Publications by authors named "Mezgebu Yitayal"

48 Publications

Institutional delivery and associated factors in rural communities of Central Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255079. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Institutional delivery has been considered as one of the important strategies to improve maternal and child health and significantly reduces birth-related complications. However, it is still low in developing countries though there are some improvements. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in the study area.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A multistage systematic sampling technique was used to select 1,394 study participants. We collected data from 18-48 years old women by using a structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors at 95% confidence level.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 30 (±0.15). The wealth status of 33.48% respondents was poor and 33.33% rich. The prevalence of institutional delivery was 58.17% (95% CI: 55.57%, 60.77%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that demographic factors: women age (≥35years) (AOR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.04, 1.96), having a family size of less than five (AOR = 4.61; 95% CI 3.34, 6.34), having family discussion (AOR = 4.05; 95% CI 2.74, 5.97), distance from the nearby clinic (≤30min) (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI 1.53, 5.58) and decision power about place of delivery (AOR = 2.50; 95% CI 1.56, 4.01); socio-economic factors: husband's educational status of primary school (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.19, 2.24), middle level household wealth index (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.25, 2.54) and rich level household wealth index (AOR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.42, 2.86); and programmatic factors: antenatal care visit during their recent pregnancy (AOR = 1.86;95% CI 1.16, 2.97) were affects institutional delivery positively. Whereas bad behavior of health workers (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.19, 0.39) negatively affects institutional delivery.

Conclusion: Institutional delivery was low in the study area. This study implies that strengthening family discussion and up taking antenatal care services in regular ways are a few of the suggested recommendations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255079PLOS
July 2021

Determinants of hazardous alcohol use among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: A nested case-control study.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(7):e0253162. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Alcohol use during pregnancy has a potential negative impact on the health of women and children. Binge or hazardous drinking may do greater alcohol-related damage to the developing fetus than drinking a comparable amount spread over several days or weeks. This study aimed to identify determinants of hazardous alcohol use among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gondar town public health facilities, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: An unmatched facility-based nested case-control study was carried out to identify the determinants of hazardous alcohol use among pregnant women within a prospective cohort study from 29 October 2019 to 7 May 2020. A two-stage random sampling technique was used to select 455 (113 cases and 342 controls) pregnant women. Data collection was performed using the AUDIT-C standardized and pretested questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify the predictors of alcohol consumption using the odds ratio, 95% CI, and p-value < 0.05.

Results: Multivariable logistic regression model revealed that no formal education of the husbands [AOR = 2.79; 95%CI: 1.24, 6.29], being housewife[AOR = 2.43; 95%CI: 1.12, 5.26], poor household wealth index[AOR = 2.65; 95%CI: 1.07, 6.54], unplanned pregnancy [AOR = 4.36;95%CI: 2.44, 7.79], poor social support [AOR = 4.9;95%CI: 2.4, 10.04], depression[AOR = 3.84;95%CI: 2.16, 6.82], and not ever heard the risk of alcohol drinking during pregnancy [AOR = 1.97; 95%CI: 1.08, 3.58] were significantly associated with hazardous alcohol use.

Conclusions: Routine alcohol screening during ANC visits creates an appropriate referral system for clinical management and provides an opportunity for healthcare workers to offer information on the potential risks associated with alcohol use in pregnancy. Antenatal care providers have a special role to play in assuring that women receive adequate advice about alcohol use and care to manage the problems especially for pregnant women with depression, poor social support, unplanned pregnancy, low socioeconomic status, and for housewives during the antenatal visits. The warning marks on alcoholic beverages including an ongoing message about the risks of alcohol use during pregnancy could be public health good strategies to minimize preventable harms attributed to alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253162PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248645PMC
July 2021

Low level of community readiness prevails in rural northwest Ethiopia for the promotion of institutional delivery.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 17;38:281. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: the health benefits of institutional delivery with the support of skilled professional are one of the indicators of maternal health status which have an impact on the health of women and new coming generation. Despite these benefits, many pregnant women in Ethiopia are not actively bringing delivery at health facility. This study was aimed at determining the readiness level of community for promoting child birth at health facility.

Methods: a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. We interviewed 96 key informants using a semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the community readiness assessment model and translated to Amharic language. The key informants were purposively selected in consultation with the district health office to represent the community. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and survey scores were matched with the readiness stage of 1 of the 9 for the five dimensions using the assessment guidelines.

Results: this study placed nine kebeles at stage 3 (vague awareness), which indicates the need for more institutional delivery service strategy programming; efforts of the community were not focused and low leadership concern and one kebele was in stage 2 (denial/resistance). Six kebeles were placed at high level of readiness i.e. in stage 7 (stabilization), indicating actions are sustained by the local managers or opinion leaders.

Conclusion: evidence derived from the present study can be used to match intervention tactics for promoting health facility child birth service utilization to communities based on their level of readiness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2021.38.281.27300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179980PMC
June 2021

Cost of Illness of Epilepsy and Associated Factors in Patients Attending Adult Outpatient Department of University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 4;14:2385-2394. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Epilepsy has significant economic implications on health care needs, premature death, and lost work productivity. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the cost of illness of epilepsy and its associated factors in the Outpatient Department of University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: We conducted an institution-based cross-sectional study from March 2018 to April 2018. A total of 442 adult epileptic patients were selected from the chronic follow-up clinic using a systematic sampling technique. We fitted binary logistic regression to identify the associated factors, and significant variables in the multivariable logistic regression analysis were determined using P-value <0.05 and 95% CI.

Results: The study revealed that the mean total cost illness of epilepsy per patient per year was US$ 166±61.6, and 30.3% of patients incurred high cost. Age (AOR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.09), sex (AOR = 3.66; 95% CI: 1.94, 6.89), educational (AOR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.005, 0.047), polytherapy (AOR = 4.66; 95% CI: 2.29, 9.46), seizure frequency (AOR = 4.48; 95% CI: 1.56, 12.8), place where AEDs were bought (AOR = 6.23; 95% CI: 2.7, 14.03) and disease duration (AOR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.25) were predictors of the cost of illness of epilepsy.

Conclusion: The total annual cost of illness of epilepsy was high, taking into account the per capita income of the individuals. The age, sex, and educational status of the patients, and the number of AED, seizure frequency, places where patients buy drugs, and disease duration were factors significantly associated with the cost of illness of epilepsy. Hence, creating an alternative source of income, socio-economic support, and affordable health care service for patients, especially for female and elderly patients, and strengthening and equipping nearby clinics, increasing drug availability in governmental pharmacies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S289113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187097PMC
June 2021

Health extension workers' perceived health system context and health post preparedness to provide services: a cross-sectional study in four Ethiopian regions.

