Publications by authors named "Menno van der Holst"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preserved thenar muscles in non-ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Jun 8;12(3):694-703. Epub 2021 May 8.

Duchenne Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Background: Clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) focus primarily on ambulant patients. Results cannot be extrapolated to later disease stages due to a decline in targeted muscle tissue. In non-ambulant DMD patients, hand function is relatively preserved and crucial for daily-life activities. We used quantitative MRI (qMRI) to establish whether the thenar muscles could be valuable to monitor treatment effects in non-ambulant DMD patients.

Methods: Seventeen non-ambulant DMD patients (range 10.2-24.1 years) and 13 healthy controls (range 9.5-25.4 years) underwent qMRI of the right hand at 3 T at baseline. Thenar fat fraction (FF), total volume (TV), and contractile volume (CV) were determined using 4-point Dixon, and T2 was determined using multiecho spin-echo. Clinical assessments at baseline (n = 17) and 12 months (n = 13) included pinch strength (kg), performance of the upper limb (PUL) 2.0, DMD upper limb patient reported outcome measure (PROM), and playing a video game for 10 min using a game controller. Group differences and correlations were assessed with non-parametric tests.

Results: Total volume was lower in patients compared with healthy controls (6.9 cm , 5.3-9.0 cm vs. 13.0 cm , 7.6-15.8 cm , P = 0.010). CV was also lower in patients (6.3 cm , 4.6-8.3 cm vs. 11.9 cm , 6.9-14.6 cm , P = 0.010). FF was slightly elevated (9.7%, 7.3-11.4% vs. 7.7%, 6.6-8.4%, P = 0.043), while T2 was higher (31.5 ms, 30.0-32.6 ms vs. 28.1 ms, 27.8-29.4 ms, P < 0.001). Pinch strength and PUL decreased over 12 months (2.857 kg, 2.137-4.010 to 2.243 kg, 1.930-3.339 kg, and 29 points, 20-36 to 23 points, 17-30, both P < 0.001), while PROM did not (49 points, 36-57 to 44 points, 30-54, P = 0.041). All patients were able to play for 10 min at baseline or follow-up, but some did not comply with the study procedures regarding this endpoint. Pinch strength correlated with TV and CV in patients (rho = 0.72 and rho = 0.68) and controls (both rho = 0.89). PUL correlated with TV, CV, and T2 (rho = 0.57, rho = 0.51, and rho = -0.59).

Conclusions: Low thenar FF, increased T2 , correlation of muscle size with strength and function, and the decrease in strength and function over 1 year indicate that the thenar muscles are a valuable and quantifiable target for therapy in later stages of DMD. Further studies are needed to relate these data to the loss of a clinically meaningful milestone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200430PMC
June 2021

Participation Restrictions among Children and Young Adults with Acquired Brain Injury in a Pediatric Outpatient Rehabilitation Cohort: The Patients' and Parents' Perspective.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 8;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Basalt Rehabilitation Center, Department of Innovation, Quality and Research, 2543 SW The Hague, The Netherlands.

Improving participation is an important aim in outpatient rehabilitation treatment. Knowledge regarding participation restrictions in children and young adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) is scarce and little is known regarding the differences in perspectives between patients and parents in the outpatient rehabilitation setting. The aims are to describe participation restrictions among children/young adults (5-24 years) with ABI and investigating differences between patients' and parents' perspectives. At admission in 10 rehabilitation centers, patients and parents were asked to complete the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP; score 0-100; lower score = more restrictions) and injury/patient/family-related questions. CASP scores were categorized (full/somewhat-limited/limited/very-limited participation). Patient/parent-reported outcomes were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. 223 patients and 245 parents participated (209 paired-samples). Median patients' age was 14 years (IQR; 11-16), 135 were female (52%), 195 had traumatic brain injury (75%). The median CASP score reported by patients was 82.5 (IQR: 67.5-90) and by parents 91.3 (IQR: 80.0-97.5) (difference = < 0.05). The score of 58 patients (26%) and 25 parents (10%) was classified as 'very-limited'. Twenty-six percent of children and young adults referred for rehabilitation after ABI had "very-limited" participation. Overall, parents rated their child's participation better than patients themselves. Quantifying participation restrictions after ABI and considering both perspectives is important for outpatient rehabilitation treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914578PMC
February 2021

Measuring treatment outcome in children with developmental coordination disorder; responsiveness of six outcome measures.

