Publications by authors named "Mengjie Liu"

84 Publications

Super-ARMS: A new method for plasma ESR1 mutation detection.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 May 26;520:23-28. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: ESR1 mutation is an important mechanism of drug resistance and recurrence in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients during AI treatment. Patient could still benefit from treatment with fulvestrant after ESR1 mutated.

Objective: At present, there is still no suitable method to detect ESR1 mutation in plasma as clinical promotion method. We aim to improve from ARMS-PCR to get a method with higher sensitivity but no additional cost is incurred.

Methods: We designed new primers for ESR1. Then positive and negative standard sample was used for sensitivity and specificity tests. Lastly, we collected patient peripheral blood sample and analyzed the performance of Super-ARMS in plasma ctDNA samples.

Results: A total of 207 patients were enrolled in this study, including 142 prime breast cancer (PBC) patients and 65 metastasis breast cancer(MBC) patients. The mutation rate was as high as 27.9%(12/43) in MBC patients with AI treatment. But only 2.97%(3/101) in PBC patients with AI and 0% in both MBC or PBC patient without AI. There was no significant difference in Super-ARMS results compared with DDPCR method.

Conclusion: Super-ARMS is a method that has sensitivity close to DDPCR and has the convenience and low price of ARMS-PCR for plasma ctDNA ESR1 mutation detection. It has obvious advantages compared with other method such NGS and DDPCR as clinical promotion method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.05.021DOI Listing
May 2021

Reaction Mechanism Generator v3.0: Advances in Automatic Mechanism Generation.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

In chemical kinetics research, kinetic models containing hundreds of species and tens of thousands of elementary reactions are commonly used to understand and predict the behavior of reactive chemical systems. Reaction Mechanism Generator (RMG) is a software suite developed to automatically generate such models by incorporating and extrapolating from a database of known thermochemical and kinetic parameters. Here, we present the recent version 3 release of RMG and highlight improvements since the previously published description of RMG v1.0. Most notably, RMG can now generate heterogeneous catalysis models in addition to the previously available gas- and liquid-phase capabilities. For model analysis, new methods for local and global uncertainty analysis have been implemented to supplement first-order sensitivity analysis. The RMG database of thermochemical and kinetic parameters has been significantly expanded to cover more types of chemistry. The present release includes parallelization for faster model generation and a new molecule isomorphism approach to improve computational performance. RMG has also been updated to use Python 3, ensuring compatibility with the latest cheminformatics and machine learning packages. Overall, RMG v3.0 includes many changes which improve the accuracy of the generated chemical mechanisms and allow for exploration of a wider range of chemical systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.0c01480DOI Listing
May 2021

Identification and Functional Analysis of Long Non-coding RNAs in Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells Subjected to Cyclic Stretch.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:655971. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong Institute of Anesthesia and Respiratory Critical Medicine, Jinan, China.

Despite decades of intense research, the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are not adequately elucidated, which hamper the improvement of effective and convincing therapies for ARDS patients. Mechanical ventilation remains to be one of the primary supportive approaches for managing ARDS cases. Nevertheless, mechanical ventilation leads to the induction of further aggravating lung injury which is known as leading to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). It has been reported that lncRNAs play important roles in various cellular process through transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and epigenetic regulations. However, to our knowledge, there is no investigation of the expression profile and functions of transcriptome-level endothelium-related lncRNAs in VILI yet. To screen the differential expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) subjected to cyclic stretch, we constructed a cellular model of VILI, followed by transcriptome profiling using Affymetrix . Bioinformatics analyses, including functional and pathway enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction network, lncRNA-mRNA coexpression network, and cis-analyses, were performed to reveal the potential functions and underlying mechanisms of differentially expressed lncRNAs. In total, 199 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) and 97 differential expressed mRNAs were screened in HPMECs subjected to 20% cyclic stretch for 2 h. The lncRNA-mRNA coexpression network suggested that DELs mainly enriched in response to hypoxia, response to oxidative stress, inflammatory response, cellular response to hypoxia, and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. LncRNA , and might regulate inflammation and fibrosis induced by cyclic stretch through cis- or trans-acting mechanisms. This study provides the first transcriptomic landscape of differentially expressed lncRNAs in HPMECs subjected to cyclic stretch, which provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms and potential directions for future basic and clinical research of VILI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.655971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047408PMC
April 2021

Contribution of bacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in surface water purification.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 21;280:116998. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Naturally present aquatic microorganisms play an important role in water purification systems, such as the self-purification of surface waters. In this study, two water sources representing polluted surface water (Olympic Green; OG) and unpolluted surface water (Jingmi river; JM), were used to explore the self-purification of surface water by bacteria under different environmental conditions. The dominant bacterial community of OG and JM waters (both are Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) were isolated, cultured, and then used to carry out flocculation tests. Results showed that the flocculation ability of the dominant bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) obtained from OG isolation was significantly greater than that from JM. Further examination illustrated that the main components of EPS were polysaccharides, which played an important role in improving the flocculation ability of bacteria. EPS from dominant cultural bacteria strains (OG1 and JM3) isolated from the two different sources lacked hydrophilic groups (e.g. COOH) and had a networked structure which are the main reasons to enhance the flocculation ability. The bacterial diversity and redundancy analysis (RDA) results also showed that microbial community composition is determined by water quality (SS, TOC, and NH), and different Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria community structures can improve the water body's ability to remove environmental pollutants (such as SS, humic acid and fulvic acid). These findings provide new information showing how bacterial communities change with environmental factors while maintaining the purity of surface water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116998DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluating and improving the reliability of the UV-persulfate method for the determination of TOC/DOC in surface waters.

