Publications by authors named "Mervyn H H Chan"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of time of onset of symptom of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction on 1-year rehospitalization for heart failure and mortality.

Am Heart J 2020 06 19;224:1-9. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, London, UK; Cardiovascular Research Center, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Asia University, Taiwan; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; Tecnologico de Monterrey, Centro de Biotecnologia-FEMSA, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Electronic address:

Circadian patterns in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients have been previously reported, but little is known about the impact of time dependence of symptom onset on long-term prognosis. Our study population consisted of 11,731 STEMI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), enrolled in the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry (SMIR). Analysis of STEMI incidence trends over the 24-hour period showed the highest rate of symptom onset in the morning, with the peak incidence at 09:00 am. Patients with symptom onset in between 00:00 am-5:59 am showed the highest prevalence of diabetes (P = .010) and anterior STEMI (P < .001) and had the longest ischemic time (P < .001). After adjusting for confounders, we found an association between time of symptom onset of STEMI and rehospitalization for heart failure (HF) at 1 year, with symptom onset between 06:00 pm-11:59 pm and 00:00 am-05:59 am having an estimated 30% to 50% higher risk of rehospitalization for HF at 1 year. Moreover, symptom onset remained a predictor of worse prognosis only in the subgroup of patients with symptoms lasting longer than 120 minutes. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that rehospitalization for HF in STEMI patients treated with PPCI has a dependence on the time of onset of symptoms, with prolonged ischemia time playing a pivotal role. This may be an additional risk factor to identify those who warrant closer monitoring and more rigorous optimization of their treatment at follow-up, to improve their outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.03.011DOI Listing
June 2020

Interrogation of the infarcted and salvaged myocardium using multi-parametric mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance in reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients.

Sci Rep 2019 06 21;9(1):9056. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

We used multi-parametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) mapping to interrogate the myocardium following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Forty-eight STEMI patients underwent CMR at 4 ± 2 days. One matching short-axis slice of native T1 map, T2 map, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and automated extracellular volume fraction (ECV) maps per patient were analyzed. Manual regions-of-interest were drawn within the infarcted, the salvaged and the remote myocardium. A subgroup analysis was performed in those without MVO and with ≤75% transmural extent of infarct. For the whole cohort, T1, T2 and ECV in both the infarcted and the salvaged myocardium were significantly higher than in the remote myocardium. T1 and T2 could not differentiate between the salvaged and the infarcted myocardium, but ECV was significantly higher in the latter. In the subgroup analysis of 15 patients, similar findings were observed for T1 and T2. However, there was only a trend towards ECV being higher than ECV. In the clinical setting, current native T1 and T2 methods with the specific voxel sizes at 1.5 T could not differentiate between the infarcted and salvaged myocardium, whereas ECV could differentiate between the two. ECV was also higher in the salvaged myocardium when compared to the remote myocardium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45449-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6588689PMC
June 2019

Platelet inhibition to target reperfusion injury trial: Rationale and study design.

Clin Cardiol 2019 Jan 17;42(1):5-12. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, UK.

Background: In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), current oral P2Y12 platelet inhibitors do not provide maximal platelet inhibition at the time of reperfusion. Furthermore, administration of cangrelor prior to reperfusion has been shown in pre-clinical studies to reduce myocardial infarct (MI) size. Therefore, we hypothesize that cangrelor administered prior to reperfusion in STEMI patients will reduce the incidence of microvascular obstruction (MVO) and limit MI size in STEMI patients treated with PPCI.

Methods: The platelet inhibition to target reperfusion injury (PITRI) trial, is a phase 2A, multi-center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, in which 210 STEMI patients will be randomized to receive either an intravenous (IV) bolus of cangrelor (30 μg/kg) followed by a 120-minute infusion (4 μg/kg/min) or matching saline placebo, initiated prior to reperfusion (NCT03102723).

Results: The study started in October 2017 and the anticipated end date would be July 2020. The primary end-point will be MI size quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) on day 3 post-PPCI. Secondary endpoints will include markers of reperfusion, incidence of MVO, MI size, and adverse left ventricular remodeling at 6 months, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events.

Summary: The aim of the PITRI trial is to assess whether cangrelor administered prior to reperfusion would reduce acute MI size and MVO, as assessed by CMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436500PMC
January 2019

Incidence and predictors of left ventricular thrombus by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2018 11 8;20(1):72. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, UK.

Introduction: The incidence of left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in the current era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not well established. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the actual incidence and predictors of LV thrombus by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in STEMI treated by primary PCI.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to February 2018. We included all studies published as a full-text article, reporting the incidence of LV thrombus by CMR within 1 month following acute STEMI in patients treated by primary PCI. A binary random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled incidence of LV thrombus. The diagnostic performance of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as compared with CMR was pooled to obtain the sensitivity and specificity of TTE with CMR as the gold standard. Embolic and bleeding complications of LV thrombus were also evaluated.

Results: Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. The incidence of LV thrombus by CMR in all-comer STEMI patients (n = 2072) was 6.3% with 96% of LV thrombus occurring in those with anterior STEMI (12.2% incidence). When only anterior STEMI with LVEF< 50% were considered (n = 447), the incidence of LV thrombus was 19.2%. Compared with CMR, the sensitivity of TTE to detect LV thrombus was 29% with a specificity of 98%. The sensitivity of TTE increased to 70% in those with anterior STEMI and reduced LVEF. LV thrombus resolved in 88% of cases by 3 to 6 months. After 1-2 years follow-up, the embolic complication rate was similar at 1.5% (P = 0.25) but the bleeding complication rate was significantly higher (8.8% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001) in the LV thrombus group on triple therapy when compared to the no LV thrombus group on dual antiplatelet therapy.

Conclusion: In the primary PCI era, CMR detection of an LV thrombus post-STEMI remains high with incidence of nearly 20% in anterior STEMI with depressed LVEF. Patients with LV thrombus treated by triple therapy had similar embolic complications but higher bleeding complications than those with no LV thrombus treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. A 3 month follow-up CMR scan to guide anticoagulation duration might help mitigate bleeding risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-018-0494-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222991PMC
November 2018
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