Publications by authors named "Metha Wanapat"

100 Publications

Rumen Microbiota of Tibetan Sheep () Adaptation to Extremely Cold Season on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:673822. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized by low temperatures and hypoxia, and this feature is more obvious in the winter. However, it is not clear how Tibetan sheep adapt to extreme cold climates. To address this, we used physiological methods combined with next-generation sequencing technology to explore the differences in growth performance, forage nutrient digestion, serum biochemical indexes, and rumen microbial communities of Tibetan sheep () between the summer and winter. In the summer, owing to the high nutritional quality of the forage, the Tibetan sheep showed enhanced forage degradation and fermentation though increased counts of important bacteria in the rumen, such as Bacteroidetes, , and , to improve the growth performance and increase serum immunity and antioxidant status. In the winter, owing to the low nutritional quality of the forage, the Tibetan sheep presented low values of forage degradation and fermentation indicators. The relative abundance of Firmicutes, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, microbial diversity, interactive activity between microorganisms, and metabolism were significantly increased, implying that the rumen microbiota could promote the decomposition of forage biomass and the maintenance of energy when forage nutritional value was insufficient in the winter. Our study helps in elucidating the mechanism by which Tibetan sheep adapt to the high-altitude harsh environments, from the perspective of the rumen microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.673822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185353PMC
May 2021

Growth performances, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation and energy partition of Thai native steers fed exclusive rice straw and fermented sugarcane bagasse with Lactobacillus, cellulase and molasses.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

The study aimed to evaluate the effect of sugarcane bagasse feeding treated with Lactobacillus casei TH14 (L. casei TH14), cellulase and molasses (BG) on nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, energy partition and growth performances of Thai native steers compared to conventional feeding of rice straw (RS). Eight Thai native steers (144 ± 19.5 kg of initial body weight) were randomly allocated to two roughage sources in a completed randomized design: RS (n ꞊ 4) and BG (n ꞊ 4). The feeding trial lasted for 90 days plus 21 days for treatment adaptation. The results showed that the BG group showed (p < 0.05) greater intake (2.34 vs 2.02 kg/day), total intake (3.90 vs 3.55 kg/day) and average daily gain (0.27 vs 0.23 kg/day) while feed conversion ratio was lower compared to RS group. The BG group had a greater (p < 0.05) organic matter and acid detergent fibre intake than the RS group as well as dry matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility. The steers fed RS and BG were significantly (p < 0.05) different for total volatile fatty acids and propionic acid at 4 h after offering the diet. The intake of nitrogen (g/day) and apparent nitrogen absorption was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for BG than the RS group while nitrogen excretion in faeces was significantly lower in RS than the BG group. BG group showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater gross energy intake and digestible energy partition when compared to the RS group. In conclusion, feeding BG enhanced feed utilization, growth performance, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization and energy utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13563DOI Listing
May 2021

Influence of chitosan sources on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and milk production in tropical lactating dairy cows.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 3;53(2):241. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.

The aim of study was to compare the influence of chitosan sources (commercial chitosan vs chitosan extract) on rumen fermentation, methane (CH) emission, and milk production in tropical lactating dairy cows. Six lactating Holstein-Friesian crossbreeds (410 ± 5 kg, 120 ± 21 day-in-milk) were arranged in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design. In addition to control, a 2% chitosan extract supplement and a 2% commercial chitosan supplement of dry matter intake were the treatments. The results denoted that no significant differences on daily dry matter, nutrients, or estimated energy intake were noted when cows received different sources of chitosan. Nutrient digestibility was not influenced differently by extraction-based or commercial chitosan supplements. The pH, temperature, ammonia nitrogen, blood urea, and microbial count were similar among treatments. The different sources of chitosan supplements did not change the totals of volatile fatty acids, acetate, and butyrate; in contrast, different chitosan sources influenced (P<0.05) propionate content. The ruminal acetate to propionate ratio was markedly (P<0.05) reduced with chitosan supplement, but no change appeared between sources of chitosan. At 4 h after feeding, the methane estimation significantly decreased with the addition of chitosan supplementation (P<0.05) compared to the control group. The purine derivatives and microbial protein synthesis were not altered by the treatments. No significant differences existed on milk yield, milk composition, or milk urea nitrogen when cows received different sources of chitosan (P>0.05). In summary, supplementing extracted chitosan showed more potential than did the commercial chitosan for enhancing economic efficiency and recycling shrimp residues, therefore, reducing environmental waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02697-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Isolation and Characterization of Yeasts from Rumen Fluids for Potential Use as Additives in Ruminant Feeding.

Vet Sci 2021 Mar 19;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Faculty of Animal Science and Technology, Maejo University, Chiangmai 50290, Thailand.

