: In our study, the maximum hair score (2.5 ± 0.29) was obtained in the CZ-treated group. Histological observation revealed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in the number of hair follicles (HF) in CZ-treated mice (58.66 ± 3.72) and Minoxidil-treated mice (40 ± 2.71). Subsequently, immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed the follicular keratinocyte proliferation by detection of BrdU-labeling, S-phase cells in Minoxidil and CZ-treated mouse follicular bulb and outer root sheaths.

Conclusion: Our study revealed the underlying mechanism of stimulating hair growth in athymic nude mice by repair the nu/nu follicular keratin differentiation defect. Thus, the topical application of CZ may represent a novel strategy for the management and therapy of certain forms of alopecia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2014.959614DOI Listing
August 2015

Exogenous stimulation with Eclipta alba promotes hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and downregulates TGF-β1 expression in nude mice.

Int J Mol Med 2015 Feb 4;35(2):496-502. Epub 2014 Dec 4.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea.

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (E. alba) is a traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb used for the promotion of hair growth. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued to date on its effects on genetically distorted hair follicles (HFs). In this study, we aimed to identify an agent (stimuli) that may be beneficial for the restoration of human hair loss and which may be used as an alternative to synthetic drugs. We investigated the effects of petroleum ether extract (PEE) and different solvent fractions of E. alba on HFs of nude mice. Treatment was performed by topical application on the backs of nude mice and the changes in hair growth patterns were evaluated. Histological analysis was carried out to evaluate the HF morphology and the structural differences. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to visualize follicular keratinocyte proliferation. The histological assessments revealed that the PEE-treated skin specimens exhibited prominent follicular hypertrophy. Subsequently, IHC staining revealed a significant increase (p<0.001) in the number of follicular keratinocytes in basal epidermal and matrix cells. Our results also demonstrated that PEE significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression during early anagen and anagen-catagen transition. Our results suggest that PEE of E. alba acts as an important exogenous mediator that stimulates follicular keratinocyte proliferation and delays terminal differentiation by downregulating TGF-β1 expression. Thus, this study highlights the potential use of PEE of E. alba in the treatment of certain types of alopecia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.2022DOI Listing
February 2015

Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.

Biomed Res Int 2014 13;2014:319795. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea.

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/319795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4247959PMC
July 2015

Ameliorating Effect of Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii on High-fat Diet-induced Obese Mice.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2014 Jun;19(2):69-74

Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

The present study investigated the anti-obesity effects of Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii (MA) in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Two groups were fed either a normal control diet or an HF (45% kcal fat) diet for 12 weeks and three groups were fed an HF diet supplemented with powdered MA (MAP, 1%, 3%, and 5%) for 12 weeks. The anti-obesity effects of MAP supplementation on body weight, fat mass development, and lipid-related markers were assessed. Consumption of an HF diet resulted in increased body weight, serum lipids, relative adipose tissues weight, and liver fat accumulation. However, administration of MAP significantly decreased body weight gain, food intake, food efficiency ratio, hepatic cholesterol level, and adipose tissue weight in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with MAP significantly reduced the occurrence of fatty liver deposits and steatosis, and inhibited an HF diet-induced increase in adipocyte size. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with MAP exerts anti-obesity effects and indicate that MAP could be used as a functional food to control obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2014.19.2.069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103730PMC
June 2014

Insulin receptor expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and its relation to prognosis.

Yonsei Med J 2014 Jul;55(4):861-70

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.

Purpose: Both insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling are key regulators of energy metabolism, cellular growth, proliferation, and survival. The IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is overexpressed in most types of human cancers including renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with poor prognosis. Insulin receptor (IR) shares downstream effectors with IGF-1R; however, the expression and function of IR in the tumorigenesis of renal cancer remains elusive. Therefore, we examined the expression of IR and its prognostic significance in clear cell RCC (CCRCC).

Materials And Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for IR was performed on 126 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CCRCC tissue samples. Eight of these cases were utilized for western blot analysis. The results were compared with various clinico-pathologic parameters of CCRCC and patient survival.

Results: IR was expressed in the nuclei of CCRCC tumor cells in 109 cases (87.9%). Higher IR expression was significantly correlated with the presence of cystic change, lower Fuhrman nuclear grade, lower pathologic T stage, and lower TNM stage, although it wasn't significantly related to diabetes status and patient survival. Western blot analyses supported the results of the immunohistochemistry studies.