Disabil Rehabil 2020 Jul 2:1-12. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Basalt Rehabilitation, Leiden/The Hague, The Netherlands.

Although measuring outcome of rehabilitation in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder is considered important no consensus exists on which instruments to use. An important attribute of a measurement instrument would be that it is sensitive to clinical changes. The aim of this prospective, observational study was therefore to investigate the responsiveness of six potentially suitable instruments. Forty-one children (34 boys, median age 7.8 years, Inter Quartile Range: 7.2-9.2) receiving multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment for Developmental Coordination Disorder were included (mean treatment time: 32.8 h, Standard Deviation 7.3). The following instruments were applied before and after rehabilitation: Movement-Asessment-Battery-Children-2 (MABC-2), Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Systematic detection writing problems (SOS-2-NL), DCD-daily, Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and TNO-AZL children's Quality of Life questionnaire (TACQOL)). Change-scores (paired t-test/Wilcoxon-test) and responsiveness (Effect-sizes and Standardized-Response-Means) were calculated. Significant differences over time were found for the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, DCDdaily and Movement-Asessment-Battery-Children-2 ( < 0.05). The responsiveness of these instruments was moderate-high (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure-performance Effect-Size:1.70/Standardized-Response-Mean:1.81, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure-satisfaction Effect-Size:1.65/Standardized-Response-Mean 1.53; DCDdaily-total-score Effect-Size:0.40/Standardized-Response-Mean:0.62, DCDdaily-Quality-score Effect-Size:0.74/Standardized-Response-Mean:0.89, DCDdaily-time-score Effect-Size:0.21/Standardized-Response-Mean:0.43; MABC-2-total-score Effect-Size:0.42/Standardized-Response-Mean:0.43, MABC-2-Ball-skills-score Effect-Size:0.33/Standardized-Response-Mean:0.36). Systematic detection of writing problems (SOS-2-NL), Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and TNO-AZL children's Quality of Life questionnaire (TACQOL) were not responsive to change. Although the Movement-Asessment-Battery-Children-2 test is the most widely used instrument when measuring rehabilitation outcome in Developmental Coordination Disorder, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and DCDdaily seem to be more responsive and constitute a valuable addition.Implications for rehabilitationCurrently, there is no consensus on the preferred measurement instruments to evaluate the outcomes of rehabilitation in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.The responsiveness of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was found to be large, of the DCDdaily moderate to large, and of the Movement-Assessment-Battery-Children-2 (MABC-2) small, whereas the systematic detection of writing problems (SOS-2-NL; Systematisch Opsporing Schrijfproblemen-2-NL), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) and TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Children's Health-Related Quality of Life (TACQOL) were not responsive to change.Although the Movement-Assessment-Battery-Children-2 (MABC-2) is commonly used in Developmental Coordination Disorder rehabilitation, applying the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and DCDdaily should be considered, as these instruments were more sensitive to clinical changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2020.1785022DOI Listing
July 2020

Fatigue, Participation and Quality of Life in Adolescents and Young Adults with Acquired Brain Injury in an Outpatient Rehabilitation Cohort.

Dev Neurorehabil 2020 Jul 20;23(5):328-335. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Basalt Rehabilitation , The Hague, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To study the association between fatigue and participation and QoL after acquired brain injury (ABI) in adolescents and young adults (AYAs).

Materials & Methods: Cross-sectional study with AYAs aged 14-25 years, diagnosed with ABI. The PedsQL™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, Child & Adolescent Scale of Participation, and PedsQL™4.0 Generic Core Scales were administered.