Water Res 2021 May 10;196:116918. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

The UV-persulfate oxidation method is widely used for determining the total organic carbon concentration of aqueous samples (denoted for convenience as UVP-TOC). However, for some surface water samples, the measurement of TOC by this method can be unreliable, deviating significantly from the true carbon content. In this study, the performance of the UVP-TOC method has been investigated by comparing the results from the analysis of a variety of aqueous samples that included two kinds of surface water samples and related surface water model substances: bovine serum albumin (BSA), sodium alginate (SA), humic acid (HA), tannic acid (TA), benzoic acid (BA) and citric acid (CA), with those from a high-temperature combustion method (elemental analysis); the latter providing the true carbon content value. By comparing the above data, it was found that the UVP-TOC method significantly underestimated the TOC value of the surface water samples, and it was also found that the model components BSA (protein) and HA (humic substances, HS) had a substantial influence on the TOC underestimation, while the SA (polysaccharide), TA (complex organic molecule) and CA/BA (small molecules) had little effect. The results showed that the agglomeration within and between BSA and HA molecules was an important reason for the inaccurate UVP-TOC values of BSA and HA. A further limitation was that for BSA, surfactants (e.g. sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDBS) and other surfactant-like substances, foam was formed during the CO removal purging process by N that seriously interfered with the determination of TOC. The study provides new information and insight into the causes of inaccuracies in the UVP-TOC analysis of surface waters and possible approaches to improve the accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116918DOI Listing
May 2021

Few-Layer Tellurium: Cathodic Exfoliation and Doping for Collaborative Hydrogen Evolution.

Small 2021 May 18;17(18):e2007768. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology and the State Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.

2D tellurium is a suitable electrocatalyst support that can assist electron transport while hosting active sites, yet its production remains challenging. Herein, a cathodic exfoliation method that can exfoliate Te crystal directly to Te nanosheets at low potential, also enabling simultaneous transition metal doping on Te nanosheet surface is presented. In situ Raman spectra and ex situ characterizations reveal that the cathodic exfoliation relies on the electrostatic repulsion between Te flakes covered with in situ generated ditelluride (Te ) anions. The Te anions can anchor metal ions to the surface, and the doping concentration can be tuned by adjusting the concentration of metal ion in the electrolyte. The metal-doped Te nanosheets exhibit highly improved hydrogen evolution activities. In particular, Pt-doped Te outperforms polycrystalline Pt at high overpotential. A collaborative hydrogen production mechanism via Volmer-Heyrovsky pathway is suggested: Te adsorbs protons and assists the mass transfer to adjacent Pt atoms where the protons are reduced and released as hydrogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202007768DOI Listing
May 2021

Enhancing ultrafiltration performance by gravity-driven up-flow slow biofilter pre-treatment to remove natural organic matters and biopolymer foulants.

Water Res 2021 May 5;195:117010. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China. Electronic address:

Membrane fouling by influent biopolymers, and the formation of surface biofilms, are major obstacles to the practical application of membrane technologies. Identifying reliable and sustainable pre-treatment methods for membrane filtration remains a considerable challenge and is the subject of continuing research study worldwide. Herein, the performance of a bench-scale gravity-driven up-flow slow biofilter (GUSB) as the pre-treatment for ultrafiltration to reduce membrane fouling is presented. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was shown efficiently removed by the GUSB (around 80%) when treating a natural water influent. More significantly, biopolymers, with molecular weight (MW) between 20 kDa and 100 kDa, were effectively removed (62.8% reduction) and this led to a lower rate of transmembrane pressure (TMP) development by the UF membrane. Microbial diversity analysis further unraveled the function of GUSB in shaping microbes to degrade biopolymers, contributing to lower accumulation and different distribution pattern of SMP on the membrane surface. Moreover, the biofilm formed on the membrane surface after the pre-treatment of GUSB was observed to have a relative porous structure compared to the control system, which can also affect the fouling development. Long-term operation of GUSB further revealed its robust performance in reducing both natural organic matters and UF fouling propensity. This study overall has demonstrated the potential advantages of applying a GUSB to enhance UF process performance by reducing biofouling and improving effluent quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117010DOI Listing
May 2021