BMJ Open 2021 06 9;11(6):e048517. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Health System and Reproductive Health Research Directtorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Objective: The health system context influences the implementation of evidence-based practices and quality of healthcare services. Ethiopia aims at reaching universal health coverage but faces low primary care utilisation and substandard quality of care. We assessed the health extension workers' perceived context and the preparedness of health posts to provide services.

Setting: This study was part of evaluating a complex intervention in 52 districts of four regions of Ethiopia. This paper used the endline data collected from December 2018 to February 2019.

Participants: A total of 152 health posts and health extension workers serving selected enumeration areas were included.

Outcome Measures: We used the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool and the Service Availability and Readiness Assessment tool.

Results: Internal reliability of COACH was satisfactory. The dimensions , , and all scored high (mean 3.75-4.01 on a 1-5 scale), while and scored low (1.78-2.71). The general service readiness index was 59%. On average, 67% of the health posts had basic amenities to provide services, 81% had basic equipment, 42% had standard precautions for infection prevention, 47% had test capacity for malaria and 58% had essential medicines.

Conclusion: The health extension workers had a good relationship with the local community, used data for planning, were highly committed to their work with positive perceptions of their work culture, a relatively positive attitude regarding their leaders, and reported no corruption or informal payments. In contrast, they had insufficient sources of information and a severe lack of resources. The health post preparedness confirmed the low level of resources and preparedness for services. These findings suggest a significant potential contribution by health extension workers to Ethiopia's primary healthcare, provided that they receive improved support, including new information and essential resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191611PMC
June 2021

Individual and community-level predictors of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a multilevel logistic regression analysis.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jun 5;21(1):419. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Prenatal alcohol consumption is a serious public health concern that is considered as one of the preventable risk factors for neonatal and childhood morbidity and several adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to determine the individual- and community-level predictors of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women in Gondar town from 13 June to 24 August 2019. A cluster random sampling technique was used to select 1237 pregnant women. Data collection was carried out using the AUDIT-C pretested standard questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses were computed to identify predictors of alcohol consumption using the odds ratio, 95% CI, and p-value < 0.05.

Results: The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy was found to be 30.26% (95% CI: 27.74%, 32.91%). The study revealed that pregnant women who have a low knowledge level on harmful effect of alcohol consumption (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.9, 5.4), positive attitude towards alcohol consumption (AOR = 7.5; 95% 5, 11), history of pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption (AOR = 4.8; 95% CI: 3.4, 6.9), whose partner consume alcohol (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.5, 6), a perception that alcohol consumption is culturally or socially acceptable (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI: 2.4, 5.3), who were encouraged by their partners to consume alcohol (AOR = 4; 95% CI: 1.9, 8) were significantly associated with pregnancy alcohol consumption. Concerning the community-level characteristics, who had not ever heard/media exposure about the risk of alcohol drinking during pregnancy (AOR = 3; 95% CI: 1.7, 5.5), and who were from low community women's education attainment (AOR = 4; 95% CI: 2.2, 7.7) were statistically significant predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

Conclusions: The study revealed that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is prevalent in Gondar town. Both individual- and community-level predictors were found to be associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Policymakers may take into account these predictors for individual and community-based interventions to which our results appear to point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03885-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180107PMC
June 2021

Effect of Community-Based Health Insurance on Healthcare-Seeking Behavior for Childhood Illnesses Among Rural Mothers in Aneded District, East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Northwest Ethiopia.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 21;14:1659-1668. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Reproductive Health, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been implemented in developing countries to facilitate modern medical care access. However, studies conducted on the effect of CBHI on healthcare-seeking behavior (HSB) have been limited and revealed inconsistent results. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effect of CBHI on mothers' HSB for common under-five childhood illnesses.

Methods: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 rural mothers (205 insured and 205 non-insured), and a multistage random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Binary logistic regression and propensity score matching were used to identify factors associated with the mothers' HSB, and estimate the effect of CBHI on mothers' HSB, respectively.

Results: The overall mother's HSB for childhood illnesses was 48.8% (200/410). From those mothers who visited healthcare, 92.0% were married, 86.0% were unable to read and write, 94.5% were farmers, and 54.5% were from low wealth status, 58.50% had a family size of ≤5, 54.0% had children less than 24 months of age. Besides, 63.0% were members of CBHI, 37.0% perceived their child's illness as severe, 78.0% made a shared decision to visit a health facility, and 67.5% lived within less than five Kms from the nearby health facilities. Being a member of CBHI, the child's age, decision to visit a health facility, and perceived disease severity were predictors of HSB. The CBHI had a significant effect on the HSB for childhood illnesses with ATT of 28.7% (t = 3.959).

Conclusion: The overall mothers' HSB for common childhood illnesses was low though the CBHI has a significant effect. CBHI should be strengthened to improve the mothers' HSB. It is also crucial to strengthen awareness creation regarding joint decision-making and educate mothers to visit the health facilities regardless of children's age and disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S298658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071702PMC
April 2021

Association between a complex community intervention and quality of health extension workers' performance to correctly classify common childhood illnesses in four regions of Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(3):e0247474. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Health System and Reproductive Health Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Due to low care utilization, a complex intervention was done for two years to optimize the Ethiopian Health Extension Program. Improved quality of the integrated community case management services was an intermediate outcome of this intervention through community education and mobilization, capacity building of health workers, and strengthening of district ownership and accountability of sick child services. We evaluated the association between the intervention and the health extension workers' ability to correctly classify common childhood illnesses in four regions of Ethiopia.

Methods: Baseline and endline assessments were done in 2016 and 2018 in intervention and comparison areas in four regions of Ethiopia. Ill children aged 2 to 59 months were mobilized to visit health posts for an assessment that was followed by re-examination. We analyzed sensitivity, specificity, and difference-in-difference of correct classification with multilevel mixed logistic regression in intervention and comparison areas at baseline and endline.

Results: Health extensions workers' consultations with ill children were observed in intervention (n = 710) and comparison areas (n = 615). At baseline, re-examination of the children showed that in intervention areas, health extension workers' sensitivity for fever or malaria was 54%, 68% for respiratory infections, 90% for diarrheal diseases, and 34% for malnutrition. At endline, it was 40% for fever or malaria, 49% for respiratory infections, 85% for diarrheal diseases, and 48% for malnutrition. Specificity was higher (89-100%) for all childhood illnesses. Difference-in-differences was 6% for correct classification of fever or malaria [aOR = 1.45 95% CI: 0.81-2.60], 4% for respiratory tract infection [aOR = 1.49 95% CI: 0.81-2.74], and 5% for diarrheal diseases [aOR = 1.74 95% CI: 0.77-3.92].

