Publications by authors named "Menno Holzhauer"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Simulating the mechanics behind sub-optimal mobility and the associated economic losses in dairy production.

Prev Vet Med 2022 Feb 1;199:105551. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Business Economics Group, Wageningnen University and Research, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hoof disorders and sub-optimal mobility (SOM) are economically important health issues in dairy farming. Although the dynamics of hoof disorders have an important effect on cow mobility, they have not been considered in previous simulation models that estimate the economic loss of SOM. Furthermore, these models do not consider the varying severities of SOM. The objective of this study was to develop a novel bio-economic simulation model to simulate the dynamics of 8 hoof disorders: digital dermatitis (DD), interdigital hyperplasia (HYP), interdigital dermatitis/heel-horn erosion (IDHE), interdigital phlegmon (IP), overgrown hoof (OH), sole haemorrhage (SH), sole ulcer (SU) and white-line disease (WLD), their role in SOM, and estimate the economic loss of SOM in a herd of 125 dairy cows. A Reed-Frost model was used for DD and a Greenwood model for the other 7 hoof disorders. Economic analysis was conducted per mobility score according to a 5-point mobility scoring method (1 = perfect mobility; 5 = severely impaired mobility) by comparing a scenario with SOM and one without SOM. Parameters used in the model were based on literature and expert opinion and deemed credible during model validation rounds. Results showed that the mean cumulative incidence for maximum mobility scores 2-5 SOM episodes were respectively 34, 16, 7 and <1 episodes per 100 cows per pasture period and 39, 19, 8, <1 episodes per 100 cows per housing period. The mean total annual economic loss due to SOM resulting from the hoof disorders under study was €15,342: €122 per cow per year. The economic analysis uncovered direct economic losses that could be directly linked to SOM episodes and indirect economic losses that could not be directly linked to SOM episodes but arose due to the presence of SOM. The mean total annual direct economic loss for maximum mobility score 2-5 SOM episodes was €1129, €3098, €4354 and €480, respectively. The mean total annual indirect economic loss varied considerably between the 5th and 95th percentiles: €-6174 and €19,499, and had a mean of €6281. This loss was composed of additional indirect culling due to SOM (∼65%) and changes in the overall herd milk production (∼35%) because of additional younger replacement heifers entering the herd due to increased culling rates. The bio-economic model presented novel results with respect to indirect economic losses arising due to SOM. The results can be used to stimulate farmer awareness and promote better SOM management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105551DOI Listing
February 2022

A proposed structural approach to improve cow-claw health on Dutch dairy farms.

J Dairy Res 2021 Dec 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Royal GD, 7418EZDeventer, The Netherlands.

Despite extensive research leading to an improved understanding of the risk factors and pathogenesis of infectious and non-infectious disorders, claw health has not structurally improved in recent decades. Several studies have shown that claw disorders harm milk production, fertility and longevity of the dairy cows and job satisfaction of the farmer. This is enough reason to structurally improve claw health on dairy farms. The focus should be on a rapid curative intervention when lameness occurs and above all the prevention of claw problems. Most claw disorder diagnoses are nowadays made during regular claw trimming by the professional trimmer or the dairy farmer. Registration of the detected disorders during claw trimming is not always done consistently, so the estimated prevalence (number of cows with a claw disorder) is in most cases an underestimation of the real prevalence. The quality of these records often makes it difficult for consultants to formulate appropriate claw health advice. To be able to give good advice on claw health, insight into the prevalence of the various hoof disorders on a farm is a key condition. However, good quality advice alone is not a guarantee for an improved claw health situation on a farm. Research has shown that in addition to high quality substantiated advice, the communication style between the consultant and the dairy farmer is essential for the interpretation and motivation of the dairy farmer to implement the advice. In this paper a 7-point plan is presented as a guidance for herd advisors who want to support dairy farmers to improve claw health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029921000753DOI Listing
December 2021

Evaluation of test characteristics of 2 ELISA tests applied to bulk tank milk and claw-trimming records for herd-level diagnosis of bovine digital dermatitis using latent class analysis.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Sep 12;104(9):10111-10120. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 369 Sentrum, N-0102 Oslo, Norway.

Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious claw disease with a negative effect on animal welfare and production. Treponema spp. is the main causative agent, and infected animals produce specific antibodies. Our aim was to estimate sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 2 ELISA research tests, Medicago's ELISA test and GD Animal Health's in-house ELISA test, for detection of DD-associated Treponema antibodies in bulk tank milk. We used bulk tank milk samples from 154 Norwegian dairy cattle herds, 96 from an expected high-prevalence region and 58 from a low-prevalence region. Both tests were evaluated separately against herd-level (aggregated) claw-trimming records extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Cutoff values were selected using an explorative approach, and both noninformative priors for all parameters and informative β priors for distribution of Se and Sp of claw trimming were explored. The estimated (median) true herd-level prevalence of digital dermatitis varied between 24 and 30% in the high-prevalence region and between 3 and 6% in the low-prevalence region. For Medicago's ELISA test, an Se (95% posterior credible interval) of 0.57 (0.32; 0.94) could be achieved without compromising Sp, and for GD Animal Health's in-house ELISA test, an Se of 0.60 (0.37; 0.92) was achieved. Our study showed that both ELISA tests can detect antibodies against DD-associated Treponema spp. in bulk tank milk. However, neither of the 2 ELISA tests produced satisfactory sensitivity without compromising specificity. Based on these results, inspection at claw trimming in a chute is necessary for surveillance and control of DD at the herd level in Norway, although these ELISA tests of bulk tank milk might be a useful supplement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19804DOI Listing
September 2021

Footbaths and digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.

Authors:
Menno Holzhauer

Vet Rec 2020 12 9;187(12):e114. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

GD Animal Health, Deventer, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.m4662DOI Listing
December 2020

Levels of trace elements and potential toxic elements in bovine livers: A trend analysis from 2007 to 2018.

PLoS One 2019 9;14(4):e0214584. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Animal Health Services, AA Deventer, The Netherlands.

Trace elements and potential toxic elements were analyzed in bovine livers submitted for autopsy in the Netherlands during the years 2007 to 2018. The age of each animal was recorded. In total, 1544 livers were analyzed for cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium and zinc. Less than 2% of the liver samples were from veal calves. Young animals had significantly higher concentrations of iron and zinc in their livers compared to animals older than one year, while older animals had significantly higher levels of cadmium and molybdenum in their livers. Animals aged 1 to 2 years had the lowest copper and selenium levels. There was a tendency for lower chromium and nickel levels during the last years of the testing period, while copper showed an increase. Lead intoxication was only seen in the youngest group of cattle, while copper intoxication, defined as a liver copper of more than 1000 mg/kg dry matter, occurred in older animals, mainly in animals of 3 to 4 years old. This trend analysis of trace elements in bovine livers of cattle over time in recent years, and the relation of liver element concentrations with age of the animal, provides insight in the uptake and storage of these elements by cattle in The Netherlands. Possible reasons for observed trends and age-related patterns are discussed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214584PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456170PMC
December 2019

Foot bathing dairy cows with antibiotics.

Authors:
Menno Holzhauer

Vet Rec 2017 09;181(10):270

GD Animal Health,, Arnsbergstraat 7, 7418 EZ Deventer, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.j4129DOI Listing
September 2017

[Trends from the GD-monitoring].

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 2013 Aug;138(8):20-1

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August 2013

The dynamics of digital dermatitis in populations of dairy cattle: model-based estimates of transition rates and implications for control.

Vet J 2012 Sep 9;193(3):648-53. Epub 2012 Aug 9.

Central Veterinary Institute, Animal Sciences Group of Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands.