is a yeast strain often used to improve the feed quality of ruminants. However, has limited capacity to provide biomass when inoculated with carbon sources and a low ability to produce cellulase enzymes. Here, we hypothesized that yeast in the rumen produces a large amount of biomass and could release cellulase enzymes to break down fiber content. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen, isolate and identify yeast from the rumen fluids of Holstein Friesian steers and measure the efficiency of biomass production and cellulase activity. A fermentation medium containing sugarcane molasses as a carbon source and urea as a nitrogen source was optimized. Two fistulated-crossbred Holstein Friesian steers averaging 350 ± 20 kg body weight were used to screen and isolate the ruminal yeast. Two experiments were designed: First, a 12 × 3 × 3 factorial was used in a completely randomized design to determine biomass and carboxymethyl cellulase activity. Factor A was the isolated yeast and . Factor B was sugarcane molasses (M) concentration. Factor C was urea (U) concentration. In the second experiment, potential yeasts were selected, identified, and analyzed for 7 × 4 factorial use in a completely randomized design. Factor A was the incubation times. Factor B was the isolated yeast strains, including codes H-Khon Kaen University (KKU) 20 (as -KKU20), I-KKU20 (-KKU20), and C-KKU20 (as sp.-KKU20). Isolation was imposed under aerobic conditions, resulting in a total of 11 different colonies. Two appearances of colonies including asymmetric colonies of isolated yeast (indicated as A, B, C, E, and J) and ovoid colonies (coded as D, F, G, H, I, and K) were noted. Isolated yeast from the rumen capable of providing a high amount of biomass when inoculant consisted of the molasses 15% + urea 3% (M15 + U3), molasses 25% + urea 1% (M25 + U1), molasses 25% + urea 3% (M25 + U3), and molasses 25% + urea 5% (M25 + U5) when compared to the other media solution ( < 0.01). In addition, 11 isolated biomass-producing yeasts were found in the media solution of M25 + U1. There were 4 isolates cellulase producing yeasts discovered in the media solution of M25 + U1 and M25 + U5 whereas molasses 5% + urea 1% (M5 + U1), molasses 5% + urea 3% (M5 + U3), molasses 5% + urea 5% (M5 + U5), molasses 15% + urea 1% (M15 + U1), molasses 15% + urea 3% (M5 + U3), and M25 + U3 were found with 2, 3, 1, 2, 1, and 2 isolates, respectively. Ruminal yeast strains H-KKU20, I-KKU20, and C-KKU20 were selected for their ability to produce biomass. Identification of isolates H-KKU20 and I-KKU20 revealed that those isolates belonged to -KKU20 and -KKU20 while C-KKU20 was identified as sp.-KKU20. Two strains provided maximum cell growth: -KKU20 (9.78 and 10.02 Log cell/mL) and -KKU20 (9.53 and 9.6 Log cells/mL) at 60 and 72 h of incubation time, respectively. The highest ethanol production was observed in at 76.4, 77.8, 78.5, and 78.6 g/L at 36, 48, 60, and 72 h of incubation time, respectively ( < 0.01). The -KKU20 yielded the least reducing sugar at about 30.6 and 29.8 g/L at 60 and 72 h of incubation time, respectively. The screening and isolation of yeasts from rumen fluids resulted in 11 different yeasts being obtained. The potential yeasts discovered in the rumen fluid of cattle were -KKU20, -KKU20, and sp.-KKU20. -KKU20 had higher results than the other yeasts in terms of biomass production, cellulase enzyme activity, and cell number.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8030052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003577PMC
March 2021

Mitigating rumen methane and enhancing fermentation using rambutan fruit peel powder and urea in lactating dairy cows.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

The experiment was designed to study the use of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) fruit peel powder (RP) with urea (U) supplementation on rumen fermentation, digestibility, methane (CH ) production, milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. Four Holstein crossbred lactating dairy cows, with starting liveweight of 450 ± 15 kg with 130 ± 10 DIM (days-in-milk), were randomly allocated to respective treatments: without supplementation (control; T1), supplementation of urea (U) at 90 g/hd/day (T2), supplementation of RP at 450 g/hd/day (T3) and supplementation of RPU (RP at 450 g/hd/day and U 90 g/hd/day) (T4), respectively, using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The results showed that the U, RP and RPU supplementation did not change feed intakes (p > 0.05) and digestibilities of DM and OM were similar. However, digestibilities of CP and NDF were increased in the U and RPU groups (p < 0.05). Acetate production was decreased, while propionate production was dramatically increased (p < 0.05) in both the RP and RPU groups respectively. Notably, the ratio of C :C , protozoal population and CH production was reduced in both the RP and RPU groups. In addition, nitrogen intake and nitrogen excretion were significantly higher while nitrogen retention was increased in the U and RPU groups. Allantoin excretion and absorption, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency of microbial N supply were increased in the U and RPU supplementation groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, milk yield, milk fat and total solids were significantly enhanced in the U and RPU groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, the 3.5% FCM was increased (p < 0.05) while milk protein, lactose, solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen were not altered (p > 0.05). Supplementation of either U or RPU significantly improved fibre digestibilities, rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, reduced protozoal population, mitigated CH production and enhanced milk yield and milk composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13526DOI Listing
March 2021

Novel Crabtree negative yeast from rumen fluids can improve rumen fermentation and milk quality.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6236. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Animal Production Innovation and Management Division, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand.

Upgrading the nutritive value of rice straw (RS) is necessary to increase its contribution to enhancing meat and milk production. Present work verified whether novel Crabtree negative yeast inoculant could promote RS utilization, rumen fermentation, and milk quality in tropical crossbred lactating Holstein cows. The new stain of Crabtree negative yeasts (Pichia kudriavzevii KKU20 and Candida tropicalis KKU20) was isolated from the rumen of dairy cattle. This study used 6 multiparous crossbreds between Holstein Frisian × Zebu dairy cows in their mid-lactation period. Dairy cows were randomly allocated to three ensiled RS with various yeast stains including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, P. kudriavzevii KKU20, and C. tropicalis KKU20 according to a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square design. Crabtree-negative yeast (P. kudriavzevii and C. tropicalis) increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter by about 6.9% when compared with Crabtree-positive yeast (S. cerevisiae). Bacterial populations were highest with ensiled RS by C. tropicalis KKU20. Ensiled RS with Crabtree-negative yeasts were significantly increased with total volatile fatty acids, but they did not affect volatile fatty acid profiles. Milk protein precentage was highest at 35.6 g/kg when C. tropicalis was fed, and lowest when applied with S. cerevisiae and P. kudriavzevii KKU20 in ensiled RS at 34.5 and 34.1 g/kg, respectively. Thus, feeding ensiled RS with novel Crabtree negative yeast could improve RS digestion, rumen fermentation, and milk protein content in dairy cows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85643-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973541PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of biological and chemical additives on microbial community, fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and in vitro gas production of SuMu No. 2 elephant grass.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Institute of Animal Science, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, P. R. China.

Background: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of biological and chemical additives on microbial community, fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and in vitro gas production of SuMu No. 2 elephant grass.

Results: Aerobic bacteria and yeast were not affected on days 5 and 7 but were significantly (P < 0.224) reduced on days 14, 30, and 60, whereas lactic acid and lactic acid bacteria were significantly (P > 0.001) higher in all ensiling days within all treatment groups. During the ensiling days, the pH, acetic acid, butyric acid, and yeast were decreased in all treatment groups, whereas the Lactobacillus plantarum group and L. plantarum + natamycin group were highly significantly (P > 0.001) decreased. During air exposure, the water-soluble carbohydrates, ammonia nitrogen, lactic acid, and acetic acid were not affected on days 1-4, whereas pH and aerobic bacteria (were significantly (P < 0.05) increased on days 2-4. The addition of Lactobacillus plantarum and natamycin increased the gas production, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and in vitro neutral detergent fiber of SuMu No. 2 elephant grass silages.