Maize nicotinate N-methyltransferase interacts with the NLR protein Rp1-D21 and modulates the hypersensitive response.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 May 6;22(5):564-579. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Most plant intracellular immune receptors belong to nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins. The recognition between NLRs and their corresponding pathogen effectors often triggers a hypersensitive response (HR) at the pathogen infection sites. The nicotinate N-methyltransferase (NANMT) is responsible for the conversion of nicotinate to trigonelline in plants. However, the role of NANMT in plant defence response is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the maize ZmNANMT, but not its close homolog ZmCOMT, an enzyme in the lignin biosynthesis pathway, suppresses the HR mediated by the autoactive NLR protein Rp1-D21 and its N-terminal coiled-coil signalling domain (CC ). ZmNANMT, but not ZmCOMT, interacts with CC , and they form a complex with HCT1806 and CCoAOMT2, two key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis, which can also suppress the autoactive HR mediated by Rp1-D21. ZmNANMT is mainly localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and either localization is important for suppressing the HR phenotype. These results lay the foundation for further elucidating the molecular mechanism of NANMTs in plant disease resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035639PMC
May 2021

Time-Dependent Distribution of Hydroxychloroquine in Cynomolgus Macaques Using Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling Method.

Front Pharmacol 2020 14;11:602880. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

To evaluate the biodistribution of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in cynomolgus macaques and receive dynamic quantitative relationship between plasma, blood, and lung tissue concentration using the population pharmacokinetic modeling method, seventeen cynomolgus macaques were divided into six groups according to different HCQ dosing regimens over 5 days. The monkeys were euthanized, and blood, plasma, urine, feces and ten tissues were collected. All the samples were prepared by protein precipitation and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS detection. The population pharmacokinetics of HCQ in the plasma, red blood cells, and lung tissue was conducted and simulated via ADAPT program. Results demonstrated that the maximum concentration () of HCQ was 292.33 ng/mL in blood and 36.90 ng/mL in plasma after single dose of 3 mg/kg. The value of area under curve (AUC) was determined as 5,978.94 and 363.31 h* ng/mL for the blood and plasma, respectively. The descending order of the tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio was liver > spleen > kidney > lung > heart > subcutaneous fat > brain. The tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio and the tissue-to-blood concentration ratio for lung were found to be time-dependent with 267.38 and 5.55 at 120 h postdose, respectively. A five-compartment model with first-order oral absorption and elimination best described the plasma, blood, and lung tissue pharmacokinetics. The estimated elimination rate constant (ke) for a typical monkey was 0.236 h. The volume of distribution in central (Vc/F) and other two peripheral compartments (Vb/F and Vl/F) were 114, 2.68, and 5.55 L, respectively. Model-based simulation with PK parameters from cynomolgus macaques showed that the ratio of the blood or plasma to lung tissue was a dynamic change course, which suggested that the rate of HCQ concentration decrease in the blood or plasma was faster than that in the lung tissue. HCQ was found to be accumulated in tissues, especially in the liver, kidney, lung, and spleen. Also, the tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio increased over time. The population pharmacokinetic model developed could allow for the assessment of pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics relationships, especially relevant tissue concentration-response for HCQ. Determining appropriate treatment regimens in animals allows translation of these to clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.602880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841297PMC
January 2021

Assessment of risk factors for postoperative cognitive dysfunction after coronary artery bypass surgery: a single-center retrospective cohort study.

Biosci Rep 2021 Feb;41(2)

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Ji'nan, Shandong 250014, China.

Aim: To find out risk factors for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to provide basis for clinical prevention of POCD. A total of 88 patients who underwent CABG were surveyed with Telephone Questionnaire (TICS-M) for their cognitive impairment after 3, 7, 21, 90, 180 days post-surgery. The occurrence of POCD was diagnosed by Neuropsychological Battery which included Vocabular Learning Test (VLT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Trail Making Test (TMT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). The preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative risk factors were assessed by the χ2 or t test. Multivariate analysis was used to study the correlation between the risk factors and the occurrence of POCD. Age, aortic plaque, carotid artery stenosis, cerebrovascular disease, anesthesia time, the rate of decline in intraoperative hemoglobin concentration (ΔHb) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score on postoperative day 2 had statistically significant (P<0.05) influence on the occurrence of POCD. Aortic plaque, carotid artery stenosis, anesthesia time and SIRS score (odds ratio (OR) value > 1, P<0.05) are the risk factors for POCD. The incidence of day-21 and -180 POCD was approximately 26.1 and 22.7%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20190719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901012PMC
February 2021

Proteome-Wide Analysis of Lysine 2-Hydroxyisobutyrylation in the Phytopathogenic Fungus .

Front Microbiol 2020 27;11:585614. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Crop Pest Management of Shandong Province, College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.

Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of the whole proteome have become a hot topic in the research field of epigenetics, and an increasing number of PTM types have been identified and shown to play significant roles in different cellular processes. Protein lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (K ) is a newly detected PTM, and the 2-hydroxyisobutyrylome has been identified in several species. is recognized as one of the most destructive pathogens due to its broad host distribution and very large economic losses; thus the many aspects of its pathogenesis have been continuously studied. However, distribution and function of K in this phytopathogenic fungus are not clear. In this study, a proteome-wide analysis of K in was performed, and 5,398 K sites on 1,181 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the 2-hydroxyisobutyrylome in contains both conserved proteins and novel proteins when compared with K proteins in other species. Functional classification, functional enrichment and protein interaction network analyses showed that K proteins are widely distributed in cellular compartments and involved in diverse cellular processes. Significantly, 37 proteins involved in different aspects of regulating the pathogenicity of were detected as K proteins. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the 2-hydroxyisobutyrylome and lay a foundation for further studying the regulatory mechanism of K in both and other plant pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.585614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728723PMC
November 2020

