Publications by authors named "Mengyuan Zhao"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preparation of IgG imprinted polymers by metal-free visible-light-induced ATRP and its application in biosensor.

Talanta 2021 May 29;226:122160. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, 116029, China.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is related to the occurrence of many diseases, such as measles and inflammatory. In this paper, IgG imprinted polymers (IgGIPs) were fabricated on the surface of nano Au/nano Ni modified Au electrode (IgGIPs/AuNCs/NiNCs/Au) via metal-free visible-light-induced atom transfer radical polymerization (MVL ATRP). The IgGIPs were prepared by IgG conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-IgG) as both a template and a photocatalyst. After the templates were removed, the photocatalysts (FITC) would not remain in the polymer and avoided all the effect of catalysts on the electrode. The fabricated electrodes were examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Under the optimized conditions, IgGIPs/AuNCs/NiNCs/Au was prepared and used as an electrochemical biosensor. The biosensor could be successfully applied for the determination of IgG by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement. The results showed that the proposed biosensor displayed a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for IgG determination when it was compared to those similar IgG sensors. The linear range from 1.0 × 10 mg L to 1.0 × 10 mg L was obtained with a low detection limit (LOD) of 2.0 × 10 mg L (S/N = 3). Briefly, the biosensor in this study introduced an easy and non-toxic method for IgG determination and also provided a progressive approach for designing protein imprinted polymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7845519PMC
May 2021

Diagnostic and treatment protocol for a patient with temporomandibular disorder using a stabilization splint and temporary anchorage devices.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 May 27;159(5):666-681.e2. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, and Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Treatment of orthodontic patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is challenging for orthodontists because of the TMD signs and symptoms and unstable mandible position, which may lead to improper diagnosis and treatment design. This case report presents a 22-year-old woman with proclined maxillary incisors and TMD. First, stabilization splint therapy was implemented to eliminate temporomandibular joint pain and to obtain the stable adapted centric posture. Subsequently, orthodontic treatment was initiated on the basis of a definitive diagnosis made from the postsplint records. Temporary anchorage devices were used to intrude maxillary molars and distalize the maxillary dental arch. Favorable soft tissue, skeletal, and dental relationship were accomplished after 12 months of comprehensive orthodontic treatment. Functional occlusion was established with teeth as well as vacuum-formed retainers. Excellent posttreatment stability was maintained after a 20-month retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2020.05.015DOI Listing
May 2021

A comprehensive overview and critical evaluation of gene regulatory network inference technologies.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

School of Computer Science and Technology, College of Intelligence and Computing, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Gene regulatory network (GRN) is the important mechanism of maintaining life process, controlling biochemical reaction and regulating compound level, which plays an important role in various organisms and systems. Reconstructing GRN can help us to understand the molecular mechanism of organisms and to reveal the essential rules of a large number of biological processes and reactions in organisms. Various outstanding network reconstruction algorithms use specific assumptions that affect prediction accuracy, in order to deal with the uncertainty of processing. In order to study why a certain method is more suitable for specific research problem or experimental data, we conduct research from model-based, information-based and machine learning-based method classifications. There are obviously different types of computational tools that can be generated to distinguish GRNs. Furthermore, we discuss several classical, representative and latest methods in each category to analyze core ideas, general steps, characteristics, etc. We compare the performance of state-of-the-art GRN reconstruction technologies on simulated networks and real networks under different scaling conditions. Through standardized performance metrics and common benchmarks, we quantitatively evaluate the stability of various methods and the sensitivity of the same algorithm applying to different scaling networks. The aim of this study is to explore the most appropriate method for a specific GRN, which helps biologists and medical scientists in discovering potential drug targets and identifying cancer biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab009DOI Listing
February 2021

Thioredoxin-1 maintains mitochondrial function via mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling in the heart.

Cardiovasc Res 2020 08;116(10):1742-1755

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07101, USA.