Conclusions: The addition of biological and chemical additives, such as L. plantrum alone and the combination with natamycin, affected the undesirable microbial community, fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and in vitro gas of SuMu No. 2 elephant grass. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11191DOI Listing
March 2021

Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf pellet can manipulate rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability.

Anim Biosci 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Objective: Chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf has been found to be an important source of protein, vitamins, minerals, as well as phytonutrients. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Chaya leaf pellet (CHYP) with various level of protein of concentrate (CP) on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability.

Methods: In an in vitro rumen fermentation study the dietary treatments were arranged according to a 3 × 5 factorial arrangement in a Completely randomized design (CRD), consisting of Factor A: three levels of CP of concentrate mixtures (14, 16 and 18 %CP, respectively) and Factor B: five levels of CHYP supplementation (at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% of dry matter substrates).

Results: The gas production kinetics, fraction (a) and fraction (b) were lower (p<0.05) with an increasing CHYP addition. Additionally, the fraction (a + b) was found to yield a significant interaction (p<0.05) while the fraction (c) was not impacted by CHYP addition. However, in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) was enhanced and interactive (p<0.05), using 16 %CP of concentrate with 6 and 8 %CHYP, when compared with 18 %CP in the non-addition. Additionally, the treatment with higher CP of the concentrate was higher in NH3-N concentration (p<0.001) and by CHYP supplementation group (p<0.05). Nevertheless, protozoal counts in the rumen were remarkably decreased (p<0.05) with increasing level of CHYP supplementation. Furthermore, rumen C2 concentration was lower (p<0.05) in the treatments with CHYP supplementation, while C3 was significantly increased and interactive (p<0.05) between levels of CP and CHYP supplementation especially at 8 %CHYP supplementation.

Conclusion: Based on this study, the results revealed CHYP as a promising feed supplement to enhance rumen fermentation and to mitigate methane production. However, in vivo feeding experiments should be subsequently conducted to elucidate the effect of CHYP supplementation on rumen fermentation, as well as ruminant production efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0833DOI Listing
February 2021

Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, L.) silage can enrich rumen fermentation process, microbial protein synthesis, and nitrogen utilization efficiency in beef cattle crossbreds.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Mar 2;53(1):187. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of leguminous fodder silage on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and utilization in beef cattle crossbreds. Four cattle, with an average live weight of 280 ± 10 kg, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with supplementation of various levels of sunnhemp silage (SHS). Sunnhemp silage was fed to cattle at 0, 1, 1.5, and 2 kg DM SHS/head/day. The DM, OM, and CP digestibilities were increased (P < 0.05), and the highest value was found by feeding 2 kg DM SHS/head/day. Total volatile fatty acids and individual volatile fatty acid (VFA) especially C were increased (P < 0.01), while C and C:C ratios were decreased (P < 0.01) when SHS was supplemented. Nitrogen utilization efficiency and urinary purine derivatives were increased (P < 0.01) by the SHS supplementation. In conclusion, these data suggest that feeding SHS at 1.5 to 2 kg DM/ head/day can significantly increase rumen fermentation end-products, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis. Sunnhemp silage can be practically processed and provided as a good roughage source for ruminants. Therefore, sunnhemp silage is recommended as a feeding intervention in the sub-tropical and tropical regions to support the sustainable livestock production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02628-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of feeding a pellet diet containing high sulphur with fresh cassava root supplementation on feed use efficiency, ruminal characteristics and blood metabolites in Thai native beef cattle.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Jul 1;105(4):653-663. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Faculty of Animal Science and Technology, Maejo University, Chiangmai, Thailand.

The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding pellet containing high sulphur (PELFUR) diet and fresh cassava root (FCR) to Thai native beef cattle on feed use efficiency, ruminal characteristics and blood metabolites. Four male purebred Thai native beef cattle (1.5-2.0 years old) with initial body weight (BW) of 150 ± 15.0 kg were allocated with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was FCR supplementation at 15 and 20 g/kg of BW. Factor B was the sulphur level in the PELFUR ration at 15 and 30 g/kg of dry matter (DM). No interaction effect was found among FCR supplementation and PELFUR in terms of feed intake and nutrient intake (p > 0.05). Cyanide intake was significantly increased based on FCR supplementation (p < 0.05), whereas sulphur intake was increased by level addition of PELFUR levels (p < 0.05). There were interaction effects among FCR supplementation and PELFUR on digestibility coefficients of DM and organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05). FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg demonstrated the highest digestibility of DM and OM. Moreover, interactions were observed between FCR and PELFUR for bacterial populations (p < 0.01). The populations of bacteria were highest in FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg at various feeding times. An interaction effect from among feeding FCR with PELFUR was found on blood thiocyanate concentrations at various feeding times (p < 0.01). The highest mean values of blood thiocyanate were observed when feeding FCR at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR at 30 g/kg. No interaction effect was found between FCR and PELFUR on total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and their profiles (p > 0.05). However, the proportions of the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding were increased when FCR at 20 g/kg BW was supplemented (p < 0.01). FCR at 20 g/kg BW could enhance propionate (C3) at 4 h post-feeding when compared with FCR at 15 g/kg BW (p < 0.01). Moreover, supplementation of PELFUR at 30 g/kg increased the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding, whereas the concentration of C3 at 4 h post-feeding was enhanced (p < 0.05). However, no significant changes were found for any parameters among treatments and between the main effect of FCR and PELFUR supplementation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, feeding of two combinations (FCR 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg) could promote the nutrient digestibility, the bacterial populations and the rate of disappearance of cyanide without having any adverse effect on rumen fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13514DOI Listing
July 2021

Metagenomics Reveals That Intravenous Injection of Beta-Hydroxybutyric Acid (BHBA) Disturbs the Nasopharynx Microflora and Increases the Risk of Respiratory Diseases.