Effects of C-Terminal B-Chain Modifications in a Relaxin 3 Agonist Analogue.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2020 Nov 22;11(11):2336-2340. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

The receptor for the neuropeptide relaxin 3, relaxin family peptide 3 (RXFP3) receptor, is an attractive pharmacological target for the control of eating, addictive, and psychiatric behaviors. Several structure-activity relationship studies on both human relaxin 3 (containing 3 disulfide bonds) and its analogue A2 (two disulfide bonds) suggest that the C-terminal carboxylic acid of the tryptophan residue in the B-chain is important for RXFP3 activity. In this study, we have added amide, alcohol, carbamate, and ester functionalities to the C-terminus of A2 and compared their structures and functions. As expected, the C-terminal amide form of A2 showed lower binding affinity for RXFP3 while ester and alcohol substitutions also demonstrated lower affinity. However, while these analogues showed slightly lower binding affinity, there was no significant difference in activation of RXFP3 compared to A2 bearing a C-terminal carboxylic acid, suggesting the binding pocket is able to accommodate additional atoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.0c00456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667869PMC
November 2020

Global Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Crotonylation in the Plant Pathogen .

Front Microbiol 2020 23;11:564350. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Key Lab of Integrated Crop Pest Management of Shandong Province, College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.

Lysine crotonylation (Kcr), a recently discovered post-translational modification, plays a key role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes. is a destructive necrotrophic fungal pathogen distributed worldwide with broad ranging hosts. However, the functions of Kcr are unknown in or any other plant fungal pathogens. Here, we comprehensively evaluated the crotonylation proteome of and identified 3967 Kcr sites in 1041 proteins, which contained 9 types of modification motifs. Our results show that although the crotonylation was largely conserved, different organisms contained distinct crotonylated proteins with unique functions. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the majority of crotonylated proteins were distributed in cytoplasm (35%), mitochondria (26%), and nucleus (22%). The identified proteins were found to be involved in various metabolic and cellular processes, such as cytoplasmic translation and structural constituent of ribosome. Particularly, 26 crotonylated proteins participated in the pathogenicity of , suggesting a significant role for Kcr in this process. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrated that many protein interactions are regulated by crotonylation. Furthermore, our results show that different nutritional conditions had a significant influence on the Kcr levels of . These data represent the first report of the crotonylome of and provide a good foundation for further explorations of the role of Kcr in plant fungal pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.564350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644960PMC
October 2020

PD-L1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Surgically Resected Limited Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 30;12:10939-10948. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive high-grade neuroendocrine tumor with limited treatment strategies. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1), delta-like ligand-3 (DLL-3), and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shed light on the treatment of extensive stage-SCLC. However, the expression and prognostic role of PD-L1, DLL-3, and PARP are barely explored in surgically resected limited stage-SCLC (LS-SCLC).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 404 SCLC patients from 2011 to 2018 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University and collected 43 surgically resected LS-SCLC samples with adequate materials and histological specimens containing abundant tumor cells. Immunohistochemistry staining of PD-L1, DLL-3, and PAPR1 was performed by anti-PD-L1 (22C3/Dako), anti-DLL-3, and anti-PAPR1 antibodies, respectively. Positive expression of PD-L1 was characterized as >5% tumor cells and/or tumor-infiltrating immune cells expressing PD-L1. The correlation between PD-L1, DLL-3, PARP1, and clinicopathological characteristics of surgically resected LS-SCLC patients was performed by χ test. The survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the Log rank test and Cox proportional hazards model.

Results And Conclusion: 63.04% patients were positive for PD-L1, 65.12% were positive for DLL-3, and 20.93% were positive for PARP1. DLL-3 was significantly overexpressed in SCLC tissues, compared with matched para-noncancerous tissues. Male, elder than 60 years old, advanced TNM stage, smoking, and positive PD-L1 expression predicted shorter DFS, while patients received adjuvant therapy performed better DFS. Further multivariate analysis revealed that TNM stage (HR=2.51, 95% CI=1.31-4.78, =0.005) was an individual prognostic factor for DFS in LS-SCLC. Moreover, advanced TNM stage and positive PD-L1 expression also indicated worse OS, but adjuvant therapy improved OS in LS-SCLC. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PD-L1 and TNM stage were independent and significant negative predictive factors for OS (HR=2.89, 95% CI=1.21-6.93, =0.017; HR=2.49, 95% CI=1.25-4.94, =0.009 for PD-L1 and TNM stage, respectively), while adjuvant treatment was an independent positive prognostic factor for OS (HR=0.37, 95% CI=0.17-0.81, =0.012).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S260599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608588PMC
October 2020

Maize metacaspases modulate the defense response mediated by the NLR protein Rp1-D21 likely by affecting its subcellular localization.

Plant J 2021 01 20;105(1):151-166. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266237, PR China.