Aims: Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) is an evolutionarily conserved oxidoreductase that cleaves disulphide bonds in oxidized substrate proteins such as mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and maintains nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene expression. The cardioprotective effect of Trx1 has been demonstrated via cardiac-specific overexpression of Trx1 and dominant negative Trx1. However, the pathophysiological role of endogenous Trx1 has not been defined with a loss-of-function model. To address this, we have generated cardiac-specific Trx1 knockout (Trx1cKO) mice.

Methods And Results: Trx1cKO mice were viable but died with a median survival age of 25.5 days. They developed heart failure, evidenced by contractile dysfunction, hypertrophy, and increased fibrosis and apoptotic cell death. Multiple markers consistently indicated increased oxidative stress and RNA-sequencing revealed downregulation of genes involved in energy production in Trx1cKO mice. Mitochondrial morphological abnormality was evident in these mice. Although heterozygous Trx1cKO mice did not show any significant baseline phenotype, pressure-overload-induced cardiac dysfunction, and downregulation of metabolic genes were exacerbated in these mice. mTOR was more oxidized and phosphorylation of mTOR substrates such as S6K and 4EBP1 was impaired in Trx1cKO mice. In cultured cardiomyocytes, Trx1 knockdown inhibited mitochondrial respiration and metabolic gene promoter activity, suggesting that Trx1 maintains mitochondrial function in a cell autonomous manner. Importantly, mTOR-C1483F, an oxidation-resistant mutation, prevented Trx1 knockdown-induced mTOR oxidation and inhibition and attenuated suppression of metabolic gene promoter activity.

Conclusion: Endogenous Trx1 is essential for maintaining cardiac function and metabolism, partly through mTOR regulation via Cys1483.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvz251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825501PMC
August 2020

Oral Curcumin via Hydrophobic Porous Silicon Carrier: Preparation, Characterization, and Toxicological Evaluation In Vivo.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Sep 26;11(35):31661-31670. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

School of Food Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering , Nanjing Normal University , Nanjing 210024 , P. R. China.

Curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic activities. However, the clinical application of curcumin has been restricted by the poor water solubility and low bioavailability of this molecule. In this work, hydrophobic porous silicon (pSi) particles were prepared by electrochemical etching method and grafted with the different hydrophobic groups on their surfaces. The loading efficiency of curcumin in pSi has been investigated. The properties of pSi particles have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The highest loading efficiency of curcumin can be obtained with pSi surface modified with the octadecyl silane group. The release properties of curcumin in hydrophobic pSi have been researched in vitro and in vivo. The curcumin in the hydrophobic pSi surface keeps a high antioxidant bioactivity. The toxicological evaluation of the hydrophobic pSi particles indicates they have a high in vivo biocompatibility within the observed dose ranges. The hydrophobic pSi particles could provide an effective and controlled release delivery carrier for curcumin, which may provide a new tool platform for the further development of curcumin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b10368DOI Listing
September 2019

Transit amplifying cells coordinate mouse incisor mesenchymal stem cell activation.

Nat Commun 2019 08 9;10(1):3596. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Peninsula Dental School, University of Plymouth, 16 Research Way, Plymouth, PL6 8BU, UK.

Stem cells (SCs) receive inductive cues from the surrounding microenvironment and cells. Limited molecular evidence has connected tissue-specific mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with mesenchymal transit amplifying cells (MTACs). Using mouse incisor as the model, we discover a population of MSCs neibouring to the MTACs and epithelial SCs. With Notch signaling as the key regulator, we disclose molecular proof and lineage tracing evidence showing the distinct MSCs contribute to incisor MTACs and the other mesenchymal cell lineages. MTACs can feedback and regulate the homeostasis and activation of CL-MSCs through Delta-like 1 homolog (Dlk1), which balances MSCs-MTACs number and the lineage differentiation. Dlk1's function on SCs priming and self-renewal depends on its biological forms and its gene expression is under dynamic epigenetic control. Our findings can be validated in clinical samples and applied to accelerate tooth wound healing, providing an intriguing insight of how to direct SCs towards tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11611-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6689115PMC
August 2019

Periodontal ligament fibroblasts regulate osteoblasts by exosome secretion induced by inflammatory stimuli.