Conclusion: This study revealed that the Optimization of Health Extension Program intervention, which included training, supportive supervision, and performance reviews of health extension workers, was not associated with an improved classification of childhood illnesses by these Ethiopian primary health care workers.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN12040912, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12040912.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247474PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954333PMC
March 2021

Health Service Utilization Among Out-of-Pocket Payers and Fee-Wavier Users in Saesie Tsaeda-Emba District, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 18;14:695-703. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Health service utilization among out-of-pocket payers and fee-wavier users and factors associated with it in Saesie Tsaeda-Emba District, Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

Methods: A comparative community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia. Households with at least one person who experienced illness during the last six months were included in the study. Data were collected using a structured and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the HSU.

Results: In this study, 652 individuals (489 OOP payers and 163 fee waiver users) participated with overall response rate of 98%. The overall HSU among the participants was 44.3% (41.9 for OOP users and 51.5% for fee waiver users). The study revealed that educational status (AOR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.59), family size (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.97) and income level (AOR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.12, 3.90, and AOR = 4.12; 95% CI: 2.41, 7.53) were factors significantly associated with the HSU among OOP payers. The study also revealed that educational status (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.59), family size (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.97), income level (AOR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.21, 4.87), and payment mechanism (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.34, 4.67 were significantly associated with the HSU among all study participants.

Conclusion: This study shows that the level of the HSU is low. Educational status, family size, economic status, and payment mechanism were significantly associated with the HSU. Therefore, improving the community's educational level, promoting family planning, devising income-generating strategies, and strengthening the fee waiver mechanism may enhance the HSU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S287504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900824PMC
February 2021

Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors Among Adult Patients with Heart Failure in Wolaita Zone Governmental Hospitals, Southern Ethiopia.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 22;14:263-271. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Knowing how heart failure affects patients' quality of life and its associated factors are crucial for a better patient-centred approach and management. Therefore, this study aims to assess health-related quality of life and its associated factors among adult heart failure patients in southern Ethiopia hospitals.

Methods: The facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted in Wolaita zone governmental hospitals from March to April 2018. The population was all adult heart failure patients in the chronic illness follow-up clinic and inpatient department. All adult heart failure patients on follow-up clinic and inpatient departments who have at least a 6-month follow-up were included in the study. In contrast, patients who had chronic comorbidities were excluded from the study. Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) tool was used to measure the outcome variable health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Interviews and client medical record reviews also collected socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics of participants. The data were analyzed using STATA version 14, and multiple linear regression analysis with P-value < 0.05 was used to measure the degree of association between HRQoL and independent variables.

Results: A total of 372 patients participated in the study. The HRQoL score for the physical, emotional, and total were 22.2, 7.7, and 46.37, respectively. HRQoL was significantly associated with gender, age, family size, occupation, residency, and recent admission within the past six months, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, department of treatment, salt intake, and health perception.

Conclusion: Generally, the HRQoL for patients with heart failure was found to be low. Besides the variables age and gender of participants, family size, occupation, residency, admission history, salt intake, and NYHA class were significant factors for the HRQoL of patients with heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S288326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837586PMC
January 2021

Routine health information system utilization for evidence-based decision making in Amhara national regional state, northwest Ethiopia: a multi-level analysis.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 01 26;21(1):28. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Health Informatics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Health Information System is the key to making evidence-based decisions. Ethiopia has been implementing the Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 2008 to collect routine health data and revised it in 2017. However, the evidence is meager on the use of routine health information for decision making among department heads in the health facilities. The study aimed to assess the proportion of routine health information systems utilization for evidence-based decisions and factors associated with it.

Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 386 department heads from 83 health facilities in ten selected districts in the Amhara region Northwest of Ethiopia from April to May 2019. The single population proportion formula was applied to estimate the sample size taking into account the proportion of data use 0.69, margin of error 0.05, and the critical value 1.96 at the 95% CI. The final sample size was estimated at 394 by considering 1.5 as a design effect and 5% non-response. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics mean and percentage were calculated. The study employed a generalized linear mixed-effect model. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) and the 95% CI were calculated. Variables with p value < 0.05 were considered as predictors of routine health information system use.

Result: Proportion of information use among department heads for decision making was estimated at 46%. Displaying demographic (AOR = 12.42, 95% CI [5.52, 27.98]) and performance (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI [1.33, 2.11]) data for monitoring, and providing feedback to HMIS unit (AOR = 2.29; 95% CI [1.05, 5.00]) were individual (level-1) predictors. Maintaining performance monitoring team minute (AOR = 3.53; 95% CI [1.61, 7.75]), receiving senior management directives (AOR = 3.56; 95% CI [1.76, 7.19]), supervision (AOR = 2.84; 95% CI [1.33, 6.07]), using HMIS data for target setting (AOR = 3.43; 95% CI [1.66, 7.09]), and work location (AOR = 0.16; 95% CI [0.07, 0.39]) were organizational (level-2) explanatory variables.

Conclusion: The proportion of routine health information utilization for decision making was low. Displaying demographic and performance data, providing feedback to HMIS unit, maintaining performance monitoring team minute, conducting supervision, using HMIS data for target setting, and work location were factors associated with the use of routine health information for decision making. Therefore, strengthening the capacity of department heads on data displaying, supervision, feedback mechanisms, and engagement of senior management are highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-021-01400-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836202PMC
January 2021

Catastrophic Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditure Among Rural Households in the Semi-Pastoral Community, Western Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2020 31;12:761-769. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Every year, 808 million people face catastrophic health expenditure (CHE), and 122 million people were pushed into poverty. It aggravates healthcare inequalities, incurs double burden opportunity costs, and pushes households to sit in a deep poverty trap. A few studies have been done so far; however, it is not enough to inform policy decisions. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the catastrophic out-of-pocket health expenditure and associated factors among rural households in Mandura District, Western Ethiopia.

Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study among the Mandura district's 488 rural households from April to May 2017. We used a multistage systematic sampling technique to select the participants. We fitted a binary logistic regression model to identify the factors associated with catastrophic out-of-pocket health expenditure. We used the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% CI and the p-value <0.05 to determine the variables associated with catastrophic out-of-pocket health expenditure.

Results: Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) with a 40% capacity to pay (CTP) households in the study area was 22.5%. Female household head (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.44, 5.93) and household with chronic illnesses (AOR = 3.93; 95% CI: 1.78, 9.14) were positively associated with CHE and, while households who had adult household members (AOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.63) were negatively associated.