Results: Sixty-four AYAs participated in the study, 47 with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Median age at admission was 17.6 yrs, 0.8 yrs since injury. High levels of fatigue (median 44.4 (IQR 34.7, 59.7)), limited participation (median 82.5 (IQR 68.8, 92.3)), and diminished QoL (median 63.0 (IQR 47.8, 78.3)) were reported. More fatigue was significantly associated with more participation restrictions (β 0.64, 95%CI 0.44, 0.85) and diminished QoL (β 0.87, 95%CI 0.72, 1.02).

Conclusions: AYAs with ABI reported high levels of fatigue, limited participation and diminished quality of life with a significant association between fatigue and both participation and QoL. Targeting fatigue in rehabilitation treatment could potentially improve participation and QoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17518423.2019.1692948DOI Listing
July 2020

Health-care use and information needs of children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy: A cross-sectional survey among 465 Dutch patients.

J Child Health Care 2020 03 28;24(1):46-63. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

To investigate health-care use (HCU) and information needs of children aged 0-18 years with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP), a cross-sectional study was performed. Patients and/or parents seen in our NBPP clinic were invited to complete a survey comprising questions on HCU due to NBPP and current information needs. Outcomes were described for three age-groups (0-1/2-9/10-18 years), based on follow-up status (early/late/no-discharge). Four hundred sixty-five parents/patients participated (59 in the 0-1, 226 in the 2-9, and 180 in the 10-18-year group). Two hundred ninety-three patients had C5-C6 lesions, 193 were discharged from follow-up, 83 of whom categorized as 'early discharged' (<1 year of age). Over the past year, 198 patients had contact with the expert team (49 in the 0-1, 81 in the 2-9, and 68 in the 10-18-year group) and 288 with at least one other health-care professional (53 in the 0-1, 133 in the 2-9, and 102 in the 10-18-year group). Of the 83 patients discharged early, 34 reported health-care use. Two hundred twenty-eight participants reported current information needs of whom 23 were discharged early. HCU and information needs of Dutch children with NBPP remains considerable even in children who were discharged. Stricter follow-up and information provision for these patients is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367493518814916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323837PMC
March 2020

Hand-Use-at-Home Questionnaire: validity and reliability in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy or unilateral cerebral palsy.

Clin Rehabil 2018 Oct 13;32(10):1363-1373. Epub 2018 May 13.

1 Department of Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: To investigate construct validity and test-retest reliability of the parent-rated Hand-Use-at-Home questionnaire (HUH) in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy or unilateral cerebral palsy.

Design And Subjects: For this cross-sectional study, children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy or unilateral cerebral palsy, aged 3-10 years, were eligible.

Main Measures: The HUH, Pediatric Outcome Data Collection Instrument Upper Extremity Scale (neonatal brachial plexus palsy only), and Children's Hand-Use Experience Questionnaire (unilateral cerebral palsy only) were completed. The HUH was completed twice in subgroups of both diagnoses. Lesion-extent (indication of involved nerve rootlets in neonatal brachial plexus palsy as confirmed during clinical observation and/or nerve surgery) and Manual Ability Classification System levels (unilateral cerebral palsy) were obtained from the medical records. Spearman correlation coefficients between the HUH and all clinical variables, agreement, standard error of measurement, smallest detectable change and intra-class correlation were calculated.

Results: A total of 260 patients participated (neonatal brachial plexus palsy: 181), of which 56 completed the second HUH (neonatal brachial plexus palsy: 16). Median age was 6.9 years for children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy, 116 had C5-C6 lesions. Median age for children with unilateral cerebral palsy was 6.4 years, 33 had Manual Ability Classification System Level II. The HUH correlated moderately with lesion-extent ( r =-0.5), Pediatric Outcome Data Collection Instrument Upper Extremity Scale ( r = 0.6) and Children's Hand-Use Experience Questionnaire ( r = 0.5) but weakly with Manual Ability Classification System levels ( r = -0.4). Test-retest reliability was excellent (intra-class correlation = 0.89, standard error of measurement = 0.599 and smallest detectable change = 1.66 logits) and agreement was good (mean difference HUH1 - HUH2 = 0.06 logits).

