Publications by authors named "Meng Wu"

523 Publications

Syphilis se manifestant par une pelade.

Authors:
Meng Yin Wu Jun Li

CMAJ 2021 Apr;193(15):E538-E539

Département de dermatologie, Hôpital médical universitaire Union de Pékin, Académie chinoise de sciences médicales et Collège médical Union de Pékin, Beijing, Chine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200894-fDOI Listing
April 2021

Structural insights into the activation of chemokine receptor CXCR2.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

The C-X-C motif chemokine CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8) and its receptor chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) mediate neutrophil migration during cell development and inflammatory responses and, thus are related to numerous inflammatory diseases and cancers. We have determined the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of CXCL8 bound CXCR2 coupled to G protein, as well as the crystal structure of inactive CXCR2 in complex with a designed allosteric antagonist. These results reveal the binding modes between CXCL8 and CXCR2, CXCR2 and G protein, and the detailed binding pattern of the allosteric antagonist, 00767013. Further structural analysis of the inactive- and active- states of CXCR2 reveals the unique shallow-pocket activation mechanism of C-X-C chemokine receptors and promotes our understanding on how a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated by an endogenous protein molecule. In addition, the cholesterol molecule is observed in the activated CXCR2 structure, providing the structural basis of the potential allosteric modulation role of cholesterol in chemokine receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15865DOI Listing
April 2021

Important ecophysiological roles of non-dominant Actinobacteria in plant residue decomposition, especially in less fertile soils.

Microbiome 2021 Apr 7;9(1):84. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, People's Republic of China.

Background: Microbial-driven decomposition of plant residues is integral to carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Actinobacteria, one of the most widely distributed bacterial phyla in soils, are known for their ability to degrade plant residues in vitro. However, their in situ importance and specific activity across contrasting ecological environments are not known. Here, we conducted three field experiments with buried straw in combination with microcosm experiments with C-straw in paddy soils under different soil fertility levels to reveal the ecophysiological roles of Actinobacteria in plant residue decomposition.

Results: While accounting for only 4.6% of the total bacterial abundance, the Actinobacteria encoded 16% of total abundance of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). The taxonomic and functional compositions of the Actinobacteria were, surprisingly, relatively stable during straw decomposition. Slopes of linear regression models between straw chemical composition and Actinobacterial traits were flatter than those for other taxonomic groups at both local and regional scales due to holding genes encoding for full set of CAZymes, nitrogenases, and antibiotic synthetases. Ecological co-occurrence network and C-based metagenomic analyses both indicated that their importance for straw degradation increased in less fertile soils, as both links between Actinobacteria and other community members and relative abundances of their functional genes increased with decreasing soil fertility.

Conclusions: This study provided DNA-based evidence that non-dominant Actinobacteria plays a key ecophysiological role in plant residue decomposition as their members possess high proportions of CAZymes and as a group maintain a relatively stable presence during plant residue decomposition both in terms of taxonomic composition and functional roles. Their importance for decomposition was more pronounced in less fertile soils where their possession functional genes and interspecies interactions stood out more. Our work provides new ecophysiological angles for the understanding of the importance of Actinobacteria in global carbon cycling. Video abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01032-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028251PMC
April 2021

Intelligent diagnosis of mechanical faults of in-wheel motor based on improved artificial hydrocarbon networks.

ISA Trans 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 Beisanhuan East Road, ChaoYang District, 100029, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

For the driving safety of electric vehicle (EV), intelligent diagnosis based on artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHNs) is proposed to detect mechanical faults of in-wheel motor (IWM) which is a promising force pattern of EV. AHNs, a novel mathematical model of supervised learning algorithm, can encapsulate or inherit or mix any information, then are adapted to deal with serious external interference and the variable operating conditions. Based on the basic AHNs, complex error function is proposed to optimize more information of classification targets, and distance error ratio is defined to evaluate the performance. Then, the improved AHNs is employed to build two intelligent diagnosis systems namely one-stop diagnosis and sequential diagnosis, which select the same and different symptom parameters as the object of a follow-on process, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is validated by two case studies of Case Western Reserve University dataset and mechanical faults data from IWM's test bench.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.03.015DOI Listing
March 2021

Ozone oil promotes wound healing via increasing miR-21-5p-mediated inhibition of RASA1.

Wound Repair Regen 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

The 2nd Operation Room Department, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

Skin wound is a very common type of injury and the healing process greatly affects the life quality of individuals. Ozone has been shown beneficial to wound healing with unclear mechanisms. Here, we tested the effect of ozone oil (OZ) on wound healing and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Mouse skin wound model and Masson staining were used to evaluate the effect of OZ on wound healing. Primary fibroblast culture was employed to assess the functions of OZ, miR-21-5p, and RASA1. QRT-PCR and western blot were used to determine expression levels of miR-21-5p, RASA1, α-SMA, and collagen I. CCK-8 assay and scratch wound healing assay were used to measure viability and migration of fibroblasts. Dual luciferase activity assay was performed to validate miR-21-5p/RASA1 interaction. OZ accelerated wound healing in mice and promoted proliferation and migration abilities of fibroblasts. miR-21-5p was increased while RASA1 was reduced during the wound healing and OZ treatment augmented those changes, as well as increased levels of α-SMA and collagen I. Knockdown of miR-21-5p suppressed those effects of OZ on fibroblasts. Furthermore, miR-21-5p directly targeted RASA1 mRNA and negatively regulated its expression. Overexpression of RASA1 inhibited fibroblast proliferation and migration as well as diminished α-SMA and collagen I protein expression. Additionally, RASA1 overexpression blocked the promotion of miR-21-5p overexpression on fibroblast viability and migration. In vivo, miR-21-5p facilitated wound healing while overexpression of RASA1 reversed the effect. OZ promoted wound healing by enhancing miR-21-5p-mediated RASA1 inhibition to increase fibroblast proliferation and migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wrr.12907DOI Listing
March 2021