Conclusion: The overall CHE, with a 40% CTP threshold, was high. Prevention of chronic illness might help to reduce the burden of the expenditure. Strengthening financial risk protection mechanisms, such as community-based health insurance, could help bring healthcare services equity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S285715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781027PMC
December 2020

Technical Efficiency of Maternal Health Services Provision in Public Hospitals of Northwest Ethiopia: A Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2020 24;13:3135-3146. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Ethiopian health expenditure as a share of total government expenditure increased from 7.6% in 2013/14 to 8.1% in 2016/17. But it remained low even for the low-income country average expected share of 8.7%. It signifies the efficient use of scarce resources in the health sector is still critical to achieving sustainable development goals. But little evidence is available about public hospitals' technical efficiency in providing maternal health services. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the technical efficiency of maternal health services provision of public hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among twelve randomly selected public hospitals. Input data (salary expenditure, non-salary expenditure, and the number of beds) and maternal health services output data (antenatal care, skilled delivery, and postnatal care) for a 2011 Ethiopian fiscal year (July 2018 to June 2019) were collected and entered into Epi-Data 3.1. We used both primary and secondary data collection procedures to determine independent variables and the dependent variable, respectively. We also used a two-stage input-oriented data envelopment analysis with variable returns to scale assumption.

Results: The study showed that hospitals included in this study wasted US$ 6833.50 for salary and US$ 3886.8 for non-salary expenditures. The study also revealed that the mean pure technical efficiency of public hospitals for maternal health service provision was 0.92±0.142, and their scale efficiency was 0.795±0.24. The hospital manager's experience year, the educational level of the manager, and the hospital service year associated positively with the technical efficiency. However, the catchment population and distance of another health facility associated negatively with technical efficiency.

Conclusion: The public hospitals' pure technical efficiency in the provision of maternal health services in Northwest Ethiopia was high. More than half of the public hospitals were technically efficient. The wasted amount of expenditures could be used for satisfying the unmet health services need of the population. Therefore, it is better to monitor the health facilities for the wise use of the existing resources for their best performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S285045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769139PMC
December 2020

High Hidden Burden of Diabetes Mellitus among Adults Aged 18 Years and Above in Urban Northwest Ethiopia.

J Diabetes Res 2020 22;2020:9240398. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System Research Centre, Institute of Public Health College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan African countries with a rapidly increasing burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). There is limited updated information about the community-based burden of the disease and its associated factors in Ethiopia which is very crucial to plan effective prevention and control measures against the disease. This study is aimed at determining the burden of DM and its associated factors in urban northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2019 among residents aged ≥ 18 years in Gondar town and urban kebeles (lowest administrative units of the country) of Health and Demographic Surveillance System site (HDSS) in Dabat district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 773 participants. World Health Organization (WHO) stepwise approach for noncommunicable disease surveillance was used to collect the data. Fasting blood glucose (FBS) ≥ 126 mg/dl was used to diagnose DM. Descriptive statistics were done to describe the variables of the study. Prevalence with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated. Binary logistic regression model was fitted, variables with value < 0.05 were considered to have a significant association with the outcome, and odds ratio (OR) was used to measure the strength of association.

Result: Of the total participants, 6.34% (95% CI; 4.82, 8.29) were found to be diabetic. Of these, 40 (81.6%) were newly diagnosed. Besides, the prevalence of prediabetes was 9.31% (95% CI: 7.45, 11.58). Increased age (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI; 1.04, 1.09) and eating vegetables one to three days per week (AOR =0.29, 95% CI; 0.13, 0.65) were significantly associated with diabetes.

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of DM is a bit higher than the national estimate, while the proportion of undiagnosed DM which can easily progress to disabling and life-threatening complications was alarmingly high. Age and frequency of eating vegetables per week were associated with diabetes. In light of this finding, future prevention and control measures against the diseases should consider the identified factors. There should also be improved access to screening services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9240398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704177PMC
November 2020

Prevalence and determinants of incomplete or not at all vaccination among children aged 12-36 months in Dabat and Gondar districts, northwest of Ethiopia: findings from the primary health care project.

BMJ Open 2020 12 8;10(12):e041163. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Dabat Research Centre Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Institute of Public Health College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Objective: Ethiopia is one of the Africa's signatory countries for implementation of the primary healthcare strategy including immunisation. In Ethiopia, however, 16% of child death is due to vaccine-preventable disease. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of incomplete or not at all vaccination among children aged 12-36 months in Dabat and Gondar districts, Northwest Ethiopia.

Study Design: The study is community-based cross-sectional study.

Study Setting: Dabat and Gondar Zuria districts, Northwest Ethiopia.

Participants: Mothers/caregivers with children aged 12-36 months were enrolled in the study. Participants were randomly selected through systematic sampling and a total of 603 participants were included in the analysis.

Methods: A binary logistic regression analysis was done. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, a p value of <0.05 and adjusted OR (AOR) with 95% CI were used to identify statistically associated factors with incomplete or not at all vaccination.

Outcomes: Incomplete or not at all vaccination.

Results: The prevalence of incomplete or not at all vaccinated children was 23.10% (95% CI 16.50 to 29.70). The multivariable analysis revealed that the odds of incomplete or not at all vaccination were higher among mothers who had no antenatal care (ANC) visit (AOR: 1.81, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.03) and no postnatal care (PNC) visit (AOR=1.52, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.25).

Conclusions: In the study area, nearly one-fourth of children are incompletely or not at all vaccinated. Our finding suggests that ANC and PNC visits are key determinants of incomplete or not at all vaccination. Thus, in low-resource settings like Ethiopia, the health system approaches to improved ANC and PNC services should be intensified with more effective advice on child immunisation to reduce vaccine preventable disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725104PMC
December 2020

Quality of life and associated factors among patients with tuberculosis at the University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital, Ethiopia.

Qual Life Res 2021 Apr 29;30(4):1173-1181. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Purpose: Clinical outcomes have failed to capture the impact of tuberculosis (TB) on patients; consequently, a comprehensive measure is required. This study's objective was to determine the level of quality of life (QOL) and associated factors among patients with TB at the University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital, TB clinic.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2019. A total of 400 patients were selected. The world health organization quality-of-life (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire was used to measure QOL. Linear regression analysis was done to investigate potential predictors, and variables with a P value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The participants had a mean age of 38.04 ± 13.53 years; the percentage of patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) was 52.71% and 57.36% were male. The QOL scores for physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were 43.54 ± 10.18, 46.67 ± 7.93, 39.79 ± 15.30 and 41.22 ± 12.90, respectively. PTB was associated with physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains (B = -3.99, P value <0.001), (B = -2.03, P value = 0.027), (B = -4.44, P value = 0.008), and (B = -2.83, P value = 0.029), individually; likewise, drug adherence was associated with physical (B = -10.36), psychological (B = -4.48), social (B = -14.46), and environmental (B = -8.44) domains at a P value <0.001. Education (B = 2.39, P value = 0.018), and co-morbidity (B = -4.28, P value = 0.023) were associated with the psychological domain. Finally, occupation was significantly associated with the environmental domain (B = -4.53, P value = 0.008).