Conclusion: The HUH showed good construct validity and test-retest reliability in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy or unilateral cerebral palsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269215518775156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6148704PMC
October 2018

Participation restrictions among adolescents and adults with neonatal brachial plexus palsy: the patient perspective.

Disabil Rehabil 2018 12 24;40(26):3147-3155. Epub 2017 Sep 24.

a Department of Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy , Leiden University Medical Center , Leiden , The Netherlands.

Purpose: To examine the impact of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) on societal participation of adolescents and adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with NBPP, aged ≥16 years, who had visited our NBPP clinic. Patients completed questions on the influence of NBPP on their choices regarding education/work and their work-performance, the Impact on Participation/Autonomy questionnaire and the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (USER-P). In addition, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed.

Results: Seventy-five patients participated (median age 20, inter quartile range 17-27). Twenty were full-time students, 28 students with a job, 21 employed, two unemployed, and four work-disabled. Sixty-six patients had had a job at some stage. Patients' overall HRQoL was comparable to the general population. 27/75 patients reported that NBPP had affected their choices regarding education and 26/75 those regarding work. 33/66 reported impact on their work performance. On the Impact on Participation/Autonomy questionnaire, 80% (49/61) reported restrictions in the work-and-education domain, 74% in social-relations and 67% in autonomy-outdoors. 37/61 reported participation restrictions on the USER-P.

Conclusions: Although their overall HRQoL was not impaired, a substantial proportion of adolescent/adult patients reported that NBPP had an impact on choices regarding education and profession, as well as on work-performance. Restrictions in participation, especially in work and education were also reported. Guiding patients in making choices on education and work at an early stage and providing tailored physical as well as psychosocial care may prevent or address restrictions, which may improve participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Adolescent and adult patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy perceive restrictions in societal participation, especially regarding the work-and-education domain. All patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy may perceive restrictions in societal participation regardless of lesion severity, treatment history and side of the lesion. Adolescents and adults with neonatal brachial plexus palsy report that their choices regarding education and work, as well as their work-performance are influenced by their neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy should be followed throughout their life in order to provide them with appropriate information and treatment when health- or participation-related issues arise. Rehabilitation treatment is the best option to address all of the aforementioned issues, as surgical options in adolescents and adults are limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2017.1380717DOI Listing
December 2018

Development and psychometric properties of the Hand-Use-at-Home questionnaire to assess amount of affected hand-use in children with unilateral paresis.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2017 09 29;59(9):919-925. Epub 2017 May 29.

Department of Rehabilitation, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen.

Aim: To describe the development of the parent-rated Hand-Use-at-Home questionnaire (HUH) assessing the amount of spontaneous use of the affected hand in children with unilateral paresis, and to test its internal structure, unidimensionality, and validity.

Method: Parents of children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) and professionals participated in the development of the HUH. To examine internal validity, data of 322 children (158 males, 164 females; mean age 6y 7mo, standard deviation [SD] 2y 1mo) with unilateral CP (n=131) or neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) (n=191) were collected. Rasch analysis was used to examine discriminative capacity of the 5-category rating scale as well as unidimensionality and hierarchy of the item set. Additionally, data of 55 children with typical development (24 males, 31 females; 6y 9mo, SD 2y 5mo) were used to examine construct validity.

Results: The 5-category rating scale was disordered in all items and was collapsed to obtain the best discriminating sum score. Ten misfitting or redundant items were removed. Eighteen hierarchically ordered bimanual items fitted the unidimensional model within acceptable range. The HUH significantly discriminated between the three groups (children with typical development, NBPP, unilateral CP; H =118.985, p<0.001), supporting its construct validity.