Front Microbiol 2020 5;11:630280. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

It is widely accepted that maintenance of microbial diversity is essential for the health of the respiratory tract; however, there are limited reports on the correlation between starvation and respiratory tract microbial diversity. In the present study, saline/β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) intravenous injection after dietary restriction was used to imitate different degrees of starvation. A total of 13 healthy male yaks were imposed to different dietary restrictions and intravenous injections, and their nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles were obtained by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. In healthy yaks, the main dominant phyla were (33.0%), (22.6%), (17.2%), and (13.2%); the most dominated species was (10.8%). It was found that 9 days of dietary restriction and 2 days of BHBA injection (imitating severe starvation) significantly decreased the microbial diversity and disturbed its structure and functional composition, which increased the risk of respiratory diseases. This study also implied that oral bacteria played an important role in maintaining nasopharynx microbial homeostasis. In this study, the correlation between starvation and nasopharynx microbial diversity and its potential mechanism was investigated for the first time, providing new ideas for the prevention of respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.630280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892611PMC
February 2021

Enriching the nutritive value of marigold (Tagetes erecta L) crop residues as a ruminant feed by lactic acid bacteria during ensilage.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Feb 12;17(1):74. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science, Kunming, 650212, China.

Background: Marigold (Tagetes erecta L) accounts for over half of the world's loose flower production, and marigold crop residue (MCR) are abundantly available and should be used as a forage. In this study, MCR from the last commercial flower pickings was ensilaged with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the shift in their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles was monitored. Samples were collected at 6 different times during ensilage (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 30 days) to determine and quantify the VOCs changes using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: After 30 days, the caryophyllene and piperitone, which account for 14.7 and 12.1% of total VOCs, decreased by 32.9 and 9.6% respectively, alcohols increased from 2.8 to 8.1%, and the acetic acid content increased by 560%.

Conclusion: We have confirmed LAB can degrade the content of terpenes and enhance the content of alcohols and acids in MCR, which was for the first time on terpene degradation in fodder by ensilage. These results have shed light on our understanding of how to improve fodder odor and to enhance terpene degradation by lactic acid bacteria fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02762-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881656PMC
February 2021

Screening of Cyanide-Utilizing Bacteria from Rumen and In Vitro Evaluation of Fresh Cassava Root Utilization with Pellet Containing High Sulfur Diet.

Vet Sci 2021 Jan 15;8(1). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Two experiments were undertaken to screen for ruminal cyanide-utilizing bacteria (Experiment 1), and to evaluate the influence of fresh cassava root (FCR) and pellets containing high sulfur (PELFUR) on cyanide content, gas production parameters, in vitro degradability, and ruminal fermentation (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD) for the screening of cyanide-utilizing bacteria and the dietary treatments consisted of cyanide at 0, 150, 300, and 450 ppm. In Experiment 2, a 5 × 3 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design was used for the in vitro study. Factor A was the level of FCR at 0, 260, 350, 440, and 530 g/kg of dry matter (DM) substrate, and factor B was the level of PELFUR at 0, 15, and 30 g/kg DM substrate. In Experiment 1, adding different doses of cyanide significantly affected cyanide-utilizing rumen bacterial growth ( < 0.05). Increasing the concentration of cyanide from 0 to 150 and 150 to 300 ppm resulted in increases in cyanide-utilizing rumen bacteria of 38.2% and 15.0%, respectively. In Experiment 2, no interaction effects were found between FCR and PELFUR doses on gas production parameters ( > 0.05). Increasing the FCR level to more than 260 g/kg of DM substrate could increase cumulative gas production ( < 0.05). Increasing doses of PELFUR from 15 to 30 g/kg increased the cumulative gas production when compared with that of 0 g PELFUR/kg of DM substrate ( < 0.05). The cyanide concentration in rumen fluid decreased with PELFUR ( < 0.05) supplementation. Degradability of in vitro DM and organic matter following incubation increased at 12 and 24 h due to PELFUR supplementation with FCR and increased additionally with 15 g PELFUR/kg of DM substrate ( < 0.05) in 440 g FCR/kg of DM substrate. Proportions of the total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), and butyric acid among supplementations with FCR ( < 0.05) were significantly different. In conclusion, the present results represent the first finding of bacteria in the rumen that are capable of utilizing cyanide, and suggests that cyanide might function as a nitrogen source for bacterial cell synthesis. The inclusion of FCR of 530 g/kg with 30 g PELFUR/kg of DM substrate could increase the cumulative gas production, the bacterial population, the in vitro degradability, the proportion of C3, and the rate of the disappearance of cyanide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830276PMC
January 2021

Effect of sugarcane bagasse as industrial by-products treated with Lactobacillus casei TH14, cellulase and molasses on feed utilization, ruminal ecology and milk production of mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Aug 5;101(11):4481-4489. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus casei TH14, cellulase, and molasses combination fermented sugarcane bagasse (SB) as an exclusive roughage source in the total mixed ration (TMR) for mid-lactation 75% crossbred Holstein cows on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal ecology, milk yield and milk composition. Four multiparous mid-lactation crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian and 25% Thai native breed) dairy cows of 439 ± 16 kg body weight, 215 ± 5 days in milk and average milk yield 10 ± 2 kg d were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The unfermented SB (SB-TMR), SB fermented with cellulase and molasses (CM-TMR), SB fermented with L. casei TH14 and molasses (LM-TMR), and SB fermented with L. casei TH14, cellulase and molasses (LCM-TMR) were used as dietary treatments.

Results: CM-TMR, LM-TMR and LCM-TMR significantly (P < 0.01) increased dry matter and fiber digestibility, gross energy and metabolizable energy intake (P < 0.05), blood glucose, total volatile fatty acids (P < 0.05), propionic acid and milk yield, but decreased ammonia, acetic acid, acetic:propionic ratio and methane production (P < 0.05) when compared with the SB-TMR. Compared with fermented SB treatments, LCM-TMR had lower (P < 0.05) ruminal ammonia and greater blood glucose (P < 0.01); LCM-TMR showed (P < 0.05) greater volatile fatty acids, propionic acid, milk yield and total solids, and lower acetic:propionic ratio (P < 0.01); methane, protozoa and somatic cell count were found to be lowest in LCM-TMR.