Conclusion: This study revealed that the QOL of patients was relatively low compared to that of other studies. Notably, social domains were affected more than other domains. Non-adherence and PTB were negatively associated with all domains. Therefore, health professionals should emphasize patients' drug adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02717-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Economic Burden and Predictors of Cost Variability Among Adult Cancer Patients at Comprehensive Specialized Hospitals in West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 18;12:11793-11802. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and accounts for 5.8% of deaths in Ethiopia. High out-of-pocket payment for the cost of illness of cancer could be linked to the low adherence to cancer treatment. This study aimed to assess the economic burden and predictors of cost variability among adult cancer patients at comprehensive specialized hospitals in West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2019 at the University of Gondar and Felege Hiwot hospitals. The cost of illness of cancer was estimated using a bottom-up micro-costing approach. Direct costs of illness of cancer were measured by calculating out-of-pocket expenditure. The indirect costs were estimated using human capital model approach. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the predictors for the log-transformed data. Unstandardized β-coefficient with 95% CI and -value < 0.05 were used to declare factors associated with cost of illness of cancer.

Results: The mean cost of cancer illness among adult patients was US$ 1103.7 ±33.2, and median cost was US$ 951.0 with IQR of 822.1. Factors such as urban residents (β = 0.147; 95% CI: 0.047, 0.246), distance (β = 0.0007; 95% CI: 0.0002, 0.001), married (β = 0.125; 95% CI: 0.037, 0.212), higher education (β = 0.318; 95% CI: 0.202, 0.435), buying drugs at private facilities (β = 0.134; 95% CI: 0.026, 0.243), richest households (β = 0.320; 95% CI: 0.143, 0.496) and frequent cycles of chemotherapy (β = 0.093; 95% CI: 0.061, 0.125) were positively associated with cost, while being female patients (β = -0.144; 95% CI: - 0.210, - 0.018) were negatively associated.

Conclusion: The cost of illness of cancer was high. The government, therefore, should expand health insurance and invest an additional budget to safeguard patients from financial catastrophic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S282746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680671PMC
November 2020

Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors Among Adult HIV Mono-Infected and TB/HIV Co-Infected Patients in Public Health Facilities in Northeast Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2020 12;14:1873-1887. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the health-related quality of life and associated factors among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mono-infected and tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infected patients in the public health facilities of northeast Ethiopia.

Methods: A comparative facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01 to May 30, 2019. A total of 434 HIV mono-infected and 143 TB/ HIV co-infected patients were randomly selected for the study. The data were collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The health-related quality of life of patients was measured using the World Health Organization quality of life HIV instrument which contains physical, psychological, social relationships, environmental, level of independence, and spiritual domains. The validated version of the Kessler scale was used to assess depressive symptoms. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the outcome variables, and a p-value < 0.05 with 95% CI was used to measure the degree of association between health-related quality of life and independent variables.

Results: The mean scores of health-related quality of life among HIV mono-infected patients in terms of thephysical, psychological, level of independence, social relationships, environmental, and spiritual health domains were 63.9, 65.0, 60.5, 59.0, 56.4, and 63.9, respectively; whereas the mean scores among TB/HIV co-infected patients were 46.6, 48.5, 42.7, 43.5, 39.3, and 51.3, respectively. Among HIV mono-infected patients, being married improved the quality of social relationships by 6.7 compared with unmarried patients (β = 6.7, 95% CI = 3.24, 10.11); whereas among the TB/HIV co-infected patients, being educated increased the quality of social relationships by 10.6 compared with being uneducated (β=10.6, 95% CI=3.70, 17.51).

Conclusion: The study revealed that the TB/HIV co-infected patients had poor health-related quality of life in all domains compared with HIV mono-infected patients. Besides, depression and stigma were more prevalent among co-infected patients. Therefore, designing and implementing specific management that focuses on psychiatric centers for TB/HIV co-infected patients will be necessary as their quality of life is lowered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S269577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567992PMC
October 2020

Does a complex intervention targeting communities, health facilities and district health managers increase the utilisation of community-based child health services? A before and after study in intervention and comparison areas of Ethiopia.

BMJ Open 2020 09 15;10(9):e040868. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Introduction: Ethiopia successfully reduced mortality in children below 5 years of age during the past few decades, but the utilisation of child health services was still low. Optimising the Health Extension Programme was a 2-year intervention in 26 districts, focusing on community engagement, capacity strengthening of primary care workers and reinforcement of district accountability of child health services. We report the intervention's effectiveness on care utilisation for common childhood illnesses.

Methods: We included a representative sample of 5773 households with 2874 under-five children at baseline (December 2016 to February 2017) and 10 788 households and 5639 under-five children at endline surveys (December 2018 to February 2019) in intervention and comparison areas. Health facilities were also included. We assessed the effect of the intervention using difference-in-differences analyses.

Results: There were 31 intervention activities; many were one-off and implemented late. In eight districts, activities were interrupted for 4 months. Care-seeking for any illness in the 2 weeks before the survey for children aged 2-59 months at baseline was 58% (95% CI 47 to 68) in intervention and 49% (95% CI 39 to 60) in comparison areas. At end-line it was 39% (95% CI 32 to 45) in intervention and 34% (95% CI 27 to 41) in comparison areas (difference-in-differences -4 percentage points, adjusted OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.95). The intervention neither had an effect on care-seeking among sick neonates, nor on household participation in community engagement forums, supportive supervision of primary care workers, nor on indicators of district accountability for child health services.

Conclusion: We found no evidence to suggest that the intervention increased the utilisation of care for sick children. The lack of effect could partly be attributed to the short implementation period of a complex intervention and implementation interruption. Future funding schemes should take into consideration that complex interventions that include behaviour change may need an extended implementation period.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN12040912.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493123PMC
September 2020

Determinants of the Continuum of Maternal Healthcare Services in Northwest Ethiopia: Findings from the Primary Health Care Project.

