Publications by authors named "Melissa Gustafson"

3 Publications

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Parent Perceptions and Experiences Regarding Medication Education at Time of Hospital Discharge for Children With Medical Complexity.

Hosp Pediatr 2020 08;10(8):679-686

Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, Palo Alto, California.

Background: Children with medical complexity (CMC) often require complex medication regimens. Medication education on hospital discharge should provide a critical safety check before medication management transitions from hospital to family. Current discharge processes may not meet the needs of CMC and their families. The objective of this study is to describe parent perspectives and priorities regarding discharge medication education for CMC.

Methods: We performed a qualitative, focus-group-based study, using ethnography. Parents of hospitalized CMC were recruited to participate in 1 of 4 focus groups; 2 were in Spanish. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and then coded and organized into themes by using thematic analysis.

Results: Twenty-four parents participated in focus groups, including 12 native English speakers and 12 native Spanish speakers. Parents reported a range of 0 to 18 medications taken by their children (median 4). Multiple themes emerged regarding parental ideals for discharge medication education: (1) information quality, including desire for complete, consistent information, in preferred language; (2) information delivery, including education timing, and delivery by experts; (3) personalization of information, including accounting for literacy of parents and level of information desired; and (4) self-efficacy, or education resulting in parents' confidence to conduct medical plans at home.

Conclusions: Parents of CMC have a range of needs and preferences regarding discharge medication education. They share a desire for high-quality education provided by experts, enabling them to leave the hospital confident in their ability to care for their children once home. These perspectives could inform initiatives to improve discharge medication education for all patients, including CMC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2020-0078DOI Listing
August 2020

Palatal Petechiae in the Absence of Group A Streptococcus in Pediatric Patients with Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Deterioration: A Cohort Study.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2017 Sep 7;27(7):660-666. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

1 Divisions of Pediatric, Department of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Palo Alto, California.

Background: Palatal petechiae are 95% specific for streptococcal pharyngitis. Despite this, and despite prior research demonstrating that Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common antecedent to pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) episodes, we anecdotally observed a low rate of documented GAS in patients with PANS and palatal petechiae. This retrospective chart review was conducted to formally report the rate of palatal petechiae and concurrent GAS in a cohort of patients with PANS and investigate other etiologic factors.

Methods: The clinical notes of 112 patients seen at the Stanford PANS Clinic who met PANS research criteria were reviewed for mention of palatal petechiae. The medical records of patients who demonstrated palatal petechiae on physical examination were reviewed for signs of infection, a clinical history of trauma, and laboratory results that could indicate other causes of petechiae.

Results: Twenty-three patients had documented palatal petechiae on physical examination (ages 5-16, 13/23 [57%] male). Fifteen patients had a rapid GAS test and GAS culture in the Stanford PANS clinic, all with negative results. Evidence of recent GAS infection was found in 8/23 (32%) patients (elevated GAS titers [nā€‰=ā€‰6] or documentation of a positive rapid GAS test at another facility [nā€‰=ā€‰2]), one of whom also had potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. One patient had potential HSV infection and recent palatal trauma. No patients had thrombocytopenia. 14/23 (61%) of patients with palatal petechiae had no discernable cause of petechiae. 10/19 (53%) of patients had antihistone antibodies.

Conclusions: Despite the established relationship between palatal petechiae and GAS, no patient with palatal petechiae in our clinic tested positive for GAS and only 32% had evidence of recent GAS. Most did not have an identifiable cause for the palatal lesions. This finding suggests the potential for alternative causes of palatal petechiae or undetectable GAS in our patient population. The high prevalence of palatal petechiae without GAS infection suggests that the pathogenesis of PANS is multifactorial and may involve disruption or inflammation of the microvasculature. Additional research is needed to further elucidate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2016.0153DOI Listing
September 2017

Improvement of psychiatric symptoms in youth following resolution of sinusitis.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Jan 31;92:38-44. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Pediatric Divisions of Allergy, Immunology, & Rheumatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 700 Welch Road, Suite 301, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Accumulating evidence supports a role for inflammation in psychiatric illness, and the onset or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms may follow non-CNS infections. Here, we provide the first detailed description of obsessive-compulsive and related psychiatric symptoms arising concurrently with sinusitis.

Methods: We reviewed the charts of 150 consecutive patients evaluated in our Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndromes clinic for documented sinusitis as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Sinusitis treatments, sinonasal imaging, and neuropsychiatric symptoms before, during, and after sinusitis onset were noted. Patients were included in the final review if they had a clear diagnosis of isolated sinusitis (without concurrent illness and/or immunodeficiency), and were evaluated during an episode of sinusitis.

Results: 10/150 (6.6%) patients had isolated sinusitis at the time of their neuropsychiatric deterioration. Eight patients received antibiotics to treat sinusitis, three of whom also received sinus surgery. Neuropsychiatric symptoms improved in all eight patients concurrent with resolution of sinusitis per parent report and clinician assessment. One patient did not follow through with recommended sinus surgery or antibiotics and her psychiatric symptoms persisted. One patient was lost to follow-up.

Conclusions: Improvement of psychiatric symptoms correlated with resolution of sinus disease in this retrospective study. Identification, treatment, and resolution of underlying infections, including sinusitis, may have the potential to change the trajectory of some neuropsychiatric illnesses. Randomized clinical trials are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.10.034DOI Listing
January 2017