Interpretation: The HUH is a valid instrument to assess the amount of spontaneous use of the affected hand in children with unilateral upper-limb paresis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.13449DOI Listing
September 2017

Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy in Children Aged 0 to 2.5 Years; Parent-Perceived Family Impact, Quality of Life, and Upper Extremity Functioning.

Pediatr Neurol 2016 09 25;62:34-42. Epub 2016 Jun 25.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Rijnlands Rehabilitation Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: To investigate whether parents perceive impact of neonatal brachial plexus palsy on family and quality of life and upper extremity functioning in children less than 2.5 years.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used the PedsQL Family Impact Module (36 items/one total/four scales/scores 0 to 100), TNO-AZL (Dutch Organisation of Applied Natural Science and Academic Hospital Leiden) Preschool Children Quality of Life (43 items/12 scales/scores 0 to 100) and 21 upper extremity functioning questions. Associations between neonatal brachial plexus palsy/patient characteristics and family impact, perceived quality of life, and upper extremity functioning were investigated using regression analysis.

Results: Parents of 59 children (median age, 18 months) participated, 49 with C5-C6/C5-C7 lesions. Median Family Impact Module and TNO-AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life scores were 81.3 to 100.0/100.0 and 78.6 to 100.0/100.0. TNO-AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life scores did not differ significantly to healthy references except for stomach, skin, communication, and motor functioning problems. Parents reported around three upper extremity functioning problems. Greater lesion extent, lower age, still being in follow-up, and right-sided lesions were associated with greater family impact (P < 0.01 to P < 0.1). No clinically relevant associations were found for perceived quality of life. Greater lesion extent and nerve surgery history were associated with more upper extremity functioning problems (P < 0.01). Problems were associated with parental worrying (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Parents perceive having a child with neonatal brachial plexus palsy as impacting on their family depending on the side and severity of the lesion, treatment history, still being in follow-up, and age. They perceive the child's quality of life as relatively normal and not significantly different to healthy peers. However, parents noticed upper extremity functioning problems which increased parental worrying. Health care specialists should take these findings into account to better inform or counsel parents in an early stage during treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.06.015DOI Listing
September 2016

Outcome of secondary shoulder surgery in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy with and without nerve surgery treatment history: A long-term follow-up study.

J Rehabil Med 2016 Jul;48(7):609-17

Department of Orthopaedics, Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy, Leiden University Medical Center, NL-2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objective: Irrespective of treatment history, shoulder dysfunction may occur in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Following internal contracture release and/or muscle tendon transfer (ICR/MTT) shoulder function gain is possible. This study describes the outcomes of ICR/MTT for children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy, with or without prior nerve surgery (a group with prior nerve surgery and a group without prior nerve surgery).

Patients And Methods: The study included children who underwent an ICR/MTT with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Active/passive range of motion (aROM/pROM)/Mallet scores were recorded (pre-operatively, 6 months, and 1, 3, 5 and 10 years post-surgery). Changes over time within groups were analysed using a linear mixed model.

Results: A total of 115 children (60 boys) were included, 82 with nerve surgery history, mean age 4.7 years (standard deviation (SD) 3.3 years), mean follow-up 6 years (SD 3.2 years). Pre-operatively active external rotation, abduction and forward-flexion were worse in the group with prior nerve surgery. aROM, pROM and Mallet scores, improved at all time-points in both groups. The course and magnitude of these improvements were largely similar in both groups. In the long-term, the effects of ICR/MTT decrease, but remain significant.

Conclusion: In children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy shoulder function improved after ICR/MTT, irrespective of treatment history. Pre-operative shoulder function was worse in the group with prior nerve surgery, resulting in less function in this group after ICR/MTT. Reporting on outcome after secondary shoulder surgery should be stratified into children with and without prior nerve surgery, in order to prevent over- or underestimation of results.