Plants usually employ resistance (R) genes to defend against the infection of pathogens, and most R genes encode intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins. The recognition between R proteins and their cognate pathogens often triggers a rapid localized cell death at the pathogen infection sites, termed the hypersensitive response (HR). Metacaspases (MCs) belong to a cysteine protease family, structurally related to metazoan caspases. MCs play crucial roles in plant immunity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism and the link between MCs and NLR-mediated HR are not clear. In this study, we systematically investigated the MC gene family in maize and identified 11 ZmMCs belonging to two types. Further functional analysis showed that the type I ZmMC1 and ZmMC2, but not the type II ZmMC9, suppress the HR-inducing activity of the autoactive NLR protein Rp1-D21 and of its N-terminal coiled-coil (CC ) signaling domain when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. ZmMC1 and ZmMC2 physically associate with CC in vivo. We further showed that ZmMC1 and ZmMC2, but not ZmMC9, are predominantly localized in a punctate distribution in both N. benthamiana and maize (Zea mays) protoplasts. Furthermore, the co-expression of ZmMC1 and ZmMC2 with Rp1-D21 and CC causes their re-distribution from being uniformly distributed in the nucleocytoplasm to a punctate distribution co-localizing with ZmMC1 and ZmMC2. We reveal a novel role of plant MCs in modulating the NLR-mediated defense response and derive a model to explain it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15047DOI Listing
January 2021

Design, synthesis and characterization of a fluorescently labeled functional analog of full-length human ghrelin.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 12 23;533(3):559-564. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia; School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Human ghrelin receptor (GHSR) is a recognized prospective target in the diagnosis and therapy of multiple cancer types. To gain a better understanding of this receptor signaling system, we have synthesized a novel full-length ghrelin analog that is fluorescently labeled at the side-chain of a C-terminal cysteine extension. This analog exhibited nanomolar affinity and potency for the ghrelin receptor. It shows comparable efficacy with that of endogenous ghrelin. The fluorescently-labeled ghrelin analog is a valuable tool for in vitro imaging of cell lines that express ghrelin receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.09.028DOI Listing
December 2020

Bacteria mimics bearing carbohydrates, oligodeoxynucleotides and designed shapes.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Sep;56(74):10887-10889

Center for Soft Condensed Matter Physics and Interdisciplinary Research and School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, P. R. China. and State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Novel Functional Polymeric Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, P. R. China.

We utilize a facile and gentle strategy to fabricate bacteria mimics ("bacillus" and "coccus") endowed with carbohydrates, oligodeoxynucleotides and designed shapes via dopamine-polymer based nanoparticle fabrication and DNA-based multivalent interactions. These bacteria mimics with TLR- and CLR-targeted capabilities are demonstrated to exhibit enhanced immune stimulating efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc02239jDOI Listing
September 2020

The formation of planar crystalline flocs of γ-FeOOH in Fe(II) coagulation and the influence of humic acid.

Water Res 2020 Oct 28;185:116250. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

Although Fe(II) salts have been widely used as coagulants in water treatment for many years, the underlying mechanisms of their performance remain unclear. Here, we present a detailed study of the coagulation behavior of Fe(II) salts and crystallization of flocs, and investigate the effect of humic acid (HA) under different DO concentrations and pH conditions. The behavior of Fe(II) and Fe(III) coagulants was found to be markedly different with the flocs from Fe(II) consisting of planar-like crystalline γ-FeOOH in contrast to the small amorphous spherical-like flocs from Fe(III) dosing. The effect of HA on Fe(II) coagulation was different under different DO concentrations and pH, where by the growth of γ-FeOOH was inhibited by the presence of HA, but independent of DO concentration and pH. It was found that Fe(II) was present within the internal structure of γ-FeOOH, and a plausible formation mechanism is proposed. Firstly, planar nanoparticles of Fe(OH) were formed via Fe(II) ion hydrolysis which then servedas the nucleus for subsequent crystal growth. With oxidation, Fe(II) on the surface of nanoparticles transformed to Fe(III). Finally, the formation of γ-FeOOH in Fe(II) coagulation was accompanied by a change in solution colour to yellow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116250DOI Listing
October 2020

Traceable Peptidic Ligands that Target Ghrelin Receptors.

Curr Protein Pept Sci 2020 ;21(10):955-964

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid octanoylated peptide hormone that is implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Specific visualization of ghrelin and its cognate receptor using traceable ligands is crucial in elucidating the localization, functions, and expression pattern of the peptide's signaling pathway. Here 12 representative radio- and fluorescently-labeled peptide-based ligands are reviewed for in vitro and in vivo imaging studies. In particular, the focus is on their structural features, pharmacological properties, and applications in further biochemical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389203721666200702131457DOI Listing
May 2021

Antihypertensive effect of quinoa protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion and peptide characterization.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Dec 29;100(15):5569-5576. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Quinoa protein is a potential source of bioactive peptides. Although some studies have demonstrated its angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties, research into its in vivo effect on blood-pressure regulation and peptide characterization remains limited.