Conclusion: Combination of L. casei TH14 and additives (LCM-TMR) effectively enhanced feed use, rumen ecology and milk production of Holstein Friesian cows. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11087DOI Listing
August 2021

Supplementation of fruit peel pellet containing phytonutrients to manipulate rumen pH, fermentation efficiency, nutrient digestibility and microbial protein synthesis.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Aug 1;101(11):4543-4550. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background: Phytonutrient pellet, a new rumen enhancer, was formulated from various tropical fruit peels containing phytonutrients (condensed tannins and saponins) and named MARABAC. To substantiate the MARABAC supplementation effect, it was supplemented with low and high levels of concentrate supplementation in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using beef cattle. Based on this investigation, interesting findings were highlighted and are reported herein.

Results: The high level of concentrate supplementation (HCS) reduced rumen pH remarkably, but was buffered and enhanced by MARABAC supplementation. Rumen pH was reduced to 5.74 at 8 h, post feeding upon receiving HCS, and was buffered back to 6.19 with MARABAC supplementation. The supplementation exhibited an additional pronounced (P < 0.01) effect on improving nutrient digestibility and efficiency of microbial nitrogen supply, mitigating rumen methane production and reducing protozoal population. Rumen and fermentation end-products, especially propionate production, were enhanced (P < 0.05), while rumen methane production was subsequently mitigated (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: MARABAC is a new promising dietary rumen enhancer for future replacement of chemicals and antibiotics used to enhance the rumen fermentation. Nevertheless, more in vivo feeding trials should be further conducted to elucidate the insight impacts. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11096DOI Listing
August 2021

Selenium supplementation improves nutrient intake and digestibility, and mitigates CH emissions from sheep grazed on the mixed pasture of alfalfa and tall fescue.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Jul 15;105(4):611-620. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Low selenium (Se) in soil and forage can adversely affect on the quality of animal-derived foods, and hence on human health. Lambs grazed on mixed pastures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were supplemented with five levels of Se [0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 µg/kg body weight (BW)]. The intake of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) varied with the level of Se supplementation, with a peak at 6 µg Se per kg BW (p ≤ 0.05). Gross energy (GE) intake, digestive energy (DE) intake and metabolic energy (ME) intake were higher at 6 µg Se per kg BW than at other Se levels (p < 0.01); in addition, methane energy (CH -E) output was lower at 6 µg Se per kg BW. Supplementation with Se significantly increased nitrogen (N) intake, faecal N and urine N, for which the peak values were 20.2 g N/, 5.62 g N/day and 7.92 g N/day, respectively, at 6 µg Se per kg BW. Se intake, blood Se, faecal Se, urine Se and retained Se were negatively correlated with forage crude protein (CP) content (p < 0.001) but were positively correlated with the content of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) (p < 0.001) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) (p < 0.001). Thus, we recommend the addition of 6 µg Se per kg BW to sheep grazed on pastures in regions with low soil Se.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13495DOI Listing
July 2021

Milk production and composition efficiency as influenced by feeding Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mahasarakham with Tiliacora triandra, Diels pellet supplementation.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jan 3;53(1):64. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.

Ruminal fermentation efficiency has been shown to be closely related with milk production in dairy cows. This investigation aimed at the utilization of sweet grass and bamboo grass pellet supplementation on ruminal fermentation, feed utilization efficiency, milk quantity, and quality in lactating dairy cows. Four lactating Holstein Friesian crossbreds were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of roughage sources and bamboo grass (Tiliacora triandra, Diels) pellet (BP) supplementation on voluntary feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, fermentation characteristics of the rumen, and milk quantity and quality. Sweet grass (SG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mahasarakham) and rice straw (RS) were fed as roughage sources as the first factor, while the second factor was supplementation levels of BP (0 and 150 g/cow/day). The results revealed that SG (P < 0.01) and BP supplementation (P < 0.05) improved feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, especially roughage intake and digestibility of DM and NDF. Ruminal pH (P < 0.05), bacterial (P < 0.01), and fungal population (P < 0.01) were increased with SG feeding, enhancing the concentration of total VFAs (P < 0.01) and propionic acid (P < 0.01), while both SG and BP decreased methane production (P < 0.01). While milk yield (P < 0.01) and milk composition (P < 0.01), especially unsaturated fatty acids including those of conjugated linoleic acid (P < 0.001), were enhanced. Supplementation of BP containing bioactive compounds such as condensed tannins (CT) enhanced rumen bacterial population with increased total VFAs (P < 0.05) and propionic acid (P < 0.05) concentrations, while decreased methane production (P < 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that SG would be beneficial to improved rumen fermentation, feed utilization, and milk production of dairy cows, while bamboo grass pellet supplementation tended to additionally improve rumen fermentation and feed intake without negative effects on milk production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02529-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Rumen bacteria influence milk protein yield of yak grazing on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Dec 1. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Objective: Ruminants are completely dependent on their microbiota for rumen fermentation, feed digestion, and consequently, their metabolism for productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the rumen bacteria of lactating yaks with different milk protein yields, using high-throughput sequencing technology, in order to understand the influence of these bacteria on milk production.

Methods: Yaks with similar high milk protein yield (high milk yield and high milk protein content, HH; n = 12) and low milk protein yield (low milk yield and low milk protein content, LL; n = 12) were randomly selected from 57 mid-lactation yaks. Ruminal contents were collected using an oral stomach tube from the 24 yaks selected. High-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was used.

Results: Ruminal ammonia N, total volatile fatty acids, acetate, propionate, and isobutyrate concentrations were found to be higher in HH than LL yaks. Community richness (Chao 1 index) and diversity indices (Shannon index) of rumen microbiota were higher in LL than HH yaks. Relative abundances of the Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes phyla in the rumen fluid were significantly increased in HH than LL yaks, but significantly decreased for Firmicutes. Relative abundances of the Succiniclasticum, Butyrivibrio 2, Prevotella 1, and Prevotellaceae UCG-001 genera in the rumen fluid of HH yaks was significantly increased, but significantly decreased for Christensenellaceae R-7 group and Coprococcus 1. Principal coordinates analysis on unweighted UniFrac distances revealed that the bacterial community structure of rumen differed between yaks with high and low milk protein yields. Furthermore, rumen microbiota were functionally enriched in relation to transporters, ABC transporters, ribosome, and urine metabolism, and also significantly altered in HH and LL yaks.