Five groups of dairy cows affected by digital dermatitis were subjected to five different footbath strategies and evaluated at regular 3-weekly intervals. A standard protocol was used to record five different stages of disease from early (M1), acute ulcerative (M2), healing (M3) and chronic lesions (M4) in addition to the negative stage of disease (M0). The effect of the footbathing was evaluated using mathematical modelling for the transmission dynamics of infections and summarized using the reproduction ratio R(0). Sensitivity analysis for a range of parameters in the mathematical model showed that the speed of detecting acute lesions and the efficiency with which those lesions were treated were the key parameters which determined whether lesions became more severe or whether they healed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.06.047DOI Listing
September 2012

The effect of an acidified, ionized copper sulphate solution on digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

Vet J 2012 Sep 4;193(3):659-63. Epub 2012 Aug 4.

GD Animal Health Service, P.O. Box 9, 7400 AA Deventer, The Netherlands.

Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disorder in dairy cattle and herd-based foot bathing with antibacterials, such as 4% formalin, is often used to prevent it. However, there is a lack of long-term studies of the effectiveness of such regimes and in this study the preventive and curative effect of 4% formalin was compared with that of an acidified, ionized copper sulphate solution over a 4-month period on a commercial 120-cow dairy farm. The cows were walked through a split-leg footbath where left claws were treated with an acidified copper solution twice daily for 5 days/week, while right claws were treated with 4% formalin twice daily for 1 day/every second week. Hind claws were scored for the presence and severity of DD in a trimming chute at the start of the study and every 4 weeks throughout the study period. At the start of the study 21/110 cows had ulcerative DD lesions with 10 on the left hind foot, 8 on the right and 3 on both. These lesions, as well as any new lesions which arose during the study, were treated with chlortetracycline spray. During the study 440 observations were made and seven new DD lesions were recorded on left feet (copper treated) and 20 on right feet (formalin treated). Based on survival analysis, the risk of developing a new ulcerative DD lesion on copper-treated (left hind) feet was almost three times less (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.91) than formalin-treated (right hind) feet. Cure rates of DD lesions were not different between copper and formalin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.06.049DOI Listing
September 2012

Prevalence, prediction and risk factors of enteropathogens in normal and non-normal faeces of young Dutch dairy calves.

Prev Vet Med 2010 Feb 12;93(2-3):162-9. Epub 2009 Oct 12.

GD Animal Health Service, P.O. Box 9, 7400 AA Deventer, The Netherlands.

Between January and April 2007, 424 calves under 22 days of age from 108 Dutch dairy herds were sampled to estimate the prevalence of non-normal faeces ('custard-like'-yellowish-coloured with custard consistency or diarrhoea: watery-like faeces) and the shedding of enteropathogens Escherichia coli K99 (E. coli), Coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum), Rotavirus and Clostridium perfringens (Cl. perfringens). In addition, information was collected on animal characteristics and herd-management practices. The probability of detecting each one of five enteropathogens given a calf with 'custard-like' faeces or diarrhoea was estimated using Bayes' rule and was based on the predicted probabilities from a multinominal model including each of five enteropathogens as independent variables. In addition, putative risk factors for the presence of each of five enteropathogens were analysed using logistic regression models with random herd effects. Fifty-seven percent of calves had faeces of normal colour (brownish) and consistency (firm), 23.8% (95%CI: 19.8-28.2%) had 'custard-like' faeces and 19.1% (95%CI: 15.5-23.2%) had diarrhoea. E. coli was the least detected enteropathogen (2.6% (95%CI: 1.3-4.6%) of calves, 9% (95%CI: 5-16%) of herds) and Cl. perfringens was most detected (54.0% (95%CI: 49.1-58.8%) of calves, 85% (95%CI: 77-91%) of herds). E. coli and Coronavirus were detected incidentally in only one or two calves per herd, whereas C. parvum and Cl. perfringens were frequently detected in up to four calves per herd. For calves with 'custard-like' faeces, the probability of detecting Rotavirus from a calf in its first week of age was 0.31 whereas for a calf in its second week, there was a 0.66 probability of detecting C. parvum. The probabilities of detecting E. coli, Rotavirus and C. parvum in calves with diarrhoea in their first week of age were 0.10, 0.20 and 0.43, respectively. In calves with diarrhoea between 1 and 2 weeks of age, the probability of detecting enteropathogens was 0.43 for C. parvum. None of the tested enteropathogens were related to 'custard-like' faeces or diarrhoea in the third week of age. Putative risk factors for E. coli, Coronavirus and C. parvum included the presence of peer-calves shedding Coronavirus, C. parvum or Rotavirus, respectively. Additionally, managerial risk factors such as non-optimal hygienic housing (for Coronavirus) and the routine use of antibiotics for diarrhoeic calves (for C. parvum) were found. No animal or managerial factors were associated with shedding of Cl. perfringens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.09.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125667PMC
February 2010

[Reintroduction of E. granulosus by import of cows in the Netherlands].