Dual Cross-Linked Hydrogels with Injectable, Self-Healing, and Antibacterial Properties Based on the Chemical and Physical Cross-Linking.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Apr 29;22(4):1685-1694. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G6, Canada.

Injectable hydrogels have become a promising material for biomedical engineering applications, but microbial infection remains a common challenge in their application. In this study, we presented an injectable antibacterial hydrogel with self-healing property based on a dual cross-linking network structure of dynamic benzoxaborole-sugar and quadruple hydrogen bonds of the 2-ureido-4-pyrimidone (UPy) moieties at physiological pH. Dynamic rheological experiments demonstrated the gelatinous behavior of the double cross-linking network (storage modulus G' > loss modulus G″), and the modulus showed frequency-dependent behavior. The noncovalent interactions of UPy units in the polymer segment endowed the injectable hydrogels with good mechanical strength. By varying the solid contents, UPy units, as well as the pH, the mechanical properties of hydrogels could be controlled. Additionally, the hydrogels exhibited not only excellent self-healing and injectable properties but also pH and sugar dual-responsiveness. Moreover, the hydrogels could effectively inhibit the growth of both and while exhibiting low toxicity. 3D cell encapsulation experiment results also demonstrated the potential use of these hydrogels as cell culture scaffolds. Taken together, the injectability, self-healing, and antimicrobial properties of the prepared hydrogels showed great promise for translational medicine, such as cell and tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c00111DOI Listing
April 2021

Harnessing Colon Chip Technology to Identify Commensal Bacteria That Promote Host Tolerance to Infection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 12;11:638014. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States.

Commensal bacteria within the gut microbiome contribute to development of host tolerance to infection, however, identifying specific microbes responsible for this response is difficult. Here we describe methods for developing microfluidic organ-on-a-chip models of small and large intestine lined with epithelial cells isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, or colon organoids derived from wild type or transgenic mice. To focus on host-microbiome interactions, we carried out studies with the mouse Colon Chip and demonstrated that it can support co-culture with living gut microbiome and enable assessment of effects on epithelial adhesion, tight junctions, barrier function, mucus production, and cytokine release. Moreover, infection of the Colon Chips with the pathogenic bacterium, , resulted in epithelial detachment, decreased tight junction staining, and increased release of chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, and CCL20) that closely mimicked changes previously seen in mice. Symbiosis between microbiome bacteria and the intestinal epithelium was also recapitulated by populating Colon Chips with complex living mouse or human microbiome. By taking advantage of differences in the composition between complex microbiome samples cultured on each chip using 16s sequencing, we were able to identify as a positive contributor to host tolerance, confirming past findings obtained in mouse experiments. Thus, mouse Intestine Chips may represent new experimental platforms for identifying particular bacterial strains that modulate host response to pathogens, as well as for investigating the cellular and molecular basis of host-microbe interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.638014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996096PMC
March 2021

Inferring the genetic basis of sex determination from the genome of a dioecious nightshade.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Computer Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

Dissecting the genetic mechanisms underlying dioecy (i.e. separate female and male individuals) is critical for understanding the evolution of this pervasive reproductive strategy. Nonetheless, the genetic basis of sex determination remains unclear in many cases, especially in systems where dioecy has arisen recently. Within the economically important plant genus Solanum (∼2000 species), dioecy is thought to have evolved independently at least 4 times across roughly 20 species. Here, we generate the first genome sequence of a dioecious Solanum and use it to ascertain the genetic basis of sex determination in this species. We de novo assembled and annotated the genome of S. appendiculatum (assembly size: ∼750 Mb; scaffold N50: 0.92 Mb; ∼35,000 genes), identified sex-specific sequences and their locations in the genome, and inferred that males in this species are the heterogametic sex. We also analyzed gene expression patterns in floral tissues of males and females, finding ∼100 genes that are differentially expressed between the sexes. These analyses, together with observed patterns of gene-family evolution specific to S. appendiculatum, consistently implicate a suite of genes from the regulatory network controlling pectin degradation and modification in the expression of sex. Furthermore, the genome of a species with a relatively young sex determination system provides the foundational resources for future studies on the independent evolution of dioecy in this clade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab089DOI Listing
March 2021

Gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain predicts fetal growth and neonatal outcomes.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Apr 12;42:307-312. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Nutrition & Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are salient predictors of pregnancy-outcomes. However, findings on the association between GDM, BMI, and GWG with fetal growth measures are limited.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GDM on fetal growth measures and birth outcomes.