J Pregnancy 2020 26;2020:4318197. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: The maternity continuum of care is the continuity of maternal healthcare services that a woman uses, which includes antenatal care (ANC 4+), skill birth attendant (SBA), and postnatal care (PNC) within 48 hours of delivery. It is one of the essential strategies for reducing maternal and newborn mortality. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with the completion of a continuum of maternal healthcare services among mothers who gave birth in the past five years.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 01 to June 29, 2019, among 565 randomly selected mothers who gave birth in five years before the study in primary healthcare project implementation districts of north Gondar zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were computed, and in the multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and a value of less than 0.05 were used to identify the associated factors with completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services.

Results: The study revealed that the overall completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services was 21.60% (95% CI: 18.20, 24.90). Women who were able to read and write (AOR: 2.70, 95% CI: 1.22, 6.04), using car/motorcycle as a means of transportation to get the health facility (AOR: 5.59, 95% CI: 2.29, 9.50), travel time less than an hour to get the health facility (AOR: 4.98, 95% CI: 2.97, 8.38), being satisfied with the service delivery (AOR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.11), and getting health education on maternal healthcare services in the last 6 months (AOR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.52, 5.05) were factors associated with the completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services.

Conclusions: The completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services was relatively low, indicating that women were not getting the likely health benefit from the present health services. Therefore, interventions should focus on increasing women's awareness, improving the availability of services at nearby health facilities, and improving service delivery by considering women's preferences and needs to increase their satisfaction are essential to increase the completion of maternal healthcare services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4318197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471826PMC
October 2020

Effect of intimate partner violence of women on minimum acceptable diet of children aged 6-23 months in Ethiopia: evidence from 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey.

BMC Nutr 2020 28;6:28. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: The absence of proper infant and young child feeding practice results in malnutrition. Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is potentially a major factor affecting child feeding practices. However, there is limited evidence about the effect of intimate partner violence (IPV) on a minimum acceptable diet. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that IPV will be associated with a lack of a minimum acceptable diet among children aged 6-23 months.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016. All child-mother pairs that participated in EDHS 2016 from all regions of Ethiopia were included. The analysis included mother-child pairs where 6-23 months aged children with mothers who were ever in a committed partnership and interviewed for domestic violence were involved. The data were weighted considering enumeration areas as a cluster and place of residence as a stratum. A binary logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors independently associated with a minimum acceptable diet.

Result: Totally, 1307 observations were included in the final analysis. The mean age of mothers was 29 years (standard deviation ±6.54 years), the mean age of children was 14. ± 5.02 months, and 32% of women had intimate partner violence (IPV). Of the children, 8% had a minimum acceptable diet (minimum acceptable diet), 15% had a minimum dietary diversity, and 43% had a minimum meal frequency. Having intimate partner violence decreases children minimum acceptable diet by 65% (AOR: ; 95% CI: . The other factors associated with the minimum acceptable diet were caregivers attaining a secondary level of education (AOR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.04, 15.45), currently working (AOR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.01, 5.11), and undecided fertility desire (AOR: 4.72; 95% CI: 1.37, 16.28).

Conclusion: Intimate partner violence against women had a negative association with the minimum acceptable diet children have received. Decreasing violence against women, educating, and increasing work opportunities for them would help in improving child feeding practice and reducing malnutrition and its consequences. Further studies that focus on possible community-based interventions aiming to decrease IPV are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00354-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385870PMC
July 2020

Assessing the quality of care in sick child services at health facilities in Ethiopia.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jun 23;20(1):574. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Health System and Reproductive Health Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Quality of care depends on system, facility, provider, and client-level factors. We aimed at examining structural and process quality of services for sick children and its association with client satisfaction at health facilities in Ethiopia.

Methods: Data from the Ethiopia Service Provision Assessment Plus (SPA+) survey 2014 were used. Measures of quality were assessed based on the Donabedian framework: structure, process, and outcome. A total of 1908 mothers or caretakers were interviewed and their child consultations were observed. Principal component analysis was used to construct quality of care indices including a structural composite score, a process composite score, and a client satisfaction score. Multilevel mixed linear regression was used to analyze the association between structural and process factors with client satisfaction.

Result: Among children diagnosed with suspected pneumonia, respiratory rate was counted in 56% and temperature was checked in 77% of the cases. A majority of children (92%) diagnosed with fever had their temperature taken. Only 3% of children with fever were either referred or admitted, and 60% received antibiotics. Among children diagnosed with malaria, 51% were assessed for all three Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) main symptoms, and 4% were assessed for all three general danger signs. Providers assessed dehydration in 54% of children with diarrhea with dehydration, 17% of these children were admitted or referred to another facility, and Oral Rehydration Solution was prescribed for 67% while none received intravenous fluids. The number of basic amenities in the facility was negatively associated with the clients' satisfaction. Private facilities, when the providers had got training for care of sick children in the past 2 years, had higher client satisfaction. There was no statistical association between structure, process composite indicators and client satisfaction.

Conclusion: The assessment of sick children was of low quality, with many missing procedures when comparing with IMCI guidelines. In spite of this, most clients were satisfied with the services they received. Structural and process composite indicators were not associated with client's satisfaction. These findings highlight the need to assess other dimensions of quality of care besides structure and process that may influence client satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05444-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313135PMC
June 2020

Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and META-analysis.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Jun 15;20(1):364. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Departement of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: There is wide variation in the utilization of institutional delivery service in Ethiopia. Various socioeconomic and cultural factors affect the decision where to give birth. Although there has been a growing interest in the assessment of institutional delivery service utilization and its predictors, nationally representative evidence is scarce. This study was aimed to estimate the pooled national prevalence of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors in Ethiopia.

Methods: Studies were accessed through PubMed, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The funnel plot and Egger's regression test were used to see publication bias, and I-squared statistic was applied to check heterogeneity of studies. A weighted Dersimonian laired random effect model was applied to estimate the pooled national prevalence and the effect size of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors.

Result: Twenty four studies were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of institutional delivery service utilization was 31% (95% Confidence interval (CI): 30, 31.2%; I = 0.00%). Attitude towards institutional delivery (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) = 2.83; 95% CI 1.35,5.92) in 3 studies, maternal age at first pregnancy (AOR = 3.59; 95% CI 2.27,5.69) in 4 studies, residence setting (AOR = 3.84; 95% CI 1.31, 11.25) in 7 studies, educational status (AOR = 2.91;95% 1.88,4.52) in 5 studies, availability of information source (AOR = 1.80;95% CI 1.16,2.78) in 6 studies, ANC follow-up (AOR = 2.57 95% CI 1.46,4.54) in 13 studies, frequency of ANC follow up (AOR = 4.04;95% CI 1.21,13.46) in 4 studies, knowledge on danger signs during pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery (AOR = 3.04;95% CI 1.76,5.24) in 11 studies and place of birth of the elder child (AOR = 8.44;95% CI 5.75,12.39) in 4 studies were the significant predictors of institutional delivery service utilization.