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 2008 Nov;133(21):898-902

Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit, Regio Oost, Postbus 202, 7200 AE Zutphen.

Since East European countries joined the EU, the import of both dairy and beef cows from these countries increased considerably. Based on the identification and registration system it turned out that in the period from May until December 2007 about 200 cows per month were imported from Romania. These animals were either slaughtered immediately or in autumn. In autumn, cysts were noticed both in slaughtered cows during meat inspection and in deceased animals (originated from Romania) during postmortem investigation performed by the Animal Health Service. Because cysts were strongly reminiscent of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts, samples were sent to the authorized laboratory (National Reference Laboratory of Parasitology), where the reintroduction of this potentially zoonotic parasitic infection has been confirmed. The risks of reintroduction of E. granulosus in the Netherlands are described.
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November 2008

[WAAVP-congress 'Advancement in Parasitology' in Ghent, Belgium, August 19-23 2007].

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 2007 Dec;132(23):940-1

GD, Deventer.

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December 2007

[Summary of the Fourteenth International Congress: 'Lameness in Ruminants'].

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 2007 Nov;132(22):888-90

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November 2007

Clinical course of digital dermatitis lesions in an endemically infected herd without preventive herd strategies.

Vet J 2008 Aug 6;177(2):222-30. Epub 2007 Jul 6.

Department of Ruminant Health, GD Ltd, Deventer, The Netherlands.

Lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in four separately housed groups in a herd with endemic digital dermatitis (DD) were monitored weekly for 4 weeks in December 2004 for the presence of and transition between five stages (M0-M4) of DD. Cows were also monitored for the presence of heel horn erosion (HHE) and interdigital hyperplasia. Prior to the study, two groups had been housed indoors on a high or low energy ration, one group had been grazed and one was a dry cow group. All cows received the same ration during the period of investigation. 'Active infection' was defined as transition from M0, M1, M3 or M4 to M2 and 'resolving M2 lesions' were defined as transition from M2 to another stage. M2 lesions were diagnosed on 106 occasions in the hind claws of 49 (36%) of 138 dairy cows; both hind claws were affected in nine cases (18%). M2 lesions were more often painful on palpation than other stages; 94% of M2 lesions were located plantar-medially near the interdigital cleft and 71% had a diameter of 2-4 cm. More M1 lesions than other stages were found within the interdigital space. When interdigital hyperplasia was present, claws were always concurrently affected by DD. The baseline incidence for 'active infection' was 6% per week, increasing to 11% when HHE was present, 14% when cows were previously housed indoors and fed a high energy ration and 16% when cows were 60-120 days in lactation. Topical treatment with chlortetracycline resulted in resolution from M2 of 79% per week. There were no significant effects of group, stage of lactation, parity or HHE on resolution of M2 lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.05.004DOI Listing
August 2008

[Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis outbreak on a mostly BHV-1 free farm can result in great damage].

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 2003 Oct;128(19):593-5

GD Veekijker Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren, Postbus 9, 7400 AA Deventer.

In a suckler herd with 110 cows (without young stock born in 2003) 5 cows died within 10 days, 6 calves were born dead prematurely and 5 calves were born alive but prematurely. The diagnosis BHV1-infection was based on clinical symptoms and confirmed with PCR. The clinical signs, diagnostic methods, therapy, risk-analysis and prevention are discussed.
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October 2003

Atypical actinobacillosis in a dairy replacement herd.

Vet Rec 2002 Aug;151(9):276

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August 2002
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