Methods: All participants came from Tongji Maternal and Child health cohort, in which pregnant women were enrolled before 16 weeks of gestation and had their weights measured regularly during antenatal visits. GDM was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during 24-28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound measurements of fetal bi-parietal diameters (BPD), head circumferences (HC), abdominal circumferences (AC) and femur length (FL) before birth were collected and neonate outcomes were obtained from the hospital records. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression to assess the association of GDM, pre-pregnancy BMI, and GWG with fetal growth measures of ultrasound and birth outcomes, while controlling confounding.

Results: Of 3253 singleton pregnant women, 293 (9.0%) were diagnosed with GDM, 357 (11.0%) were overweight before pregnancy, and 1995 (61.3%) had excessive GWG. GDM was associated with decreased intrauterine fetal growth measurements including BPD and AC. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight was associated with increased fetal HC and neonatal birth weight and length, women gained excessive GWG had increased fetal growth measurements of BPD, HC, AC, FL, neonatal birth weight and length. Offspring of GDM women had increased odds of cesarean section 1.31 (1.03, 1.66) and preterm birth 2.02 (1.05, 3.91) in unadjusted models, but these associations disappeared after adjustment. Compared with neonate born to mothers with normal pre-pregnancy weight, those born to underweight mother had higher risk of SGA, and lower risk of cesarean section, LGA and macrosamia, whereas those born to overweight mother had increased risk of cesarean section, LGA and macrosamia. Compared with neonate born to mothers of adequate GWG, neonate of women with excessive GWG had elevated risk of cesarean section, LGA and macrosamia, but lower risk of preterm birth and SGA.

Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and GDM all associated with fetal growth and birth outcomes. The effect of GDM decreased after adjusting pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. Early screening and management of GDM, preventing excessive GWG could help protect fetuses of GDM mothers from adverse birth outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.01.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Syphilis presenting with moth-eaten alopecia.

Authors:
Meng Yin Wu Jun Li

CMAJ 2021 Jan;193(4):E126

Department of Dermatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954551PMC
January 2021

Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in Multiple Cell Lines and Tissues by Dynamic Imaging System and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model.

Front Pharmacol 2020 20;11:574720. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Center of Basic Medicine Research (CBMR), Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been challenged in treating COVID-19 patients and still under debate due to the uncertainty regarding the effectiveness and safety, and there is still lack of the systematic study on the toxicity of these two drugs. To further uncover the toxicity profile of CQ and HCQ in different tissues, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of them in eight cell lines and further adopted the physiologically based pharmacokinetic models to predict the tissue risk, respectively. Retina, myocardium, lung, liver, kidney, vascular endothelium, and intestinal epithelium originated cells were included in the toxicity evaluation of CQ and HCQ, respectively. The proliferation pattern was monitored in 0-72 h by IncuCyte S3. CC50 and the ratio of tissue trough concentrations to CC50 (R) were brought into predicted toxicity profiles. Compared to CQ, HCQ was found to be less toxic in six cell types except Hep3B and Vero cells. In addition, R was significantly higher in CQ treatment group compared to HCQ group, which indicates relative safety of HCQ. To further simulate the situation of the COVID-19 patients who suffered the dyspnea and hypoxemia, we also tested the cytotoxicity upon hypoxia and normoxia (1, 5 vs. 21% O). It was found that the cytotoxicity of CQ was more sensitive to hypoxia compared with that of HCQ, particularly in liver originated cells. Both CQ and HCQ showed cytotoxicity in time-dependent manner which indicates the necessity of short period administration clinically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.574720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919379PMC
November 2020

Integration of Dual Targeting and Dual Therapeutic Modules Endows Self-Assembled Nanoparticles with Anti-Tumor Growth and Metastasis Functions.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 18;16:1361-1376. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Object: High targeting and efficient cytotoxicity toward tumor cells endow NPs excellent anti-tumor activity. Herein, a peptide polymer possessing dual-targeting ability and double therapeutic activity was developed and named TGMF, which can form NPs through self-assembly. It is composed of four functional modules: 1) Active targeting peptide TMTP1 (T) deliver NPs to tumors specifically; 2) Therapeutic peptide GO-203 (G), which can significantly inhibit tumor growth by disrupting the redox balance in cells; 3) A passively targeted enzyme-responsive peptide PLGLGA (M), which can be cleaved specifically by metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) highly expressed in the tumor microenvironment (TME); and 4) Hexadecyl (F), which has strong hydrophobicity, can promote the self-assembly of TGMF NPs.

Methods: Five modular peptide probes, namely, TGF, TMF, TGM, GMF, and TGMF were synthesized and self-assembled into NPs in solution. The characterization, enzyme reactivity, and cytotoxicity of NPs were evaluated in vitro, and the pharmacokinetics, bio-distribution, anti-tumor activity of NPs were investigated in vivo. In addition, transcriptome sequencing identified the intracellular signaling pathway-related genes involved in the anti-tumor effect of TGMF.