Arch Oral Biol 2019 Sep 5;105:27-34. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Orthodontics, West China School of Stomatology, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, ChengDu, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study evaluated the role of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs)-derived exosomes in periodontitis progression and discovered whether hPDLFs influence bone remodeling activity via exosome secretion.

Materials And Methods: Exosomes were isolated and quantified from Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated primary hPDLFs and evaluated by western blotting, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. GW4869 was used to block exosome secretion in conditioned medium (CM). hPDLFs-derived CM, CM containing GW4869 (CM + GW4869) and exosomes were used to stimulate MG-63 cell lines. The expression levels of proinflammatory mediators, osteogenic genes, and osteoclastogenesis-related genes were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting, and alkaline phosphatase staining.

Results: Exosome-enriched protein and total exosomal protein levels were higher in the LPS-treated group than in the vehicle controls. hPDLFs-derived exosomes were incorporated into MG-63 osteoblasts and slightly upregulated the expression of Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. CM and exosomes inhibited alkaline phosphatase, Collagen-I, Runt-related transcription factor 2, and Osteoprotegerin expression as well as ALP activity, and blocking exosome secretion by GW4869 eliminated the inhibitory effects.

Conclusion: These results indicate that LPS-pretreated hPDLFs induce inflammation and inhibit osteogenic activity of osteoblasts through secreting exosomes. This study provides a potential mechanism by which localized periodontal inflammation may influence bone remodeling by release exosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.06.002DOI Listing
September 2019

Adsorption of cholesterol oxidase and entrapment of horseradish peroxidase in metal-organic frameworks for the colorimetric biosensing of cholesterol.

Talanta 2019 Aug 15;200:293-299. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Changan West Road 620, 710119 Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Changan West Road 620, 710119 Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

The co-immobilization of two enzymes onto single support commonly exhibits low efficiency due to the competition against limited sites. Water-stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [i.e., PCN-333(Al)] with a high surface area and ultra-large cavities were employed to efficiently adsorb cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and encapsulate horseradish peroxidase (HRP), respectively. The prepared PCN-333/ChOx&HRP was characterized through SEM, XRD, confocal microscopy, N adsorption isotherms, and thermal gravity analysis (TGA). The high surface area and high concentration of mesoporous cages resulted in the high loadings of both ChOx and HRP. The absorbed ChOx and the encapsulated HRP presented excellent activities without additional chemical modification. The immobilized enzymes were stable against protease digestion, organic solvents, temperature changes, and pH variation. Thus, a colorimetric biosensor for cholesterol detection was fabricated depending on cascade catalytic reactions of the immobilized bi-enzymes. An extended linear range from 0.0 to 40.0 μM with a low detection limit of 0.6 μM was obtained using the biosensor. The co-immobilization of the enzymes onto the surface and into the mesopores of MOFs provided a new and excellent platform for the development of highly stable and sensitive colorimetric biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.03.060DOI Listing
August 2019

YAP regulates periodontal ligament cell differentiation into myofibroblast interacted with RhoA/ROCK pathway.

J Cell Physiol 2019 04 20;234(4):5086-5096. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Orthodontic Centre, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

During orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) receive the mechanical stimuli and transform it into myofibroblasts (Mfbs). Indeed, previous studies have demonstrated that mechanical stimuli can promote the expression of Mfb marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in PDLCs. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), as the target gene of yes-associated protein (YAP), has been proven to be involved in this process. Here, we sought to assess the role of YAP in Mfbs differentiation from PDLCs. The time-course expression of YAP and α-SMA was manifested in OTM model in vivo as well as under tensional stimuli in vitro. Inhibition of RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway using Y27632 significantly reduced tension-induced Mfb differentiation and YAP expression. Moreover, overexpression of YAP with lentiviral transfection in PDLCs rescued the repression effect of Mfb differentiation induced by Y27632. These data together suggest a crucial role of YAP in regulating tension-induced Mfb differentiation from PDLC interacted with RhoA/ROCK pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27312DOI Listing
April 2019

Transversal changes, space closure, and efficiency of conventional and self-ligating appliances : A quantitative systematic review.