Conclusion: This review found that there are several modifiable factors such as empowering women through education; promoting antenatal care to prevent home delivery; increasing awareness of women through mass media and making services more accessible would likely increase utilization of institutional delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03032-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296650PMC
June 2020

Intentions to use maternity waiting homes and associated factors in Northwest Ethiopia.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 May 11;20(1):281. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P. O. Box, 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Maternity Waiting Homes (MWHs) are residential facilities located within hospitals or health centers to accommodate women in their final weeks of pregnancy to bridge the geographical gap in obstetric care. Little is known, however, about women's intentions to use MWHs. Thus, this study aimed to assess pregnant women's intentions to use MWHs and associated factors in East Bellesa district, northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 525 pregnant women in East Bellesa district from March to May 2018. Study participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Binary logistic regression was used for analysis. Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI), and p-value < 0.05 were used to identify factors associated with intentions to use MWHs.

Results: In the study area, 326/499 (65.3%) pregnant women had the intention to use MWHs. Pregnant women who had good knowledge about maternal healthcare and obstetric complications (aOR 6.40; 95% CI 3.6-11.5), positive subjective norms related to women's perceptions of social pressure (aOR 5.14; 95% CI 2.9-9.2), positive perceived behavioral control of women on the extent to which women feel confident (aOR 4.74; 95% CI 2.7-8.4), rich wealth status (aOR 4.21; 95% CI 2.1-8.4), women who decided by themselves to use maternal services (aOR 2.74; 95% CI 1.2-6.2), attended antenatal care (aOR 2.24; 95% CI 1.2-4.1) and favorable attitudes towards women's overall evaluation of MWHs (aOR 1.86; 95% CI 1.0-3.4) had higher odds of intentions to use MWHs.

Conclusion: Two thirds (65.3%) of pregnant women had intentions to use MWHs. Factors such as women's knowledge, subjective norms related to women's perceptions of social pressure, perceived behavioral control of women on the extent to which women feel confident to utilize, and wealth status, decision-making power, attending antenatal care and attitude towards women's overall evaluation of MWHs were significantly associated with the intention to use MWHs. Therefore, improving women's awareness by providing continuous health education during antenatal care visits, devising strategies to improve women's wealth status, and strengthening decision-making power may enhance their intention to use MWHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-02982-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216713PMC
May 2020

Protocol for the evaluation of a complex intervention aiming at increased utilisation of primary child health services in Ethiopia: a before and after study in intervention and comparison areas.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Apr 21;20(1):339. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom.

Background: By expanding primary health care services, Ethiopia has reduced under-five mor4tality. Utilisation of these services is still low, and concerted efforts are needed for continued improvements in newborn and child survival. "Optimizing the Health Extension Program" is a complex intervention based on a logic framework developed from an analysis of barriers to the utilisation of primary child health services. This intervention includes innovative components to engage the community, strengthen the capacity of primary health care workers, and reinforce the local ownership and accountability of the primary child health services. This paper presents a protocol for the process and outcome evaluation, using a pragmatic trial design including before-and-after assessments in both intervention and comparison areas across four Ethiopian regions. The study has an integrated research capacity building initiative, including ten Ph.D. students recruited from Ethiopian Regional Health Bureaus and universities.

Methods: Baseline and endline surveys 2 years apart include household, facility, health worker, and district health office modules in intervention and comparison areas across Amhara, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples, Oromia, and Tigray regions. The effectiveness of the intervention on the seeking and receiving of appropriate care will be estimated by difference-in-differences analysis, adjusting for clustering and for relevant confounders. The process evaluation follows the guidelines of the UK Medical Research Council. The implementation is monitored using data that we anticipate will be used to describe the fidelity, reach, dose, contextual factors and cost. The participating Ph.D. students plan to perform in-depth analyses on different topics including equity, referral, newborn care practices, quality-of-care, geographic differences, and other process evaluation components.

Discussion: This protocol describes an evaluation of a complex intervention that aims at increased utilisation of primary and child health services. This unique collaborative effort includes key stakeholders from the Ethiopian health system, the implementing non-governmental organisations and universities, and combines state-of-the art effectiveness estimates and process evaluation with capacity building. The lessons learned from the project will inform efforts to engage communities and increase utilisation of care for children in other parts of Ethiopia and beyond.

Trial Registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12040912, retrospectively registered on 19 December, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05151-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171736PMC
April 2020

Knowledge and practice of health extension workers on drug provision for childhood illness in west Gojjam, Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.

BMC Public Health 2020 Apr 15;20(1):496. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia.

Background: The HEP was established decades ago to address preventive, promotive and selective curative services through Health Extension Workers (HEWs). However, knowledge and practice of HEWs on drug provision for childhood illnesses such as diarrhea, fever, and/or acute respiratory infection have not been well studied. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of HEWs on drug provision for childhood illnesses.

Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 389 rural HEWs. The districts were selected by using simple random sampling technique, and all the HEWs in the districts were included in the study. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to see the association between knowledge and practice of HEWs on drug provision with the response variables.

Results: The study revealed that 57.5 and 66.8% of HEWs had good knowledge and practice on drug provision for childhood illnesses, respectively. Having college diploma (AOR = 5.59; 95% CI: 1.94, 16.11), 7-9 years (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 5.5) and 10-12 years (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4, 5.4) of experiences, being supervised quarterly (AOR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.47) and biannually (AOR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.30), and having national guideline (AOR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.90) were factors significantly associated with good knowledge. In addition, having college diploma (AOR =3.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 8.8), not receiving refreshment training (AOR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.91), being supervised biannually (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.80), and not having national guideline (AOR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.60) were factors significantly associated with good practice.

Conclusion: The study indicated that a considerable number of HEWs had poor knowledge and practice on drug provision. Socio-demographic factors such as educational status, and work experience; and health systems and support related factors such as training, supervision, and availability of national guidelines, and training had a significant association with HEWs' knowledge and practice on drug provision. Therefore, designing appropriate strategy and providing refreshment training, and improving supervision and availability of national guidelines for HEWs might improve the knowledge and practice of HEWs on drug provision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08602-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160904PMC
April 2020

Prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among rural lactating mothers: findings from the primary health care project in two northwest Ethiopian districts.

BMC Womens Health 2020 04 3;20(1):67. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Dabat Research Centre Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Institute of Public Health College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Contraceptive utilization is a guarantee to avert unwanted pregnancies. In Ethiopia however, more than half of the rural women have shorter birth intervals. Consequently, 17 and 8% of the births have been either mistimed (wanted at later date) or unwanted, respectively. Therefore, this study investigated modern contraceptive utilization and its predictors among rural lactating women.