Conclusion: We observed significant differences in the composition, diversity, fermentation product concentrations, and function of ruminal microorganisms between yaks with high and low milk protein yields, suggesting the potential influence of rumen microbiota on milk protein yield in yaks. A deeper understanding of this process may allow future modulation of the rumen microbiome for improved agricultural yield through bacterial community design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0601DOI Listing
December 2020

Strategic supplementation of Flemingia silage to enhance rumen fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and methane mitigation in beef cattle.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Dec 9;16(1):480. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Centre (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.

Background: Good quality protein as an on-farm feed resource has been in great demand to support the productivity of ruminants. A digestion trial using beef cattle crossbreds was conducted to assess the four dietary treatments of Flemingia macrophylla silage (FMS) supplementation at 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 kg dry matter (DM)/day in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Feed DM intakes were measured during the 14 days and sample of feeds, feces, urine, as well as rumen fluid and blood were collected during the 7 days while the animals were on metabolism crates.

Results: Based on this experiment strategic supplementation of FMS increased (P < 0.05) nutrients digestibility (organic matter, crude protein, and acid detergent fiber) enhanced rumen total volatile fatty acid production especially propionic acid (C), C:C ratio while, remarkably promoted the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) by increasing N-balance and retention of purine derivatives.

Conclusions: Under this experiment, the results revealed the potential use of FMS as a good-quality feed to improve nutrients digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and to mitigate methane production. FMS supplementation at 0.6 kg DM/day exhibited the best result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02703-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726859PMC
December 2020

Altitude influences microbial diversity and herbage fermentation in the rumen of yaks.

BMC Microbiol 2020 12 4;20(1):370. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Background: Rumen microbiota in ruminants are vital for sustaining good rumen ecology, health, and productivity. Currently, limited information is available regarding the response of yaks (Bos grunniens) to fluctuating environments, especially the rumen microbiome. To address this, we investigated the diet, rumen bacterial community, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) of rumen fluid of yaks raised in the great Qinghai-Tibet plateau (QTP) at 2800 (low altitude, L), 3700 (middle altitude, M), and 4700 m (high altitude, H) above sea level.

Results: The results showed that despite a partial diet overlap, H yaks harbored higher fibrous fractious contents than the M and L grazing yaks. Bacteria including Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, Ruminococcus_1, Romboutsia, Alloprevotella, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Treponema were found to be enriched in the rumen of yaks grazing at H. They also showed higher rumen microbial diversity and total VFA concentrations than those shown by yaks at M and L. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) on weighted UniFrac distances revealed that the bacterial community structure of rumen differed between the three altitudes. Moreover, Tax4fun metagenome estimation revealed that microbial genes associated with energy requirement and carbohydrate metabolic fate were overexpressed in the rumen microbiota of H yaks.

Conclusions: Collectively, our results revealed that H yaks had a stronger herbage fermenting ability via rumen microbial fermentation. Their enhanced ability of utilizing herbage may be partly owing to a microbiota adaptation for more energy requirements in the harsh H environment, such as lower temperature and the risk of hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-02054-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718673PMC
December 2020

Improving sugarcane bagasse quality as ruminant feed with , cellulase, and molasses.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Sep 30;62(5):648-658. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of , cellulase, and molasses on chemical composition, fermentation qualities, and microorganism count of sugarcane bagasse silage after 30-days fermentation. The treatments were arranged according to a factorial arrangement (2 × 2 × 2) + 1, in a complete randomized design. The first factor consisted of two levels of TH14 (TH14, 0 and 0.05 g/kg fresh matter; the second factor consisted of two levels of cellulase enzyme (C, 0 and 10 U/kg fresh matter); and the third factor consisted of two levels of molasses (M, 0 and 5 g/ 100 mL distilled water). A treatment (+1) referred to the use of rice straw without any treatments. The result showed that dry matter increased by 4% and neutral detergent fiber decreased by 2% of sugarcane bagasse when ensiled as a combination of additives as compared to untreated sugarcane bagasse. The pH and ammonia nitrogen were significantly dropped to 3.5 and 2.3 g/kg dry matter. Furthermore, lactic acid was increased by 64% when compared to untreated sugarcane bagasse, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria count was increased by 28% as compared to untreated sugarcane bagasse. Based on this experiment, fermenting with TH14, cellulase, and molasses in combination resulted in the promotion of the best qualities of sugarcane bagasse silage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.5.648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553837PMC
September 2020

Roughage to Concentrate Ratio and Inclusion Could Modulate Feed Digestion and In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation.

Vet Sci 2020 Oct 9;7(4). Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the roughage-to-concentrate (R:C) ratio and the addition of live yeast (LY) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane (CH) production. The experimental design was randomly allocated according to a completely randomized design in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement. The first factor was four rations of R:C at 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, and the second factor was an additional four doses of (live yeast; LY) at 0, 2.0 × 10, 4.0 × 10, and 6.0 × 10 colony-forming unit (cfu), respectively. For the in vitro method, during the incubation, the gas production was noted at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The rumen solution mixture was collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h of incubating after inoculation. Cumulative gas production at 96 h was highest in the R:C ratio, at 20:80, while the addition of LY improves the kinetics and accumulation of gas ( > 0.05). Maximum in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) at 24 h after incubation were achieved at the R:C ratio 20:80 and the addition of LY at 6 × 10 cfu, which were greater than the control by 13.7% and 12.4%, respectively. Ruminal pH at 8 h after incubation decreased with an increased proportion of concentrates in the diet, whereas it was lowest when the R:C ratio was at 20:80. Increasing the proportion of a concentrate diet increased total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and propionic acid (C3), whereas the acetic acid (C2) and C2-to-C3 ratios decreased ( < 0.05). TVFA and C3 increased with the addition of LY at 6 × 10 cfu, which was greater than the control by 11.5% and 17.2%, respectively. No interaction effect was observed between the R:C ratio and LY on the CH concentration. The calculated ruminal CH production decreased with the increasing proportion of concentrates in the diet, particularly the R:C ratio at 20:80. The CH production for LY addition at 6 × 10 cfu was lower than the control treatment by 17.2%. Moreover, the greatest populations of bacteria, protozoa, and fungi at 8 h after incubation were found with the addition of LY at 6 × 10 cfu, which were higher than the control by 19.0%, 20.7%, and 40.4%, respectively. In conclusion, a high ratio of roughage and the concentrate and addition of LY at 6.0 × 10 cfu of the total dietary substrate could improve rumen fermentation, improve feed digestibility, and reduce the CH production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712883PMC
October 2020

Effect of yeast-fermented de-hulled rice on in vitro gas production, nutrient degradability, and rumen fermentation.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Nov 17;52(6):3567-3573. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.