J Orofac Orthop 2018 Jan 3;79(1):1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Department Chair, Department of Orthodontics, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 3rd Section of Renmin South Road, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Objective: Self-ligating brackets (SLBs) were compared to conventional brackets (CBs) regarding their effectiveness on transversal changes and space closure, as well as the efficiency of alignment and treatment time.

Methods: All previously published randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) dealing with SLBs and CBs were searched via electronic databases, e.g., MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. In addition, relevant journals were searched manually. Data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers and assessment of the risk of bias was executed using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (version 5.3).

Results: A total of 976 patients in 17 RCTs were included in the study, of which 11 could be produced quantitatively and 2 showed a low risk of bias. Meta-analyses were found to favor CB for mandibular intercanine width expansion, while passive SLBs were more effective in posterior expansion. Moreover, CBs had an apparent advantage during short treatment periods. However, SLBs and CBs did not differ in closing spaces.

Conclusions: Based on current clinical evidence obtained from RCTs, SLBs do not show clinical superiority compared to CBs in expanding transversal dimensions, space closure, or orthodontic efficiency. Further high-level studies involving randomized, controlled, clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00056-017-0110-4DOI Listing
January 2018

Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2017 08 2;328:1-9. Epub 2017 May 2.

School of Life Sciences, Longyan University, Longyan 364012, People's Republic of China; School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2017.05.001DOI Listing
August 2017

Recognition of emotions using multimodal physiological signals and an ensemble deep learning model.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2017 Mar 15;140:93-110. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Department of Automation, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China.

Background And Objective: Using deep-learning methodologies to analyze multimodal physiological signals becomes increasingly attractive for recognizing human emotions. However, the conventional deep emotion classifiers may suffer from the drawback of the lack of the expertise for determining model structure and the oversimplification of combining multimodal feature abstractions.

Methods: In this study, a multiple-fusion-layer based ensemble classifier of stacked autoencoder (MESAE) is proposed for recognizing emotions, in which the deep structure is identified based on a physiological-data-driven approach. Each SAE consists of three hidden layers to filter the unwanted noise in the physiological features and derives the stable feature representations. An additional deep model is used to achieve the SAE ensembles. The physiological features are split into several subsets according to different feature extraction approaches with each subset separately encoded by a SAE. The derived SAE abstractions are combined according to the physiological modality to create six sets of encodings, which are then fed to a three-layer, adjacent-graph-based network for feature fusion. The fused features are used to recognize binary arousal or valence states.

Results: DEAP multimodal database was employed to validate the performance of the MESAE. By comparing with the best existing emotion classifier, the mean of classification rate and F-score improves by 5.26%.

Conclusions: The superiority of the MESAE against the state-of-the-art shallow and deep emotion classifiers has been demonstrated under different sizes of the available physiological instances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2016.12.005DOI Listing
March 2017

Differences between active and passive self-ligating brackets for orthodontic treatment : Systematic review and meta-analysis based on randomized clinical trials.

J Orofac Orthop 2017 Mar 21;78(2):121-128. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Department of Orthodontics, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 3rd Section of Renmin South Road, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Purpose: In orthodontic treatment, the effects of differences in the design between active and passive self-ligating bracket (ASLB and PSLB, respectively) are usually neglected. This study investigated differences in effectiveness and efficiency between ASLBs and PSLBs.

Methods: To identify randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing ASLB with PSLB, the electronic databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Medical Journal Database were searched without language or time limits. Relevant available dental journals and reference lists from included studies were manually searched for applicable reports. Meta-analyses were conducted with the Review Manager program. Two independent reviewers performed all search processes; disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer.

