Publications by authors named "Melissa C Larson"

68 Publications

Anthracycline treatment, cardiovascular risk factors and the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of newly diagnosed lymphoma patients from the modern treatment era.

Am J Hematol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

The development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in long-term survivors of lymphoma is of increasing importance. Here, we characterize the cumulative incidence and risk factors for CVD in lymphoma patients diagnosed in the current treatment era. From 2002-2015, newly diagnosed lymphoma patients (>18 years) were enrollment into a prospective cohort study that captured incident CVD, consisting of congestive heart failure (CHF), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), valvular heart disease (VHD), and arrhythmia. The cumulative incidence of CVD was calculated with death modeled as a competing risk. We estimated the association of treatment with anthracyclines or radiotherapy and traditional CVD risk factors with incidence of CVD using hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated from Cox regression. After excluding prevalent CVD at lymphoma diagnosis, the study consisted of 3063 patients with a median age of 59 years (range 18-95). The cumulative incidence of CVD at 10-years was 10.7% (95% CI, 9.5%-12.1%). In multivariable analysis, increasing age (HR = 1.05 per year, p < 0.001), male sex (HR = 1.36, p = 0.02), current smoker (HR = 2.10, p < 0.001), BMI > 30 kg/m (HR = 1.45, p = 0.01), and any anthracycline treatment (HR = 1.57, p < 0.001) were all significantly associated with risk of CVD. Anthracyclines were associated with increased risk of CHF (HR = 2.71, p < 0.001) and arrhythmia (HR = 1.61, p < 0.01), but not VHD (HR = 0.84, p = 0.58) or ACS (HR = 1.32, p = 0.24) after adjustment for CVD risk factors. Even in the modern treatment era, CVD remains common in lymphoma survivors and preventive efforts are required that address both treatment and CVD risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26230DOI Listing
May 2021

Statistical analysis of comparative tumor growth repeated measures experiments in the ovarian cancer patient derived xenograft (PDX) setting.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 13;11(1):8076. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Repeated measures studies are frequently performed in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models to evaluate drug activity or compare effectiveness of cancer treatment regimens. Linear mixed effects regression models were used to perform statistical modeling of tumor growth data. Biologically plausible structures for the covariation between repeated tumor burden measurements are explained. Graphical, tabular, and information criteria tools useful for choosing the mean model functional form and covariation structure are demonstrated in a Case Study of five PDX models comparing cancer treatments. Power calculations were performed via simulation. Linear mixed effects regression models applied to the natural log scale were shown to describe the observed data well. A straight growth function fit well for two PDX models. Three PDX models required quadratic or cubic polynomial (time squared or cubed) terms to describe delayed tumor regression or initial tumor growth followed by regression. Spatial(power), spatial(power) + RE, and RE covariance structures were found to be reasonable. Statistical power is shown as a function of sample size for different levels of variation. Linear mixed effects regression models provide a unified and flexible framework for analysis of PDX repeated measures data, use all available data, and allow estimation of tumor doubling time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87470-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044116PMC
April 2021

Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Int J Cancer 2021 Aug 8;149(3):535-545. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and statin drugs may protect against the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but data are limited, particularly for NHL subtypes. Furthermore, some in vitro, animal and epidemiologic data suggest there may be a synergistic effect of these two agents, but there has been no test of this hypothesis in NHL. We evaluated the self-reported use of NSAIDs and statins in a clinic-based study of 1703 NHL patients and 2199 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounding variables. We observed an inverse association of regular use of low-dose aspirin with risk of NHL (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.70-0.96) that was stronger with longer duration of use (P < .01). There were no associations for use of regular or extra-strength aspirin, ibuprofen, other NSAIDs, statins or other cholesterol-lowering drugs with NHL risk, while an inverse association with COX-2 inhibitors was equivocal. There was also no interaction of low-dose aspirin and statins on NHL risk. Inverse associations of similar magnitude to all NHL were observed for regular use of low-dose aspirin with diffuse large B-cell, follicular, marginal zone and all other lymphomas, although not all associations were statistically significant. In conclusion, low-dose aspirin but not regular/extra strength aspirin, other NSAIDs or statin use was associated with lower risk of NHL. Beyond the potential for the primary prevention of NHL, these data also point to a role of anti-platelet or other effects of low-dose aspirin in lymphomagenesis that warrant follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33541DOI Listing
August 2021

Somatic copy number gains in MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 identifies a subset of aggressive alternative-DH/TH DLBCL patients.