Results: Upon enzyme cleavage, two types of nanostructure, NPs and nanofibers (NFs), were detected under TEM. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and anti-invasion activity of TGMF against tumor cells used were strongest among the five modular probes examined in vitro. TGMF increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cytoplasm and produced numerous NFs in extracellular interval and intracellular space. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that TGMF caused 446 genes' down-regulation and 270 genes' up-regulation in HeLa cells. In vivo, TGMF has a good anti-tumor effect, effectively prolonging the survival time of HeLa-tumor-bearing mice without systemic side effects.

Conclusion: Integration of multiple functional modules into NPs could be a promising strategy for the future of nanomedicine design towards tumor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S291285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917335PMC
March 2021

Distribution of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells against CD19 in B-cell malignancies.

BMC Cancer 2021 Feb 25;21(1):198. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Lymphoma, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Background: The unprecedented efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell immunotherapy of CD19 B-cell malignancies has opened a new and useful way for the treatment of malignant tumors. Nonetheless, there are still formidable challenges in the field of CAR-T cell therapy, such as the biodistribution of CAR-T cells in vivo.

Methods: NALM-6, a human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell line, was used as target cells. CAR-T cells were injected into a mice model with or without target cells. Then we measured the distribution of CAR-T cells in mice. In addition, an exploratory clinical trial was conducted in 13 r/r B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) patients, who received CAR-T cell infusion. The dynamic changes in patient blood parameters over time after infusion were detected by qPCR and flow cytometry.

Results: CAR-T cells still proliferated over time after being infused into the mice without target cells within 2 weeks. However, CAR-T cells did not increase significantly in the presence of target cells within 2 weeks after infusion, but expanded at week 6. In the clinical trial, we found that CAR-T cells peaked at 7-21 days after infusion and lasted for 420 days in peripheral blood of patients. Simultaneously, mild side effects were observed, which could be effectively controlled within 2 months in these patients.

Conclusions: CAR-T cells can expand themselves with or without target cells in mice, and persist for a long time in NHL patients without serious side effects.

Trial Registration: The registration date of the clinical trial is May 17, 2018 and the trial registration numbers is NCT03528421 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-07934-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908740PMC
February 2021

THERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Novel protection and treatment strategies for chemotherapy-associated ovarian damage.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 May;184(5):R177-R192

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Fertility and ovarian protection against chemotherapy-associated ovarian damage has formed a new field called oncofertility, which is driven by the pursuit of fertility protection as well as good life quality for numerous female cancer survivors. However, the choice of fertility and ovarian protection method is a difficult problem during chemotherapy and there is no uniform guideline at present. To alleviate ovarian toxicity caused by anticancer drugs, effective methods combined with an individualized treatment plan that integrates an optimal strategy for preserving and restoring reproductive function should be offered from well-established to experimental stages before, during, and after chemotherapy. Although embryo, oocyte, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are the major methods that have been proven effective and feasible for fertility protection, they are also subject to many limitations. Therefore, this paper mainly discusses the future potential methods and corresponding mechanisms for fertility protection in chemotherapy-associated ovarian damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-1178DOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluation of Microbe-Driven Soil Organic Matter Quantity and Quality by Thermodynamic Theory.

mBio 2021 02 23;12(1). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain

Microbial communities, coupled with substrate quality and availability, regulate the stock (formation versus mineralization) of soil organic matter (SOM) in terrestrial ecosystems. However, our understanding of how soil microbes interact with contrasting substrates influencing SOM quantity and quality is still very superficial. Here, we used thermodynamic theory principles and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) to evaluate the linkages between dissolved organic matter (DOM [organic substrates in soil that are readily available]), thermodynamic quality, and microbial communities. We investigated soils from subtropical paddy ecosystems across a 1,000-km gradient and comprising contrasting levels of SOM content and nutrient availability. Our region-scale study suggested that soils with a larger abundance of readily accessible resources (i.e., lower Gibbs free energy) supported higher levels of microbial diversity and higher SOM content. We further advocated a novel phylotype-level microbial classification based on their associations with OM quantities and qualities and identified two contrasting clusters of bacterial taxa: phylotypes that are highly positively correlated with thermodynamically favorable DOM and larger SOM content versus those which are associated with less-favorable DOM and lower SOM content. Both groups are expected to play critical roles in regulating SOM contents in the soil. By identifying the associations between microbial phylotypes of different life strategies and OM qualities and quantities, our study indicates that thermodynamic theory can act as a proxy for the relationship between OM and soil microbial communities and should be considered in models of soil organic matter preservation. Microbial communities are known to be important drivers of organic matter (OM) accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems. However, despite the importance of these soil microbes and processes, the mechanisms behind these microbial-SOM associations remain poorly understood. Here, we used the principles of thermodynamic theory and novel Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry techniques to investigate the links between microbial communities and dissolved OM (DOM) thermodynamic quality in soils across a 1,000-km gradient and comprising contrasting nutrient and C contents. Our region-scale study provided evidence that soils with a larger amount of readily accessible resources (i.e., lower Gibbs free energy) supported higher levels of microbial diversity and larger SOM content. Moreover, we created a novel phylotype-level microbial classification based on the associations between microbial taxa and DOM quantities and qualities. We found two contrasting clusters of bacterial taxa based on their level of association with thermodynamically favorable DOM and SOM content. Our study advances our knowledge on the important links between microbial communities and SOM. Moreover, by identifying the associations between microbial phylotypes of different life strategies and OM qualities and quantities, our study indicates that thermodynamic theory can act as a proxy for the relationship between OM and soil microbial communities. Together, our findings support that the association between microbial species taxa and substrate thermodynamic quality constituted an important complement explanation for soil organic matter preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.03252-20DOI Listing
February 2021

Identification of transcriptomic characteristics during nasal capsular contracture progression using RNA deep sequencing.