The aim of this experiment was to test the effect of yeast-fermented de-hulled rice (YDR) levels of protein-rich feed with different kinds of roughages on in vitro gas production, nutrient degradability, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). The two experimental factors were comprised of two roughages (R) (untreated rice straw (RS) and sweet grass hay (SGH)) and four ratios of roughage to yeast-fermented de-hulled rice (R:YDR) (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75). Thus, there were 8 treatment combinations. The results revealed that the interaction between R and R:YDR ratios influenced on the gas production rate constant for the insoluble fraction ratio (c) (P < 0.01). The in vitro dry mater degradability (IVDMD) was improved by SGH and R:YDR ratios (P < 0.05). Supplementation of YDR with both of roughage sources (RS and SGH) increased propionate (C3) (P < 0.05) and total VFA production (P < 0.01); both factors showed interactive effects on rumen methane production (P < 0.01). Moreover, bacterial population was significantly increased by the SGH:YDR ratios (P < 0.05). Therefore, it could be summarized that supplementing YDR, an enriched protein source with SGH:YDR ratio at 50-75:50-25 ratio significantly enhanced nutrient degradability and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02393-5DOI Listing
November 2020

Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) peel pellet as a rumen enhancer in Holstein crossbred bulls.

Anim Biosci 2021 Apr 21;34(4):594-602. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Objective: An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of dragon fruit peel pellet (DFPP) as a rumen enhancer of dry matter consumption, nutrient digestibilities, ruminal ecology, microbial protein synthesis and rumimal methane production in Holstein crossbred bulls.

Methods: Four animals, with an average live-weight of 200±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the influence of DFPP supplementation. There were four different dietary treatments: without DFPP, and with 200, 300, and 400 g/h/d, respectively.

Results: Results revealed that dry matter consumption of total intake, rice straw and concentrate were not significantly different among treatments (p>0.05). It was also found that ruminal pH was not different among treatments (p>0.05), whilst protozoal group was reduced when DFPP increased (p<0.01). Blood urea nitrogen and NH3-N concentrations were increased at 400 g of DFPP supplementation (p<0.01). Additionally, volatile fatty acid production of propionate was significantly enhanced by the DFPP supplementation (p<0.05), while production of methane was consequently decreased (p<0.05). Furthermore, microbial protein synthesis and urinary purine derivatives were remarkably increased especially at 400 g of DFPP supplementation (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Plant secondary compounds or phytonutrients (PTN) containing saponins (SP) and condensed tannins (CT) have been reported to influence rumen fermentation. DFPP contains both CT and SP as a PTN. The addition of 400 g of DFPP resulted in improved rumen fermentation end-products especially propionate (C3) and microbial protein synthesis. Therefore, DFPP is a promising rumen enhancer and indicated a significant potential of DFPP as feedstuff for ruminant feed to mitigate rumen methane production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.20.0151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961273PMC
April 2021

Potential use of Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) as a protein source fodder to improve nutrients digestibility, ruminal fermentation efficiency in beef cattle.

Anim Biosci 2021 Apr 24;34(4):613-620. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Objective: This study aimed at studying the potential use of Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) as a protein source fodder to improve nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation efficiency in beef cattle.

Methods: Four, Thai native beef cattle were randomly assigned in a 4×4 Latin square design. Four levels of Flemingia hay meal (FHM) were used to replace soybean meal (SBM) in the concentrate mixtures in four dietary treatments replacing levels at 0%, 30%, 60%, and 100% of SBM.

Results: The experimental findings revealed that replacements did not effect on intake of rice straw, concentrate and total dry matter (DM) intake (p>0.05). However, the apparent digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber were linearly increased up to 100% replacement levels. Moreover, the production of total volatile fatty acids, and propionate concentration were enhanced (p<0.05) whereas the concentration of acetate was reduced in all replacement groups. Consequently, the CH4 production was significantly lower when increasing levels of FHM for SBM (p<0.05). Furthermore, rumen bacterial population was additionally increased (p<0.05) while protozoal population was clearly decreased (p<0.05) in all replacement groups up to 100%. In addition, microbial nitrogen supply and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were enhanced (p<0.05), as affected by FHM replacements.

Conclusion: The findings under this experiment suggest that 100% FHM replacement in concentrate mixture enhanced rumen fermentation efficiency, nutrients digestibilities, bacterial population, microbial protein synthesis, and subsequently reduced CH4 production in beef cattle fed on rice straw.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.20.0214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961298PMC
April 2021

Comparison Effects of Ruminal Crabtree-Negative Yeasts and Crabtree-Positive Yeasts for Improving Ensiled Rice Straw Quality and Ruminal Digestion Using In Vitro Gas Production.

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Jul 15;6(3). Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand.

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Crabtree-negative ruminal yeast and Crabtree-positive yeast in ensiled rice straw (RS) on the ensilage quality, nutritive value, and microorganism composition, including the evaluation of the ensiled RS using the in vitro gas production technique. The experiment was conducted in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete design. Factor A was yeast species with no inoculant, Crabtree-negative yeasts ( KKU20 and KKU20), and Crabtree-positive yeast (), whereas factor B was ensilage times (7, 14, and 21 days). The rate of growth was revealed to be lower in Crabtree-positive yeasts than the other Crabtree-negative yeast strains ( < 0.01). RS ensiled with showed decreased dry matter (DM) content by 9.0% when compared to the sample without a yeast inoculant. In addition, organic matter (OM) content was greater ( < 0.01) for KKU20 than KKU20 and without an inoculant. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content was significantly decreased ( < 0.01) by yeast inoculants by about 2.75% when compared to the control group. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and aerobic bacteria were low ( < 0.05) when yeasts were added. However, no interaction was found between yeast and ensilage times on the quality of ensiled RS ( > 0.05). The KKU20 addition was associated with the highest value ( < 0.01) of gas produced-an insoluble fraction (b), potential extent of gas production (a + b), and cumulative gas production at 96 h-when compared with or the control group. The highest in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility was observed in RS ensiled with KKU20 for 14 days ( < 0.01, < 0.05). The maximum total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at 4 and 8 h of incubation and the mean value were observed in RS ensiled with KKU20 ( < 0.01). RS ensiled with all yeast strains showed an increased propionate concentration at 8 h ( < 0.01). In conclusion, ensiling RS with isolated Crabtree-negative ruminal yeasts could benefit feed digestion and in vitro gas production more than Crabtree-positive yeast does. KKU20, an isolated Crabtree-negative ruminal yeast used to treat RS, had the highest potential for increasing cumulative gas production and enhancing in vitro digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6030109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558849PMC
July 2020