Results: Eight studies were included in the systematic review, of which six were included in the meta-analysis due to the data consistency. Three had a low risk of bias, four had an unclear risk of bias, and one had a high risk of bias. With regard to alignment efficiency, meta-analysis favors ASLB [mean difference (MD) -10.24 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -17.68 to -2.80]. However, the same analysis does not favor either design in terms of width change due to treatment for intercanine (MD -0.49 mm, 95% CI -1.10 to 0.13 mm) interfirst premolar (MD -0.07 mm, 95% CI -0.69, 0.56 mm) intersecond premolar (MD -0.58 mm, 95% CI -1.25 to 0.08 mm) and intermolar (MD 0.10 mm, 95% CI -0.82 to 1.02 mm) width.

Conclusions: Based on current clinical evidence from RCTs, ASLB appears to be more efficient for alignment, while neither design shows an advantage for width change. Further research is needed to confirm present results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00056-016-0059-8DOI Listing
March 2017

Sclerostin Promotes Bone Remodeling in the Process of Tooth Movement.

PLoS One 2017 12;12(1):e0167312. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Department of Orthodontics, State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Tooth movement is a biological process of bone remodeling induced by mechanical force. Sclerostin secreted by osteocytes is mechanosensory and important in bone remodeling. However, little is known regarding the role of sclerostin in tooth movement. In this study, models of experimental tooth movement were established in rats and mice. Sclerostin expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry staining, and osteoclastic activity was analyzed with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells underwent uniaxial compression and tension stress or were cultured in hypoxia conditions. Expression of sclerostin was assessed by RT-qPCR and ELISA. MLO-Y4 cells were cultured with recombinant human sclerostin (rhSCL) interference and then co-cultured with RAW264.7 osteoclast precursor cells. Expressions of RANKL and OPG were analyzed by RT-qPCR, and osteoclastic activity was assessed by TRAP staining. During tooth movement, sclerostin was expressed differently in compression and tension sites. In SOST knock-out mice, there were significantly fewer TRAP-positive cells than in WT mice during tooth movement in compression sites. In-vitro studies showed that the expression of sclerostin in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells was not different under a uniaxial compression and tension force, whereas hypoxia conditions significantly increased sclerostin expression in MLO-Y4 cells. rhSCL interference increased the expression of RANKL and the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells and the osteoclastic induction ability of MLO-Y4 cells in experimental osteocyte-osteoclast co-culture. These data suggest that sclerostin plays an important role in the bone remodeling of tooth movement.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167312PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5230762PMC
August 2017

The effects of SOST on implant osseointegration in ovariectomy osteoporotic mice.

Arch Oral Biol 2017 Feb 21;74:82-91. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 14, 3rd Sec, Renminnan Rd, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Osteoporosis is a risk factor for implant fixation failure. The inhibition of sclerostin effectively improves bone formation and bone remodeling. Therefore, this study investigated whether SOST deficiency enhances the osseointegration of implants in a mouse model of osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX).

Design: Osteoporosis was induced in female C57BL/6 and SOST deficient mice by OVX. Titanium implants were placed in the bilateral distal aspects of the femurs. Implants underwent sandblasting and acid-etching after which the structure, surface roughness and chemical components were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy spectrum analyses. Undecalcified slices, μ-CT, histology analyses and mechanical tests were used to evaluate the osseointegration of implants. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA between four groups.

Results: Sandblasting and acid-etching increased the roughness of the implants. OVX surgery reduced bone formation around the implants in both WT and SOST mice. However, implant osseointegration was significantly improved in the SOST OVX mice compared to the WT OVX mice.

Conclusions: Inhibition of the SOST gene improved implant fixation in the OVX osteoporotic mice, which suggests a strategy for enhancing implant osseointegration in clinical patients with osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.11.012DOI Listing
February 2017

Effects of transverse relationships between maxillary arch, mouth, and face on smile esthetics.