Wound Repair Regen 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Laser Center of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou City, China.

Nasal capsular contracture is a prevalent complication commonly observed after rhinoplasty. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of nasal capsular contracture is largely unclear compared to that of breast capsular contracture. This study aimed to identify the key genes implicated in nasal capsular contracture progression using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq). Biopsy samples were taken from Grade II to Grade IV nasal fibrous capsular tissues. The former is regarded as the relatively normal tissues and thus was set as control group, while the latter was treated as pathological group. Results from RNA-seq underwent GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis and subsequent verification by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays. RNA-seq analysis showed that 3149 genes were up-regulated and 3131 genes in pathological groups compared with controls. The top 30 up-regulated genes included many chemokines (e.g., CCL18, CCL13, CCL17 and CCL8), matrix metallopeptidases (e.g., MMP9 and MMP12) and integrin proteins (e.g., ITGAM and ITGB2). GO enrichment analysis demonstrated that the up-regulated genes affected various immune functions, including immune system process, cell activation, leukocyte activation, defence response and positive regulation of immune. The down-regulated gene primary influenced muscle development and functions as well as metabolic processes. In summary, this study reveal that abnormal changes of immune functions, muscle develop and metabolic processes are probably implicated in the pathogenesis of nasal capsular contracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wrr.12900DOI Listing
February 2021

Five Circular RNAs in Metabolism Pathways Related to Prostate Cancer.

Front Genet 2021 26;12:636419. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Urology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, National Health Commission, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant tumor in men, and its incidence increases with age. Serum prostate-specific antigen and tissue biopsy remain the standard for diagnosis of suspected PCa. However, these clinical indicators may lead to aggressive overtreatment in patients who have been treated sufficiently with active surveillance. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently recognized as a new type of regulatory RNA that is not easily degraded by RNases and other exonucleases because of their covalent closed cyclic structure. Thus, we utilized high-throughput sequencing data and bioinformatics analysis to identify specifically expressed circRNAs in PCa and filtered out five specific circRNAs for further analysis-hsa_circ_0006410, hsa_circ_0003970, hsa_circ_0006754, hsa_circ_0005848, and a novel circRNA, hsa_circ_AKAP7. We constructed a circRNA-miRNA regulatory network and used miRNA and differentially expressed mRNA interactions to predict the function of the selected circRNAs. Furthermore, survival analysis of their cognate genes and PCR verification of these five circRNAs revealed that they are closely related to well-known PCa pathways such as the MAPK signaling pathway, P53 pathway, androgen receptor signaling pathway, cell cycle, hormone-mediated signaling pathway, and cellular lipid metabolic process. By understanding the related metabolism of circRNAs, these circRNAs could act as metabolic biomarkers, and monitoring their levels could help diagnose PCa. Meanwhile, the exact regulatory mechanism for AR-related regulation in PCa is still unclear. The circRNAs we found can provide new solutions for research in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.636419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870709PMC
January 2021

Notch signaling: Its essential roles in bone and craniofacial development.

Genes Dis 2021 Jan 11;8(1):8-24. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Notch is a cell-cell signaling pathway that is involved in a host of activities including development, oncogenesis, skeletal homeostasis, and much more. More specifically, recent research has demonstrated the importance of Notch signaling in osteogenic differentiation, bone healing, and in the development of the skeleton. The craniofacial skeleton is complex and understanding its development has remained an important focus in biology. In this review we briefly summarize what recent research has revealed about Notch signaling and the current understanding of how the skeleton, skull, and face develop. We then discuss the crucial role that Notch plays in both craniofacial development and the skeletal system, and what importance it may play in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gendis.2020.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859553PMC
January 2021

Phage-Display-Derived Peptide Specific to Carbamylated Protein.

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 25;6(4):3079-3089. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V2, Canada.

Protein carbamylation has been linked with diseases commonly associated with patients with reduced kidney function. Carbamylated human serum albumin (cHSA), which has been proven to be nephrotoxic and associated with heart failure for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, was chosen for our study. Through phage display against cHSA, one specific peptide sequence (cH2-p1) was identified with higher selectivity toward cHSA over native HSA. The cH2-p1 peptide was synthesized, and its target binding was analyzed through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The result showed that cH2-p1 was able to bind cHSA of different levels of carbamylation with a similar dissociation constant of ∼1.0 × 10 M. This peptide also showed a binding specificity to carbamylated fibrinogen (cFgn), while not binding to native Fgn at all. For better understanding of the binding mechanism of cH2-p1, competitive binding of cH2-p1 and anti-homocitrulline to cHSA was performed, and the result revealed that cH2-p1 may bind to homocitrulline residues in a similar manner to the antibody. A molecular docking study was further performed to investigate the favored binding conformation of homocitrulline residue to cH2-p1. This work demonstrates the potential of peptides as a specific binding element to carbamylated proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860060PMC
February 2021

Identification of Novel Biomarkers Associated With the Prognosis and Potential Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer via Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:1533033821992081

Department of Medical Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in women globally. Identification of novel prognostic and pathogenesis biomarkers play a pivotal role in the management of the disease.

