Publications by authors named "Merete Hannevik"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High UV-A exposure from sunbeds.

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2012 Sep 6;25(5):639-40. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-148X.2012.01035.xDOI Listing
September 2012

UVB and UVA irradiances from indoor tanning devices.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2011 Jul 28;10(7):1129-36. Epub 2011 Mar 28.

Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P. O. Box 55, NO-1332, Østerås, Norway.

Indoor tanning is common in spite of its classification as carcinogenic. Too high an ultraviolet (UV) irradiance and a lack of compliance with regulations have been reported. We measured UV irradiance from a large number of Norwegian solariums (sunbeds and stand-up cabinets) currently in use. Compliance (solariums and facilities) with national regulations and the effect of inspections delegated to local authorities (since 2004) were also studied. In 2008, 78 tanning facilities were selected from six regions throughout Norway that contained municipalities with and without local inspections. UV irradiance was measured with a CCD spectroradiometer in 194 out of 410 inspected solariums. Mean erythema weighted short (280-320 nm) and long (320-400 nm) wave UV irradiances were 0.194 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.184-0.205) and 0.156 (95% CI 0.148-0.164) W m(-2), respectively. Only 23% of the solariums were below the UV type 3 limit (<0.15 W m(-2), short and long wave). Irradiances varied between solariums: spectral UVB (280-315 nm) and UVA (315-400 nm) irradiances were 0.5-3.7 and 3-26 times, respectively, higher than from Oslo summer sun. In total, 89.9% of the tanning facilities were unattended. Overall compliance increased since the first study in 1998-1999, but total UV irradiance did not decrease, mainly because of higher UVA irradiance in 2008. Solariums have become even less similar to natural sun due to higher UVA irradiance. Local inspections gave better compliance with regulations, but irradiances were significantly higher in municipalities with inspections (p ≤ 0.001, compared to without). Unpredictable UV irradiance combined with insufficient customer guidance may give a high risk of negative health effects from solarium use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c1pp05029jDOI Listing
July 2011

Trends in UV irradiance of tanning devices in Norway: 1983-2005.

Photochem Photobiol 2008 Sep-Oct;84(5):1100-8. Epub 2008 Apr 9.

Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås, Norway.

Indoor tanning increases skin cancer risk, but the importance of different parts of the UV spectrum is unclear. We assessed irradiance of tanning devices in Norway for the period 1983-2005. Since 1983, all tanning models needed approval before being sold or used. UV Type 3 limits were valid from late 1992 (<0.15 W m(-2) for CIE-weighted, i.e. erythemally weighted, short and long wave irradiances). We analyzed data from 90% of the approved tanning models (n = 446 models) and two large inspection surveys in 1998/1999 and 2003 (n = 1,341 tanning devices). Mean CIE-weighted short wave irradiance of approved models increased from 0.050 W m(-2) (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.045-0.055) in 1983-1992 to 0.101 W m(-2) (95% CI 0.098-0.105) in 1993-2005, and mean long wave from 0.091 W m(-2) (95% CI 0.088-0.095) to 0.112 W m(-2) (95% CI 0.109-0.115), respectively. Inspection surveys revealed short wave irradiances much higher than that approved. In 1998-1999, only 28% (293/1034) of the devices were equipped with correct sunlamps and only 1 out of 130 inspected establishments fulfilled all requirements. In 2003, corresponding numbers were 59% (180/307) of devices and 2 out of 52 establishments. Mean short and long wave irradiances of the inspected tanning devices in 2003 were 1.5 and 3.5 times, respectively, higher than the irradiance of natural summer sun in Oslo. In conclusion, the short wave irradiance has increased in indoor tanning devices in Norway over the last 20 years. Due to the high long wave irradiance throughout this period, the percentage of short wave irradiance was much lower than for natural sun.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2008.00330.xDOI Listing
March 2009

Paternal occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

Eur J Epidemiol 2006 21;21(7):529-35. Epub 2006 Jul 21.

Section for Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: During the last decades, public concern that radiofrequency radiation (RFR) may be related to adverse reproductive outcomes has been emerging. Our objective was to assess associations between paternal occupational exposure to RFR and adverse pregnancy outcomes including birth defects using population-based data from Norway.

Methods: Data on reproductive outcomes derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were linked with data on paternal occupation derived from the general population censuses. An expert panel categorized occupations according to exposure. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 24 categories of birth defects as well as other adverse outcomes.

Results: In the offspring of fathers most likely to have been exposed, increased risk was observed for preterm birth (odds ratio (OR): 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.15). In this group we also observed a decreased risk of cleft lip (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.97). In the medium exposed group, we observed increased risk for a category of "other defects" (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.22, 4.70), and a decreased risk for a category of "other syndromes" (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99) and upper gastrointestinal defects (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.93).

Conclusion: The study is partly reassuring for occupationally exposed fathers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-006-9030-0DOI Listing
February 2007
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