Angle Orthod 2016 Jan 29;86(1):135-41. Epub 2015 Apr 29.

f  Professor and Chair, Department of Orthodontics, West China Stomatological Hospital; State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Sichuan, China.

Objective: To identify the ideal ratios between the widths of the maxillary arch, mouth, and face, respectively, and to determine the range of acceptable esthetic variations based on these ideal ratios.

Materials And Methods: A photograph of a young female with a harmonious smile was selected and digitally altered to produce two sets of images. The first image showed an altered intercanine width, while the second one showed an altered oral fissure breadth. These alterations were independently rated by judges, including 23 orthodontists and 30 undergraduates. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the scores given by male and female judges and those given by professional and nonprofessional judges.

Results: The following ideal transverse ratios were determined: intercanine width/oral fissure breadth, 0.638; oral fissure breadth/interparopia width: the distance between left and right paropia, 0.617; and intercanine width/face width at the level of the labial commissures, 0.300. A range of -10% to +10% was proposed as the thresholds of esthetic smile evaluations. It was shown that gender of the raters had no effect on the rating of photographs, nor were there any statistically significant differences between the professional and nonprofessional judges' ratings.

Conclusions: Balanced transverse relationships in the facial region are important for smile esthetics, and there is a wide range of esthetically acceptable variations in the transverse relationships between the maxillary arch, mouth, and face.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2319/101514.1DOI Listing
January 2016

Nonparametric spectral analysis of heart rate variability through penalized sum of squares.

Stat Med 2014 Apr 20;33(8):1383-94. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Department of Statistics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.

Researchers in a variety of biomedical fields have utilized frequency domain properties of heart rate variability (HRV), or the elapsed time between consecutive heart beats. HRV is measured from the electrocardiograph signal through the interbeat interval series. Popular approaches for estimating power spectra from these interval data apply common spectral analysis methods that are designed for the analysis of evenly sampled time series. The application of these methods to the interbeat interval series, which is indexed over an uneven time grid, requires a bias-inducing transformation. The goal of this article is to explore the use of penalized sum of squares for nonparametric estimation of the spectrum of HRV directly from the interbeat intervals. A novel cross-validation procedure is introduced for smoothing parameter selection. Empirical properties of the proposed estimation procedure are explored and compared with popular methods in a simulation study. The proposed method is used in an analysis of data from an insomnia study, which seeks to illuminate the association between the power spectrum of HRV during different periods of sleep with response to behavioral therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.6038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3947457PMC
April 2014

Toll-like receptor -1, -2, and -6 polymorphisms and pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2013 14;8(5):e63357. Epub 2013 May 14.

Institute of Cell Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: A large number of studies have investigated whether polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes are implicated in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in different populations. However, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive.

Methods: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE, Medline (Ovid), ISI Web of Knowledge and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). A meta-analysis on the associations between the TLR1 G1805T, TLR2 T597C, T1350C, G2258A, and TLR6 C745T polymorphisms and TB risk was carried out by comparison using different genetic models.

Results: In total, 16 studies from 14 articles were included in this review. In meta-analysis, significant associations were observed between the TLR2 2258AA (AA vs. AG+AG, OR 5.82, 95% CI 1.30-26.16, P = 0.02) and TLR6 745TT (TT vs. CT+CC, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.97, P = 0.04) polymorphisms and TB risk. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, Africans and American Hispanic subjects with the TLR1 1805T allele had an increased susceptibility, whereas Asian and European subjects with the TLR2 2258A allele had an increased susceptibility to TB.

Conclusions: The meta-analysis indicated that TLR2 G2258A is associated with increased TB risk, especially in Asians and Europeans. TLR1 G1805T is associated with increased TB in Africans and American Hispanics. TLR6 C745T is associated with decreased TB risk. Our systematic review and meta-analysis reported an interesting preliminary conclusion, but this must be validated by future large-scale and functional studies in different populations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0063357PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653945PMC
December 2013

A novel single nucleotide polymorphism within the NOD2 gene is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chinese Han, Uygur and Kazak populations.