Conclusion: IR expression in CCRCC may be associated with favorable prognostic factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2014.55.4.861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075388PMC
July 2014

Orai1 and STIM1 are critical for cell migration and proliferation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014 May 19;448(1):76-82. Epub 2014 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The intracellular Ca(2+) regulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Notably, store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a major Ca(2+) entry mechanism in non-excitable cells, being involved in cell proliferation and migration in several types of cancer. However, the expression and biological role of SOCE have not been investigated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here, we demonstrate that Orai1 and STIM1, not Orai3, are crucial components of SOCE in the progression of ccRCC. The expression levels of Orai1 in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent normal parenchymal tissues. In addition, native SOCE was blunted by inhibiting SOCE or by silencing Orai1 and STIM1. Pharmacological blockade or knockdown of Orai1 or STIM1 also significantly inhibited RCC cell migration and proliferative capability. Taken together, Orai1 is highly expressed in ccRCC tissues illuminating that Orai1-mediated SOCE may play an important role in ccRCC development. Indeed, Orai1 and STIM1 constitute a native SOCE pathway in ccRCC by promoting cell proliferation and migration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.04.064DOI Listing
May 2014

Aqueous extract of red deer antler promotes hair growth by regulating the hair cycle and cell proliferation in hair follicles.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 13;2014:878162. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Republic of Korea.

Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4 °C or 100 °C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n = 9) at 1 mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth parameters were measured and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was used to identify label-retaining cells. We found that, in both the 4 °C and the 100 °C deer antler aqueous extract-injection groups, the anagen phase was extended, while the number of BrdU-incorporated cells was dramatically increased. These results indicate that deer antler aqueous extract promotes hair growth by extending the anagen phase and regulating cell proliferation in the hair follicle region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/878162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3947832PMC
December 2014

VEGFR-1 Expression Relates to Fuhrman Nuclear Grade of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

J Lifestyle Med 2014 Mar 31;4(1):64-70. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Departments of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.

Background: Increasing evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 signaling may play an important role in the progression of pathological angiogenesis that occurs in many tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therapeutic targeting directed against VEGF and VEGFR-2 has been proven to be successful for metastatic clear cell RCC (CCRCC). However, the expression of VEGFR-1 and its association with prognostic parameters of CCRCC in the tumorigenesis of renal cancer remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the expression of VEGFR-1 and its prognostic significance in CCRCC.

Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for VEGFR-1 was performed on 126 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CCRCC tissue samples. Six of these cases were available for Western blot analyses. The results were compared with various clinicopathologic parameters of CCRCC and patients' survival.

Results: VEGFR-1 expression was detected in 59 cases (46.8%) of CCRCC. Higher VEGFR-1 expression was significantly correlated with a lower Fuhrman nuclear grade and the absence of renal pelvis invasion, although it was not related to patients' survival. Western blot analyses showed higher VEGFR-1 expression in low grade tumors.

Conclusion: VEGFR-1 expression may be associated with favorable prognostic factors, particularly a lower Fuhrman nuclear grade in CCRCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15280/jlm.2014.4.1.64DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4390762PMC
March 2014

Anti-obesity effects of black ginseng extract in high fat diet-fed mice.

J Ginseng Res 2013 Jul;37(3):308-49

Daedeok Bio Corporation Research and Development center, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.

Black ginseng is produced by a repeated steaming process. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of black ginseng ethanol extract (BG-EE) in high fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Two groups were fed either a normal control (NC) diet or a HF diet (45% kcal fat). The other three groups were given a HF diet supplemented with 1% BG-EE, 3% BG-EE, and 5% BG-EE for 12 wk. The anti-obesity effects of the BG-EE supplement on body weight, the development of fat mass, and lipid mechanisms were assessed in obese mice. HF-induced hyperlipidemia, fat accumulation in the liver, and white adipose tissues were reduced after BG-EE supplementation. Total fecal weight and the amount of fecal fat excretion also were increased after BG-EE supplementation. These results suggest that BG-EE may be useful to ameliorate HF-induced obesity through the strong inhibition of fat digestion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5142/jgr.2013.37.308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3818957PMC
July 2013

Comparison between conidia and blastospores of Esteya vermicola, an endoparasitic fungus of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2013 Dec 6;29(12):2429-36. Epub 2013 Aug 6.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea.