Methods: Three data sets from the GEO database were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in breast cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were performed to elucidate the functional roles of the DEGs. Besides, we investigated the translational and protein expression levels and survival data of the DEGs in patients with breast cancer from the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), Oncomine, Human Protein Atlas, and Kaplan Meier plotter tool databases. The corresponding change in the expression level of microRNAs in the DEGs was also predicted using miRWalk and TargetScan, and the expression profiles were analyzed using OncomiR. Finally, the expression of novel DEGs were validated in Chinese breast cancer tissues by RT-qPCR.

Results: A total of 46 DEGs were identified, and GO analysis revealed that these genes were mainly associated with biological processes involved in fatty acid, lipid localization, and regulation of lipid metabolism. Two novel biomarkers, and , and 4 other genes (, , , and ) that were implicated in the prognosis and pathogenesis of breast cancer, exhibited low expression levels in breast cancer tissues. Besides, 14/25 microRNAs targeting 6 genes were first predicted to be associated with breast cancer prognosis. RT-qPCR results of and expression in Chinese breast cancer tissues were consistent with the database analysis and showed significant down-regulation.

Conclusion: , and the 14 microRNAs were found to be potential novel biomarkers for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533033821992081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876582PMC
February 2021

Modality alignment contrastive learning for severity assessment of COVID-19 from lung ultrasound and clinical information.

Med Image Anal 2021 04 20;69:101975. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Ultrasound, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, China. Electronic address:

The outbreak of COVID-19 around the world has caused great pressure to the health care system, and many efforts have been devoted to artificial intelligence (AI)-based analysis of CT and chest X-ray images to help alleviate the shortage of radiologists and improve the diagnosis efficiency. However, only a few works focus on AI-based lung ultrasound (LUS) analysis in spite of its significant role in COVID-19. In this work, we aim to propose a novel method for severity assessment of COVID-19 patients from LUS and clinical information. Great challenges exist regarding the heterogeneous data, multi-modality information, and highly nonlinear mapping. To overcome these challenges, we first propose a dual-level supervised multiple instance learning module (DSA-MIL) to effectively combine the zone-level representations into patient-level representations. Then a novel modality alignment contrastive learning module (MA-CLR) is presented to combine representations of the two modalities, LUS and clinical information, by matching the two spaces while keeping the discriminative features. To train the nonlinear mapping, a staged representation transfer (SRT) strategy is introduced to maximumly leverage the semantic and discriminative information from the training data. We trained the model with LUS data of 233 patients, and validated it with 80 patients. Our method can effectively combine the two modalities and achieve accuracy of 75.0% for 4-level patient severity assessment, and 87.5% for the binary severe/non-severe identification. Besides, our method also provides interpretation of the severity assessment by grading each of the lung zone (with accuracy of 85.28%) and identifying the pathological patterns of each lung zone. Our method has a great potential in real clinical practice for COVID-19 patients, especially for pregnant women and children, in aspects of progress monitoring, prognosis stratification, and patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2021.101975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817458PMC
April 2021

Bloodless chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy in Jehovah's Witnesses.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Feb 3:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1876868DOI Listing
February 2021

COVID-19 Outcomes Among Persons Living With or Without Diagnosed HIV Infection in New York State.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 02 1;4(2):e2037069. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Center for Collaborative HIV Research in Practice and Policy, University at Albany School of Public Health, State University of New York, Rensselaer.

Importance: New York State has been an epicenter for both the US coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and HIV/AIDS epidemics. Persons living with diagnosed HIV may be more prone to COVID-19 infection and severe outcomes, yet few studies have assessed this possibility at a population level.

Objective: To evaluate the association between HIV diagnosis and COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, and in-hospital death in New York State.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study, conducted in New York State, including New York City, between March 1 and June 15, 2020, matched data from HIV surveillance, COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed diagnoses, and hospitalization databases to provide a full population-level comparison of COVID-19 outcomes between persons living with diagnosed HIV and persons living without diagnosed HIV.

Exposures: Diagnosis of HIV infection through December 31, 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcomes were COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, and in-hospital death. COVID-19 diagnoses, hospitalizations, and in-hospital death rates comparing persons living with diagnosed HIV with persons living without dianosed HIV were computed, with unadjusted rate ratios and indirect standardized rate ratios (sRR), adjusting for sex, age, and region. Adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for outcomes specific to persons living with diagnosed HIV were assessed by age, sex, region, race/ethnicity, transmission risk, and CD4+ T-cell count-defined HIV disease stage, using Poisson regression models.