BMC Infect Dis 2012 Apr 14;12:91. Epub 2012 Apr 14.

Institute of Cell Biology, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Background: The present study aimed to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in exon 4 of the NOD2 gene in tuberculosis patients and healthy controls, in order to clarify whether polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene is associated with tuberculosis.

Methods: A case-control study was performed on the Chinese Han, Uygur and Kazak populations. Exon 4 of the NOD2 gene was sequenced in 425 TB patients and 380 healthy controls to identify SNPs.

Results: The frequency of T/G genotypes for the Arg587Arg (CGT → CGG) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in NOD2 was found to be significantly higher in the Uygur (34.9%) and Kazak (37.1%) populations than the Han population (18.6%). Also, the frequency of G/G genotypes for the Arg587Arg SNP was significantly higher in the Uyghur (8.3%) and Kazak (5.4%) populations than the Han population (0.9%). Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Arg587Arg polymorphism between the tuberculosis patients and healthy controls in the Uyghur and Kazak populations (P > 0.05) whereas, a significant difference was observed in the Arg587Arg polymorphism between the tuberculosis patients and healthy controls in the Han population (P < 0.01). The odd ratio of 2.16 (95% CI = 1.31-3.58; P < 0.01) indicated that the Arg587Arg SNP in NOD2 may be associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population.

Conclusions: Our study is the first to demonstrate that the Arg587Arg SNP in NOD2 is a new possible risk factor for tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population, but not in the Uyghur and Kazak populations. Our results may reflect racial differences in genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-12-91DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3379957PMC
April 2012

An L₁-regularized logistic model for detecting short-term neuronal interactions.

J Comput Neurosci 2012 Jun 22;32(3):479-97. Epub 2011 Oct 22.

Department of Statistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

Interactions among neurons are a key component of neural signal processing. Rich neural data sets potentially containing evidence of interactions can now be collected readily in the laboratory, but existing analysis methods are often not sufficiently sensitive and specific to reveal these interactions. Generalized linear models offer a platform for analyzing multi-electrode recordings of neuronal spike train data. Here we suggest an L(1)-regularized logistic regression model (L(1)L method) to detect short-term (order of 3 ms) neuronal interactions. We estimate the parameters in this model using a coordinate descent algorithm, and determine the optimal tuning parameter using a Bayesian Information Criterion. Simulation studies show that in general the L(1)L method has better sensitivities and specificities than those of the traditional shuffle-corrected cross-correlogram (covariogram) method. The L(1)L method is able to detect excitatory interactions with both high sensitivity and specificity with reasonably large recordings, even when the magnitude of the interactions is small; similar results hold for inhibition given sufficiently high baseline firing rates. Our study also suggests that the false positives can be further removed by thresholding, because their magnitudes are typically smaller than true interactions. Simulations also show that the L(1)L method is somewhat robust to partially observed networks. We apply the method to multi-electrode recordings collected in the monkey dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) while the animal prepares to make reaching arm movements. The results show that some neurons interact differently depending on task conditions. The stronger interactions detected with our L(1)L method were also visible using the covariogram method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10827-011-0365-5DOI Listing
June 2012

Nonconvergence in logistic and poisson models for neural spiking.

Neural Comput 2010 May;22(5):1231-44

Department of Statistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

Generalized linear models are an increasingly common approach for spike train data analysis. For the logistic and Poisson models, one possible difficulty is that iterative algorithms for computing parameter estimates may not converge because of certain data configurations. For the logistic model, these configurations are called complete and quasi-complete separation. We show that these features are likely to occur because of refractory periods of neurons. We use an example to study how standard software deals with this difficulty. For the Poisson model, we show that the same difficulties arise, this time possibly due to bursting or specifics of the binning. We characterize the nonconvergent configurations for both models, show that they can be detected by linear programming methods, and discuss possible remedies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/neco.2010.03-09-982DOI Listing
May 2010