Level Of Evidence: This study concerned a retrospective treatment case series study.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2193DOI Listing
July 2016

Translation and adaptation of the Pediatric Outcome Data Collecting Instrument (PODCI) into the Dutch language and preliminary validation in children with Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2015 ;8(3):219-26

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: This study aimed to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Pediatric Outcome Data Collecting Instrument (PODCI) into the Dutch language and evaluate its measurement properties among children (age 3-10) with Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy (NBPP).

Methods: The PODCI was translated and adapted according to international guidelines and administered to 10 children with NBPP before and after surgery and thereafter twice again. Subsequently, the Mallet-score, Assisting Hand Assessment and active Range of Motion (aROM) were recorded. Cronbach's-α and correlations between the PODCI and other outcome measures were determined, as well as Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). In addition, effect sizes (ES), Standard Response Means (SRM) and change scores with the 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated.

Results: The final Dutch PODCI `Upper Extremity and Physical Function' subscale and total score `Global Functioning' showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's-α 0.695/0.781) and reliability (ICC 0.97/0.80) and were significantly associated with aROM and the Mallet-score. After surgery a significant change of the total score (ES 0.57, SRM 1.23, change 4.22 points, 95% CI 1.04-7.4) was seen.

Conclusion: The final Dutch PODCI had good measurement properties and appears useful in evaluating quality of life and functioning in children with NBPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/PRM-150338DOI Listing
September 2016

Evaluation of shoulder function after secondary surgery in children with Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2015 ;8(3):187-96

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Shoulder function in children with Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy (NBPP) can be impaired. Functional gain is possible by an internal contracture release and muscle tendon transfer (ICL+MTT) for external rotation. This study evaluates the functional results of this intervention.

Methods: Assessments were done pre-operatively and 3, 6 and 12 months thereafter and included joint-mobility (ROM), muscle strength, arm function (Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) and Mallet-score), Quality of Life (QoL) (Pediatric Outcome Data Collecting Instrument (PODCI)) and parental satisfaction. Changes were examined using Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test and Cohen's effect size.

Results: Ten children (5 boys) aged 3-10 years who underwent a combined ICL+MTT (mm. Latissimus Dorsi/Teres Major) were included.Active and passive external rotation ROM and muscle strength improved (p < 0.05). Arm function improved according to the Mallet-score (Hand-to-Head, Hand-to-Mouth, External-Rotation) (p < 0.05) and the arm use and pace scales of the AHA (p < 0.05). The PODCI Upper Extremity/Physical Functioning and Global Functioning subscales also showed improvements (p < 0.05). Parents were highly satisfied concerning daily life activities and sports.

Conclusion: ICL+MTT leads to improvement of ROM, strength, arm function, QoL and high parental satisfaction in this studies' patients and is therefore a good intervention to consider in children with NBPP with limited shoulder function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/PRM-150332DOI Listing
September 2016

Concepts of functioning and health important to children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury: a qualitative study using focus groups.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2013 Dec 16;55(12):1136-42. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aims: The aims of this study were to explore and understand the perspectives of children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) regarding functioning and health, and to create an overview of problems and difficulties that patients encounter in daily life.

Method: We conducted a focus group study with 48 children (25 male, 23 female), aged 8 to 18 years, with an OBPI. Eleven open-ended questions regarding problems or difficulties in daily life were asked in group sessions with 4 to 7 children within the same age range. These group sessions were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. All problems and difficulties mentioned in each focus group were linked to corresponding categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children & Youth Version (ICF-CY).

Results: Eight focus groups were conducted. A total of 143 unique ICF-CY categories were identified. Of these categories, 61 (43%) were related to the ICF-CY component 'activities and participation', 31 (22%) were related to 'body functions', 29 (20%) were related to 'environmental factors', and 22 (15%) were related to 'body structures'.

Interpretation: This study shows that children with OBPI experience difficulties in all areas of functioning, as well as in both environmental and personal factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.12270DOI Listing
December 2013