Methods: A community based-cross-sectional study was conducted from May 01 to June 29, 2019, in Dabat and Gondar zuria districts, northwest Ethiopia. Data from 603 lactating mother were collected through face to face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were fitted to identify the independent predictors of modern contraceptive utilization.

Results: The overall prevalence of modern contraceptive (MC) utilization rate was 45.8% [95% CI: 38.01, 53.59]. The contraceptive method mix was dominated by Depo-Provera (39.8%) followed by implants (4.8%). The odds of utilization of contraceptive were 5.58 times higher among mothers of children with fully immunized [AOR = 5.58, 95% CI: 3.45, 9.01] compared to mothers whose children were vaccinated partially or not at all. Mothers who received antenatal [AOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.43] and postnatal care [AOR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.24, 2.91) were 1.74 and 2.02 folds more likely to utilize modern contraceptives than mothers who did not receive such care, respectively.

Conclusion: The prevalence of modern contraceptive utilization in this study area was lower than the planed national target. In the region, child immunization service is one of the promising platforms for reaching lactating mothers with modern contraceptive utilization. Our findings suggest that antenatal and postnatal care visits are the other key determinants of modern contraceptive utilization. Thus, in low-resource settings like ours, the health system approaches to improved antenatal and, postnatal care and child immunization services should be intensified with more effective advice on modern contraceptive utilization to reduce unwanted pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-00933-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118935PMC
April 2020

Health-related quality of life and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus at the University of Gondar referral hospital.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Mar 10;18(1):62. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Diabetes mellitus, which has a wide range of effects on the physical, social and psychological aspects of the well-being of a person, is a common and challenging chronic disease that causes a significant rate of morbidity and mortality. However, studies in our country, by and large, focused on the impact of the disease in terms of mortality and morbidity alone. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and associated factors of diabetic patients at the University of Gondar referral hospital, Ethiopia.

Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar referral hospital from April to May 2017. A generic World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was used to measure the HRQOL. The data were analyzed by Stata version 12. Multiple Linear Regression analysis with P-value 0.05 was used to measure the degree of association between HRQOL and independent variables.

Results: A total of 408 patients with Diabetes Mellitus were included in the study. The HRQOL scores for physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were 50.9, 54.5, 55.8 and 47.3, respectively. Diabetes-related complications had a significant association with all except the psychological domain. Higher HRQOL was associated with exercising, following the recommended diet, foot care, sensible drinking and the absence of co-morbidities. However, old age, unemployment and being single and widower had a significant association with lower HRQOL.

Conclusion: The environmental and physical domains of HRQOL scores were the lowest compared to the social and psychological domains. Old age and living in rural area had a significant association with a lower HRQOL, whereas the absence of diabetes-related complications, exercising, general diet and foot care had a significant association with better HRQOL of patients. Therefore, strong advice on the recommended lifestyle is important, and old patients and rural dwellers should get due attention. In addition, the prevention of diabetes-related complications is important to improve the patient HRQOL which is an important outcome measurement from the patient's perspective related to the impact of the disease. Therefore, including HRQOL assessment as part of routine management is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01311-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063813PMC
March 2020

Status of family planning integration to HIV care in Amhara regional state, Ethiopia.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Mar 6;20(1):145. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Amhara National Regional State Health Bureau, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Preventing unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women is one component of HIV prevention strategies. However, programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV started in antenatal care. The objective of this study was to examine the status of family planning integration to HIV care from client and facility perspectives and identify factors associated with current family planning use.

Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to April 2018. Data were coded and double entered into EPI Info version 3.5.4 and exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of variables with the current family planning use.

Results: A total of 518 HIV-positive women were included in the study. Among HIV-positive women, 35.3% had an unmet need for family planning, and 21.4% responded that their pregnancies were unwanted. About two-thirds (68.1%) of women were using a modern family planning method at the time of the study. Among women who were currently using family planning, 88.8% got the service from a family planning clinic in the same facility, and only 1.1% got the service from the HIV care unit. Women who were not knowledgeable on PMTCT (AOR 0.47, 95% CI = 0.24-0.90), divorced or separated women (AOR 0.19, 95% CI = 0.10-0.37) and women in the age group of 25-34 years (AOR 0.42, 95% CI = 0.20-0.88) and 35-49 years (AOR 0.41, 95% CI = 0.17-0.99) were less likely to use modern family planning methods compared with those women who were knowledgeable, married and women in the age group of 15-24 years. Besides, women with higher income (AOR 2.12, 95% CI = 1.26-3.57) were more likely to use modern family planning methods compared with women with lower incomes.

Conclusion: This study indicated that there is a high unmet need for family planning among HIV-positive women and low family planning services integration in the PMTCT/ART clinics. Efforts should be strengthened to tackle the factors which hinder the use of modern family planning and improve family planning service integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-2838-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059673PMC
March 2020

Health professionals' acceptance and willingness to pay for hepatitis B virus vaccination in Gondar City Administration governmental health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia.

BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Nov 5;19(1):796. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. The burden of the disease is high in low and middle income countries like Ethiopia. However, for highly vulnerable groups such as health professionals, vaccination coverage is a major issue in the developing countries where health professionals are expected to pay for vaccination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess health professionals' acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP) and associated factors for vaccination against HBV.

Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2017 in Gondar city administration governmental health institutions among 423 health professionals. Simple random sampling method was employed to select the study participants. Data were collected using self- administered questionnaire. Tobit model was used to analyze the determinants of WTP and the maximum amount of money the individuals might pay for HBV vaccination. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Result: A total of 423 health professionals (physicians, nurses, midwives, laboratory technicians/technologists, and others) participated in the study with a response rate of 100, and 62.4% of them were willing to pay for HBV vaccination. The mean amount of money the participants might pay for HBV vaccination was 325.83 ± 283.46 ETB (US$ 14.39 ± 12.52). The study indicated that the WTP for HBV vaccination of health professionals from health centers was 179.41 ETB less compared to health professionals from hospital. The WTP for HBV vaccination of the participants who had no experience of seeing previous patients with HBV was 157.87 ETB less compared to participants who had experience of seeing previous patients with HBV. As monthly income of the study participants increased by one ETB, the WTP was increased by 0.027 ETB.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the mean amount of money the participants might pay for HBV vaccination was much less than the market price for HBV vaccination. Type of workplace and experience of seeing/observing patients with HBV, and income were the predictors of WTP for HBV vaccination. Availing the vaccine with affordable cost in governmental health institutions may increase WTP of health professionals for HBV vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4671-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6833239PMC
November 2019
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