Esteya vermicola, an endoparasitic fungus of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pinewood nematode (PWN), exhibits great potential as a biological control agent against this nematode. E. vermicola produces blastospores in liquid media and aerial conidia on solid media. The agent was mass-produced using two kinds of culture media: S (50 % wheat bran and 50 % pine wood powder), L (0.5 g wheat bran and 0.5 g pinewood powder in 200 ml of potato dextrose broth), and two controls: SC (potato dextrose agar), LC (potato dextrose broth). Yields, multiple stress tolerance, storage life, new generation conidial number, and PWN mortality rates of the spores were measured in each of these four media and compared. The spore yields, new generation conidial number, and nematode mortality rates of blastospores were higher than those of conidia. Nevertheless, the conidia had a higher germination rate than the blastospores during the storage process and multiple stress treatments. Considering the number of spores surviving from the process of the storage and multiple stress treatments per unit of mass media, the blastospores from L survived most. Comprehensive analysis indicates that the L culture medium is the most optimal medium for mass production relatively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-013-1433-yDOI Listing
December 2013

Role of integrin-linked kinase in osteosarcoma progression.

J Orthop Res 2013 Oct 19;31(10):1668-75. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Although integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has been suggested to play a role in the tumorigenesis of a number of human epithelial carcinomas, little is known of its role in musculoskeletal sarcoma. The authors studied ILK expression by immunohistochemistry using osteosarcoma prechemotherapy specimens from 56 patients, and investigated the prognostic implications of the findings obtained. It was found that ILK overexpression was significantly correlated with the presence of distant metastasis (p = 0.008) and that it was an independent prognostic factor for both poor overall survival and poor event-free survival (p = 0.015 and 0.010, respectively). During a transfection experiment conducted by transfecting osteosarcoma cells with ILK siRNA, VEGF concentrations were measured using an ELISA kit, and then compared with those of untransfected controls to evaluate its angiogenic effects. In addition, apoptotic percentages were measured by Annexin-V flow cytometry, and invasive properties were evaluated by measuring the numbers of non-migrating cells in a Boyden chamber. It was found that ILK downregulation significantly decreased angiogenesis, increased apoptosis, and decreased invasiveness of osteosarcoma cells. These results show that ILK is a promising prognostic factor in osteosarcoma and a novel potential therapeutic target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.22409DOI Listing
October 2013

Retinoic acid, acting as a highly specific IgA isotype switch factor, cooperates with TGF-β1 to enhance the overall IgA response.

J Leukoc Biol 2013 Aug 6;94(2):325-35. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea.

The present study demonstrates that RA has activity of an IgA switch factor and is more specific than TGF-β1. RA independently caused only IgA switching, whereas TGF-β1 caused IgA and IgG2b switching. We found that RA increased IgA production and that this was a result of its ability to increase the frequency of IgA-secreting B cell clones. Increased IgA production was accompanied by an increase of GLTα. RA activity was abrogated by an antagonist of the RAR. Additionally, RA affected intestinal IgA production in mice. Surprisingly, RA, in combination with TGF-β1, notably enhanced not only IgA production and GLTα expression but also CCR9 and α4β7 expression on B cells. These results suggest that RA selectively induces IgA isotype switching through RAR and that RA and TGF-β have important effects on the overall gut IgA antibody response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0313128DOI Listing
August 2013

Compound K is able to ameliorate the impaired cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis following chemotherapy treatment.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 Jun 31;436(1):104-9. Epub 2013 May 31.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Taejon, Republic of Korea.

Chemotherapy frequently results in neurocognitive deficits that include impaired learning and memory. Thus, it is important to prevent or ameliorate the persistence of cognitive impairment. Compound K was employed to examine the ameliorating effect on chronic treatment with cyclophosphamide. Eight week-old ICR mice were given 80 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, cyclophosphamide combined with compound K (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) or saline injections once per week for 4 weeks. Passive avoidance test and Y maze were used to evaluate memory and learning ability. Immunohistochemical staining for progenitor cell and immature neurons was used to assess changes in neurogenesis. Compound K (10 mg/kg) is able to ameliorate the decrease of neurogenesis in the hippocampus caused by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that compound K might be a potential strategy to ameliorate or repair the disrupted hippocampal neurogenesis induced by the side effect of chemotherapy agent.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.05.087DOI Listing
June 2013