Results: Quinoa protein hydrolyzate (QPH) was prepared by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. QPH lowered the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in spontaneously hypertensive model rats (SHRs) from 2 h to10 h after oral administration, effectively controlling blood pressure in these SHRs. An in vitro study showed that QPH is capable of inhibiting ACE activity. This was attributed to the activity of a number of low-molecular-weight peptides. With relatively high scores predicted by PeptideRanker, three promising bioactive peptides, FHPFPR, NWFPLPR, and NIFRPF, were further studied and their ACE-inhibition effects were confirmed with IC values of 34.92, 16.77, and 32.40 μM, respectively. A molecular docking study provided insights into the binding of ACE with peptides, and revealed that the presence of specific amino acids in the peptide sequence (Pro, Phe, and Arg at the C-terminal, and Asn at the N-terminal) could contribute to the interaction between ACE and peptides.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated the potential of QPH for the management of hypertension, which indicates that it could be a good candidate for inclusion in functional foods to control high blood pressure. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10609DOI Listing
December 2020

Genome-wide analysis and comparison of the DNA-binding one zinc finger gene family in diploid and tetraploid cotton (Gossypium).

PLoS One 2020 29;15(6):e0235317. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, China.

The Dof (DNA-binding one zinc finger) transcription factor family is a representative of plant-specific classes of transcription factors. In this study, we performed a genome-wide screening and characterization of the Dof gene family within two tetraploid species Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium hirsutum, and two diploid species Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium raimondii. 115, 116, 55 and 56 Dof genes were identified respectively and all of the genes contain a sequence encoding the Dof DNA-binding domain. Those genes were unevenly distributed across 13/26 chromosomes of the cotton. Genome comparison revealed that segmental duplication may have played crucial roles in the expansion of the cotton Dof gene family, and tandem duplication also played a minor role. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that cotton Dof gene expression levels varied across different tissues and in response to different abiotic stress. Overall, our results could provide valuable information for better understanding the evolution of cotton Dof genes, and lays a foundation for future investigation in cotton.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235317PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323982PMC
September 2020

The polycomb group protein PCGF6 mediates germline gene silencing by recruiting histone-modifying proteins to target gene promoters.

J Biol Chem 2020 07 1;295(28):9712-9724. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animals for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for maintenance of lineage fidelity by coordinating developmental gene expression programs. Polycomb group ring finger 6 (PCGF6) has been previously reported to repress expression of lineage-specific genes, especially germ cell-related genes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) via the noncanonical polycomb repressive complex PRC1.6. However, the molecular mechanism of this repression remains largely unknown. Here, using RNA-Seq, real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation, and ChIP analyses, we demonstrate that PCGF6 plays an essential role in embryonic development, indicated by the partially penetrant embryonic lethality in homozygous PCGF6 ()-deficient mice. We also found that surviving -deficient mice exhibit reduced fertility. Using the deficient mice, we observed that ablation of in somatic tissues robustly derepresses germ cell-related genes. We further provide evidence that these genes are direct targets of PCGF6 in ESCs and that endogenous PCGF6 co-localizes with the histone-modifying proteins G9A histone methyltransferase (G9A)/G9a-like protein (GLP) and histone deacetylase 1/2 (HDAC1/2) on the promoters of the germ cell-related genes. Moreover, the binding of these proteins to their target genes correlated with methylation of Lys-9 of histone 3 and with the status of histone acetylation at these genes. Moreover, the recruitment of G9A/GLP and HDAC1/2 to target promoters depended on the binding of PCGF6. Our findings indicate that PCGF6 has a critical role in safeguarding lineage decisions and in preventing aberrant expression of germ cell-related genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.012121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363147PMC
July 2020

Heterodimeric Analogues of the Potent Y1R Antagonist 1229U91, Lacking One of the Pharmacophoric C-Terminal Structures, Retain Potent Y1R Affinity and Show Improved Selectivity over Y4R.

J Med Chem 2020 05 16;63(10):5274-5286. Epub 2020 May 16.

Medicinal Chemistry, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

The cyclic dimeric peptide 1229U91 (GR231118) has an unusual structure and displays potent, insurmountable antagonism of the Y receptor. To probe the structural basis for this activity, we have prepared ring size variants and heterodimeric compounds, identifying the specific residues underpinning the mechanism of 1229U91 binding. The homodimeric structure was shown to be dispensible, with analogues lacking key pharmacophoric residues in one dimer arm retaining high antagonist affinity. Compounds also showed enhanced Y1R selectivity over Y4R compared to 1229U91.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00027DOI Listing
May 2020

NEK7 mediated assembly and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome downstream of potassium efflux in ventilator-induced lung injury.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 07 27;177:113998. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, No. 16766 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250014, China. Electronic address:

Disordered immune regulation and persistent inflammatory damage are the key mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation causes VILI by mediating the formation of inflammatory mediators and infiltration of inflammatory cells, increasing pulmonary capillary membrane permeability, which leads to pulmonary edema and lung tissue damage. What mediates activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in VILI? In this study, we constructed an in vitro cyclic stretch (CS)-stimulated mouse lung epithelial (MLE-12) cell model that was transfected with NIMA-related kinase 7 (NEK7) small interfering RNA (siRNA) or scramble siRNA (sc siRNA) and pretreated with or without glibenclamide (glb). We also established a VILI mouse model, which was pretreated with glibenclamide or oridonin (Ori). Our goal was to investigate the regulatory effects of NEK7 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the anti-inflammatory effects of glibenclamide and oridonin on VILI. Mechanical stretch exaggerated the interaction between NEK7 and NLRP3, leading to assembly and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome downstream of potassium efflux. NEK7 depletion and treatment with glibenclamide or oridonin exerted anti-inflammatory effects that alleviated VILI by blocking the interaction between NEK7 and NLRP3, inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. NEK7 is a vital mediator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and glibenclamide or oridonin may be candidates for the development of new therapeutics against VILI driven by the interaction between NEK7 and NLRP3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.113998DOI Listing
July 2020

Maize ZmFNSI Homologs Interact with an NLR Protein to Modulate Hypersensitive Response.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 5;21(7). Epub 2020 Apr 5.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China.

Nucleotide binding, leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) proteins are the major class of resistance (R) proteins used by plants to defend against pathogen infection. The recognition between NLRs and their cognate pathogen effectors usually triggers a rapid localized cell death, termed the hypersensitive response (HR). Flavone synthase I (FNSI) is one of the key enzymes in the flavone biosynthesis pathway. It also displays salicylic acid (SA) 5-hydroxylase (S5H) activity. A close homolog of FNSI/S5H displays SA 3-hydroxylase (S3H) activity. Both FNSI/S5H and S3H play important roles in plant innate immunity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the relationship between S5H and S3H with the NLR-mediated HR are not known in any plant species. In this study, we identified three genes encoding ZmFNSI-1, ZmFNSI-2 and ZmS3H that are significantly upregulated in a maize line carrying an autoactive NLR mutant. Functional analysis showed that ZmFNSI-1 and ZmFNSI-2, but not ZmS3H, suppressed HR conferred by Rp1-D21 and its signaling domain CC when transiently expressed in . ZmFNSI-1 and ZmFNSI-2 physically interacted with CC. Furthermore, ZmFNSI-1 and ZmFNSI-2 interacted with HCT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis pathway, which can also suppress Rp1-D21-mediated HR. These results lay the foundation for the further functional analysis of the roles of FNSI in plant innate immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177559PMC
April 2020

Effect of curcumin on laying performance, egg quality, endocrine hormones, and immune activity in heat-stressed hens.

Poult Sci 2020 Apr 14;99(4):2196-2202. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, P.R. China. Electronic address:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of curcumin on laying performance, egg quality, biochemical indicators, hormone levels, and immune activity in hens under heat stress. Hy-Line brown hens (280-day-old) were fed with 0, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of curcumin during a 42-D experiment. Compared with the control treatment, supplementation with 150 mg/kg of curcumin improved laying performance and egg quality by significantly increasing egg production, eggshell thickness, eggshell strength (P < 0.01), and albumen height (P < 0.05) while decreasing the feed-to-egg ratio. Antioxidant activity was improved by significantly increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase but decreasing malondialdehyde levels in serum (P < 0.05) and significantly increasing the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, IgG, IgA, and complement C activity in serum (P < 0.05). These results indicated that supplemental 150 mg/kg curcumin can improve productive performance, antioxidant enzyme activity, and immune function in laying hens under the heat stress conditions applied in the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587741PMC
April 2020

Direct Kinetics and Product Measurement of Phenyl Radical + Ethylene.

J Phys Chem A 2020 Mar 17;124(12):2352-2365. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

The phenyl + ethylene (CH + CH) reaction network was explored experimentally and theoretically to understand the temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics and product distribution under various temperature and pressure conditions. The flash photolysis apparatus combining laser absorbance spectroscopy (LAS) and time-resolved molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) was used to study reactions on the CH potential energy surface (PES). In LAS experiments, 505.3 nm laser light selectively probed CH decay, and we measured the total CH consumption rate coefficients in the intermediate temperature region (400-800 K), which connects previous experiments performed in high-temperature (pyrolysis) and low-temperature (cavity-ring-down methods) regions. From the quantum chemistry calculations by Tokmakov and Lin using the G2M(RCC5)//B3LYP method, we constructed a kinetic model and estimated phenomenological pressure-dependent rate coefficients, (, ), with the Arkane package in the reaction mechanism generator. The MBMS experiments, performed at 600-800 K and 10-50 Torr, revealed three major product peaks: / = 105 (adducts, mostly 2-phenylethyl radical, but also 1-phenylethyl radical, -ethyl phenyl radical, and a spiro-fused ring radical), 104 (styrene, co-product with a H atom), and 78 (benzene, co-product with CH radical). Product branching ratios were predicted by the model and validated by experiments for the first time. At 600 K and 10 Torr, the yield ratio of the H-abstraction reaction (forming benzene + CH) is measured to be 1.1% and the H-loss channel (styrene + H) has a 2.5% yield ratio. The model predicts 1.0% for H-abstraction and 2.3% for H-loss, which is within the experimental error bars. The branching ratio and formation of styrene increase at high temperature due to the favored formally direct channel (1.0% at 600 K and 10 Torr, 5.8% at 800 K and 10 Torr in the model prediction) and the faster β-scission reactions of CH isomers. The importance of pressure dependence in kinetics is verified by the increase in the yield of the stabilized adduct from radical addition from 80.2% (800 K, 10 Torr) to 88.9% (800 K, 50 Torr), at the expense of styrene + H. The pressure-dependent model developed in this work is well validated by the LAS and MBMS measurements and gives a complete picture of the CH + CH reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.9b11543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307927PMC
March 2020

Carbon doped FeO peroxidase-like nanozyme for mitigating the membrane fouling by NOM at neutral pH.