Results: A total of 2988 persons living with diagnosed HIV (2109 men [70.6%]; 2409 living in New York City [80.6%]; mean [SD] age, 54.0 [13.3] years) received a diagnosis of COVID-19. Of these persons living with diagnosed HIV, 896 were hospitalized and 207 died in the hospital through June 15, 2020. After standardization, persons living with diagnosed HIV and persons living without diagnosed HIV had similar diagnosis rates (sRR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.91-0.97]), but persons living with diagnosed HIV were hospitalized more than persons living without diagnosed HIV, per population (sRR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.29-1.47]) and among those diagnosed (sRR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.37-1.56]). Elevated mortality among persons living with diagnosed HIV was observed per population (sRR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.07-1.40]) and among those diagnosed (sRR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.13-1.48]) but not among those hospitalized (sRR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.83-1.09]). Among persons living with diagnosed HIV, non-Hispanic Black individuals (aRR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.40-1.81]) and Hispanic individuals (aRR, 2.08 [95% CI, 1.83-2.37]) were more likely to receive a diagnosis of COVID-19 than White individuals, but they were not more likely to be hospitalized once they received a diagnosis or to die once hospitalized. Hospitalization risk increased with disease progression to HIV stage 2 (aRR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.11-1.49]) and stage 3 (aRR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.38-2.07]) relative to stage 1.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study, persons living with diagnosed HIV experienced poorer COVID-related outcomes relative to persons living without diagnosed HIV; Previous HIV diagnosis was associated with higher rates of severe disease requiring hospitalization, and hospitalization risk increased with progression of HIV disease stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.37069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859843PMC
February 2021

Role of HPV status and PD-L1 expression in prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2021 1;14(1):107-115. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Pathology, Tangshan Union Hospital Tangshan, P. R. China.

Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been recognized as a cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common pathologic types of HNSCC. Clinical trials show that there are differences in response to immunotherapy according to HPV status. It was reported that a high level of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is correlated with better survival in HPV-positive head and neck cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression of PD-L1 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative LSCC to determine its prevalence and prognostic value.

Methods: 52 cases of LSCC were collected from Tangshan Head and Neck Disease Pathology Research Base. PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization and RNAscope in situ hybridization were used to detect HPV status. PD-L1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and all cases were followed up for survival. SPSS24.0 was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank time series analysis were used for single factor analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard regression model, and HR and 95% CI were calculated.

Results: Of the 52 LSCC patients, 32.7% (17/52) were HPV-positive by RNAscope in situ hybridization, and 51.9% (27/52) of patients were positive for PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Regression analysis showed that with a median follow-up period of 69 months, smoking and late stage were associated with poor overall survival (OS), whereas HPV positivity and PD-L1 expression showed a better overall survival outcome.

Conclusion: Smoking status, tumor stage, HPV status, and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells may represent useful prognostic biomarkers in patients with LSCC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847499PMC
January 2021

Using brain functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture combined with mirror therapy on upper limb function in patients with cerebral ischemic stroke: a study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jan 12;22(1):53. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Shenzhen Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine (Futian), Shenzhen, 518034, Guangdong, China.

Background: Upper limb and hand motor dysfunction is one of the challenges in rehabilitation after cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS), and the clinical efficacy of rehabilitation needs to be improved. This study aims to combine Jin's three-needle acupuncture (JTN) therapy with mirror therapy (MT) for hemiplegia after CIS, objectively evaluate the clinical effects and safety of JTN to treat upper limb dysfunction, and use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain to investigate the central mechanisms of the effects, which would provide a powerful evidence-based medical basis for further supporting the application of JTN combined with MT.

Methods/design: This trial will be a single-blind, randomized controlled study. Patients who meet the study criteria will be recruited and randomly assigned to either the combined treatment group (JTN+MT) or the JTN group. Both interventions will be conducted for 6 days per week and last for 4 weeks. The primary outcome will be the effective rate based on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE). Other outcome measures will include scores on the motor assessment scale (MAS), action research arm test (ARAT), activities of daily living (ADL) scale, and fMRI analyses. For safety evaluation, adverse events will be observed and recorded.

Discussion: This study may help to identify the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with MT for upper limb dysfunction after CIS and explore the central mechanisms with brain fMRI.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IOR-17012174 . Registered on 5 April 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04955-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805106PMC
January 2021

Proximal tubule LPA1 and LPA2 receptors use divergent signaling pathways to additively increase profibrotic cytokine secretion.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 03 11;320(3):F359-F374. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas.