Fermented sugarcane bagasse with combined with cellulase and molasses promotes gas kinetics, degradability, and ruminal fermentation patterns compared to rice straw.

Anim Biotechnol 2020 Jun 21:1-12. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

This experiment was aimed to study the effect of sugarcane bagasse (SB) fermented with TH14, cellulase, and molasses on gas kinetics, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation patterns compared to rice straw (RS). A 2 × 2 × 2 (+1) factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design was used. Factor A was levels of TH14 at 0 and 0.05 g/kg fresh matter, factor B was levels of cellulase at 0 and 10 U/kg fresh matter, and factor C was levels of molasses at 0 and 5 g of substrate DM. The (+1) treatment referred to RS fermentation without additives. The results showed that kinetics of gas, gas production, and total volatile fatty acid were not different between RS and SB treatment. RS had significantly ( < 0.05) greater nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen, and protozoa compared the control SB. Compared with control RS and SB, SB fermented with additives had greater ( < 0.05) gas from soluble fraction and rate constant of gas, dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and ruminal propionate. In conclusion, SB fermented with TH14, cellulase, and molasses in combination promoted ruminal gas production, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2020.1781146DOI Listing
June 2020

Chemical Composition of Milk and Rumen Microbiome Diversity of Yak, Impacting by Herbage Grown at Different Phenological Periods on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 13;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 13.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730020, Gansu, China.

To estimate how native herbage of three different phenological periods modify rumen performance and milk quality of yak grazing alpine meadow. In this study, milk composition and the diversity of the rumen microbial community were measured in 12 full-grazing female yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). The nutrient composition of three phenological periods was determined: Vegetative stage (VS), bloom stage (BS), and senescent stage (SS). High-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that crude protein (CP) content of herbage in BS was higher than that in vs. and SS ( < 0.05), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of herbage in SS was higher than that in vs. and BS ( < 0.05). Milk solids and fat contents were higher in the vs. and SS than in BS ( < 0.05). However, milk protein content was higher for the vs. and BS than those for SS ( < 0.05). The total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, and propionate concentrations were higher in vs. and BS than in SS ( < 0.05). The community richness estimates (Chao1 estimator) of vs. were higher than that in BS and the SS ( < 0.05). The diversity indices (Shannon index) of the BS were higher than that vs. and the SS ( < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis between the milk composition, ruminal fermentation parameters, and the relative abundances of the rumen bacteria showed that milk protein content, total VFA, acetate, and propionate concentrations were positively correlated with the relative abundances of the genera , , and and was negatively correlated with , , and abundances. Collectively, the results revealed that there were significant differences in nutrient composition of herbage, chemical composition of yak milk, and microbial diversity in rumen at different phenological stages. The correlations between ruminal fermentation parameters, chemical constituents of yak milk, and some genera of ruminal bacteria might be indicative that the ruminal fermentation parameters and chemical constituents of yak milk are strongly influenced by the rumen bacterial community composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341253PMC
June 2020

Rapeseed pod meal can replace concentrate and enhance utilization of feed on in vitro gas production and fermentation characteristics.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2020 Sep 23;52(5):2593-2598. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Esarn Surin Campus, Surin, 32000, Thailand.

Rapeseed provides multi-products as human food and animal feed especially the oil and meal. Rapeseed oil and meal after extraction are nutritious and have been used in animal feeding. This study aimed at studying the effect of rapeseed pod meal as the replacement of concentrate (RPM) on in vitro gas and fermentation characteristics. Dietary treatments were imposed in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement according to a completely randomized design (CRD). The first factor was two ratios of roughage to concentrate (R:C at 60:40, and 40:60) and the second factor was six levels of RPM at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of dietary substrate. The results revealed that the R:C ratio and RPM increased kinetics of gas production, in vitro degradability and improved rumen fermentation (P < 0.001). Ratio of R:C influenced (P < 0.05) on both protozoal population and methane production, while level of RPR did not. Both factors had influenced (P < 0.01) a, a + b, and c, as well as total gas production; nevertheless, there were no interactions (P > 0.05). Interestingly, both factors have greatly impacted on TVFA, C (P < 0.01) and tended to reduce methane production as level of RPM replacement increased. In conclusion, RPM improved rumen fermentation and increased in vitro DM degradability, hence is potential for replacement of concentrate and effectively used for ruminant feeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02296-5DOI Listing
September 2020

Addition Improves Growth, Digestibility, and Metabolism of Sheep Fed on Fresh Forage from Alfalfa/Tall Fescue Pasture.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Apr 12;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730020, China.

This study is targeted at evaluating whether addition promotes digestion, nitrogen and energy use, and methane production of sheep fed on fresh forage from alfalfa/tall fescue pastures. The sheep feeding trial was conducted with four addition levels with powder, and a basal diet of fresh alfalfa and tall fescue (). Addition levels of 4% and 6% improved average body weight gain (BWG) by 215.71 and 142.86 g/d, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 0.20 and 0.14, respectively. Digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and ether extract (EE) was 62.25%, 65.18%, 58.75%, and 47.25% under the addition level of 2%, which is greater than that in the control group. addition improved energy utilization efficiency, while addition levels of 2% and 4% increased nitrogen intake and deposited nitrogen. Overall, has the potential to improve growth performance, digestion of sheep, so it has suitability to be used as a feed additive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10040668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222725PMC
April 2020