Water Res 2020 May 20;174:115637. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Oxidation is a widely used method in drinking water treatment to mitigate the membrane fouling caused by the natural organic matters (NOM) from the surface water during ultra-filtration (UF) and nano-filtration (NF) processes, and HO is one of the common oxidants for it. However, the oxidation capability of HO at neutral pH is lower, compared to the acidic and alkaline conditions. In order to improve the efficiency of NOM oxidation at neutral pH, a carbon-doped FeO peroxidase-like nanozyme (CFPN) was synthesized in this study and used as a high-performance catalyst for HO to generate hydroxyl radical. The oxygen-containing groups on the carbon structure of CFPN can form an acidic microenvironment, allowing HO to produce hydroxyl radical by catalysis in neutral conditions. The results of hydrophilicity analysis, zeta potential, high-performance liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) and flux indicated that the hydroxyl radical can oxidize the hydrophobic matters of humic acid (HA) into hydrophilic matters by Fenton reaction or electrophilic addition reaction, which can mitigate the fouling of NF membranes. The results of the same test for the bovine serum albumin (BSA) indicated that the hydroxyl radical can mitigate the fouling of UF membranes by degrading the tertiary and secondary structures of BSA and partly oxidizing the side chain groups. In addition, two types of surface water samples were used to verify the above mechanism, and the results indicated that the hydroxyl radical treatment at neutral pH is a new viable and effective strategy to significantly mitigate the NOM fouling of UF and NF membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115637DOI Listing
May 2020

The effect of single CNTs/GNPs and complexes on promoting the interfacial catalytic activity of lipase in conventional emulsions.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 May 12;100(7):3192-3203. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

School of Food and Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, China.

Background: The interfacial activation mechanism of lipase enables it to exhibit high catalytic activity in water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. However, W/O microemulsions have obvious defects such as a small water pool and a large demand for surfactants. The present study investigated the substitutability of conventional oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O emulsions as lipase catalytic systems. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/gold nanoparticles (GNPs) or CNT-GNP electrostatically bonded complexes were added into the conventional emulsion system.

Results: The simulated biphasic system and fluorescence study showed different and even contradictory results for the interfacial behavior of CNTs and CNT-GNP complexes due to the variation of the dispersibility of CNTs in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Results also showed that conventional O/W emulsions were more suitable for lipase catalysis than conventional W/O emulsions. When CNTs or CNT -GNP complexes were added in a conventional O/W emulsion system, the catalytic activity of lipase was significantly promoted (up to 4.8-fold using CNTs and 3.5-fold using CNT -GNP complexes compared with free lipase).

Conclusions: The possible reason for this promotion may be due to the increase in the interface area. The current study was not only the latest exploration of lipase activity promotion via nanomaterials, but also explored a new lipase catalytic system and provides further insight into improving the catalytic performance of lipase in conventional emulsions. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10355DOI Listing
May 2020

Effects of Salt Stimulation on Lunasin Accumulation and Activity during Soybean Germination.

Foods 2020 Jan 22;9(2). Epub 2020 Jan 22.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, Shandong 250353, China.

Lunasin, a bioactive peptide, was originally found in soybeans, and it has exhibited multiple biological functions. On the basis of previous studies, salt stress was found able to induce changes in many polypeptides and translatable mRNA levels in plants. Salt stress was applied to soybean germination, with water treatment as a control group, to evaluate the effects of salt stimulation on lunasin accumulation and activity during soybean germination. Lunasin content gradually increased in the control group during germination, reached the highest level after six hours of imbibition, and then slowly decreased. Under salt exposure, lunasin content showed a similar trend to that of the control group. The lunasin content in salt-treated soybean was significantly higher than that in the control group. Lunasin peptide was purified from soybean after six hours of imbibition and it was then used for function evaluation. Purified lunasin from salt-stress-germinated soybean (6 h-LSGS) exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than lunasin from water-treatment-germinated soybean (6 h-LWGS) and soybean seed without imbibition (DRY). The 6 h-LSGS presented anti-inflammatory activity on LPS-induced macrophage cells ( < 0.05) by suppressing the release of nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 and IL-6. The gene expression of , IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α was significantly inhibited by 6 h-LSGS. Further, 6 h-LSGS exhibited superior antiproliferation activity on human breast-cancer cells MDA-MB-231 when compared to 6 h-LWGS and DRY. Overall, this study offers a feasible elicitation strategy for enhancing lunasin accumulation and its properties in soybean for possible use in functional food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9020118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073574PMC
January 2020