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) increases platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGFB) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) production and secretion by proximal tubule (PT) cells through LPA2 receptor-Gα-αβ-integrin-mediated activation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFB1). LPA2, β-integrin, PDGFB, and CTGF increase in kidneys after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), coinciding with fibrosis. The TGFB1 receptor antagonist SD-208 prevents increases of β-integrin, TGFB1-SMAD signaling, and PDGFB/CTGF expression after IRI and ameliorates fibrosis (Geng H, Lan R, Singha PK, Gilchrist A, Weinreb PH, Violette SM, Weinberg JM, Saikumar P, Venkatachalam MA. 181: 1236-1249, 2012; Geng H, Lan R, Wang G, Siddiqi AR, Naski MC, Brooks AI, Barnes JL, Saikumar P, Weinberg JM, Venkatachalam MA. 174: 1291-1308, 2009). We report now that LPA1 receptor signaling through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ERK1/2-activator protein-1 cooperates with LPA2-dependent TGFB1 signaling to additively increase PDGFB/CTGF production and secretion by PT cells. Conversely, inhibition of both pathways results in greater suppression of PDGFB/CTGF production and secretion and promotes greater PT cellular differentiation than inhibiting one pathway alone. Antagonism of the LPA-generating enzyme autotaxin suppressed signaling through both pathways. After IRI, kidneys showed not only more LPA2, nuclear SMAD2/3, and PDGFB/CTGF but also increased LPA1 and autotaxin proteins, together with enhanced EGFR/ERK1/2 activation. Remarkably, the TGFB1 receptor antagonist SD-208 prevented all of these abnormalities excepting increased LPA2. SD-208 inhibits only one arm of LPA signaling: LPA2-Gα-αβ-integrin-dependent production of active TGFB1 and its receptor-bound downstream effects. Consequently, far-reaching protection by SD-208 against IRI-induced signaling alterations and tubule-interstitial pathology is not fully explained by our data. TGFB1-dependent feedforward modulation of LPA1 signaling is one possibility. SD-208 effects may also involve mitigation of injury caused by IRI-induced TGFB1 signaling in endothelial cells and monocytes. Our results have translational implications for using TGFB1 receptor antagonists, LPA1 and LPA2 inhibitors concurrently, and autotaxin inhibitors in acute kidney injury to prevent the development of chronic kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00494.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988817PMC
March 2021

A Novel Triphenylphosphonium Carrier to Target Mitochondria without Uncoupling Oxidative Phosphorylation.

J Med Chem 2021 01 4;64(1):662-676. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Division of Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, United States.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is an underlying pathology in numerous diseases. Delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic cargo directly into mitochondria is a powerful approach to study and treat these diseases. The triphenylphosphonium (TPP) moiety is the most widely used mitochondriotropic carrier. However, studies have shown that TPP is not inert; TPP conjugates uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. To date, all efforts toward addressing this problem have focused on modifying lipophilicity of TPP-linker-cargo conjugates to alter mitochondrial uptake, albeit with limited success. We show that structural modifications to the TPP phenyl rings that decrease electron density on the phosphorus atom can abrogate uncoupling activity as compared to the parent TPP moiety and prevent dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. These alterations of the TPP structure do not negatively affect the delivery of cargo to mitochondria. Results here identify the 4-CF-phenyl TPP moiety as an inert mitochondria-targeting carrier to safely target pharmacophores and probes to mitochondria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01671DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficient activation of peroxymonosulfate and degradation of Orange G in iron phosphide prepared by pickling waste liquor.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 22;269:129398. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

School of Chemistry and Material Science, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nanomaterials of Hebei Province, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Chemistry Education, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, 050024, China. Electronic address:

In this study, the low-cost preparation of iron phosphide by using pickling waste liquor as the initial material was performed through a two-step reaction. The degradation of Orange G was evaluated using iron phosphide coupled with peroxymonosulfate to construct a catalytic system. The removal efficiencies of Orange G and total organic carbon reached 97.4 and 58.4% at 60 min, respectively. Iron phosphide has dual-catalysis centers for the activation of PMS. Multiple free radicals (e.g., SO, HO, SO, and O) and singlet oxygen were involved in the pollutant degradation, of which sulfate radicals played the main role. The iron phosphide catalyst exhibited excellent recycling stability, and its catalytic efficiency reached 95% after five cycles. In summary, the FeP/PMS system-as a Fenton-like catalytic system-has certain advantages, including low cost, high efficiency, sufficient reusability, and good stability, all of which are favorable for its practical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129398DOI Listing
April 2021

A novel glycoprotein from Streptomyces sp. triggers early responses of plant defense.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jan 6;171:104719. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

College of Plant Protection, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

GP-1, a novel glycoprotein from Streptomyces sp. ZX01 has a plant immunity-inducing effect. GP-1-treated plants exhibited enhanced systemic resistance with a significant reduction in TMV lesions on tobacco leaves, but its antiviral mechanism remains unclear. In this study, early plant defense-related responses, such as Ca influx, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response, programmed cell death, increase in nitric oxide (NO), and stomatal closure, were investigated under GP-1 treatment, and the mechanism of how GP-1 induces viral resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana was studied. Results showed that GP-1 induced [Ca] rapidly in tobacco leaves and suspended cells, followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO elevation. Transcriptome analysis showed significant differences in expression levels between the GP-1-treated N. benthamiana and the control and showed significantly upregulated and enriched pathways including defense and immune reaction. Similar to typical pathogen-associated molecular patterns, GP-1 induced callose deposition and stomatal closure to form defense barriers against pathogen invasion. The expression of defense-related genes further confirmed the above conclusions. By analyzing transcriptome in N. benthamiana and the contents of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), GP-1 enhanced viral resistance of tobacco by improving the SA and JA contents, strengthening plant secondary metabolites activities, promoting systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins in TMV- inoculated tobacco there by producing antiviral activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.104719DOI Listing
January 2021