Blood Cancer J 2020 11 9;10(11):117. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Double/triple hit lymphoma (DH/TH), known as high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL), is an aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), defined as having concurrent MYC, BCL2, and/or BCL6 gene rearrangements. While gene rearrangements represent significant genetic events in cancer, copy number alterations (CNAs) also play an important role, and their contributions to rearrangements have yet to be fully elucidated. Using FISH and high-resolution CNA data, we defined the landscape of concurrent gene rearrangements and copy gains in MYC, BCL2, and BCL6, in a cohort of 479 newly diagnosed DLBCL. We also show that concurrent translocations and copy number alterations, in combinations similar to DH/TH, identify a unique subset of DLBCL, alternative DH/TH, that have survival outcomes similar to DH/TH DLBCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00382-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652824PMC
November 2020

Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Association Study of Endometrial Cancer and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Identifies Genetic Risk Regions Associated with Risk of Both Cancers.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jan 3;30(1):217-228. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers.

Methods: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e., inverse-variance meta-analysis, colocalization, and M-values) and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data.

Results: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers ( = 0.43, = 2.66 × 10). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers ( < 2.4 × 10). In addition, four novel subgenome-wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12, and 11q13.3 were identified ( < 5 × 10). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines and expression quantitative trait loci data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation.

Conclusions: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis.

Impact: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0739DOI Listing
January 2021

The association of health behaviors with quality of life in lymphoma survivors.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 02 13;62(2):271-280. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The impact of change in health behaviors (physical activity [PA], alcohol and smoking) on quality of life (QOL) in lymphoma survivors is not well understood. We evaluated the associations of health behaviors with QOL domains at diagnosis and at 3-year follow-up (FU3) in 2805 lymphoma survivors. We report clinically significant QOL score differences, defined as scores that exceeded a minimally important difference threshold and were statistically significant. Current smoking was associated with lower QOL at baseline ( < 0.01) and at FU3 ( < 0.01). Meeting the American Cancer Society PA guidelines was associated with better functional wellbeing and overall QOL at FU3 ( < 0.01). An increase in PA from baseline to FU3 was associated with improvement in physical, functional wellbeing and overall QOL at FU3 compared to baseline ( < 0.01). Thus, QOL in lymphoma survivors is associated with their health behaviors and active interventions to promote positive lifestyle changes in lymphoma survivors are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1830389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063513PMC
February 2021

Two-stage Study of Familial Prostate Cancer by Whole-exome Sequencing and Custom Capture Identifies 10 Novel Genes Associated with the Risk of Prostate Cancer.

Eur Urol 2021 Mar 14;79(3):353-361. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Family history of prostate cancer (PCa) is a well-known risk factor, and both common and rare genetic variants are associated with the disease.

Objective: To detect new genetic variants associated with PCa, capitalizing on the role of family history and more aggressive PCa.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A two-stage design was used. In stage one, whole-exome sequencing was used to identify potential risk alleles among affected men with a strong family history of disease or with more aggressive disease (491 cases and 429 controls). Aggressive disease was based on a sum of scores for Gleason score, node status, metastasis, tumor stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, systemic recurrence, and time to PCa death. Genes identified in stage one were screened in stage two using a custom-capture design in an independent set of 2917 cases and 1899 controls.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Frequencies of genetic variants (singly or jointly in a gene) were compared between cases and controls.

Results And Limitations: Eleven genes previously reported to be associated with PCa were detected (ATM, BRCA2, HOXB13, FAM111A, EMSY, HNF1B, KLK3, MSMB, PCAT1, PRSS3, and TERT), as well as an additional 10 novel genes (PABPC1, QK1, FAM114A1, MUC6, MYCBP2, RAPGEF4, RNASEH2B, ULK4, XPO7, and THAP3). Of these 10 novel genes, all but PABPC1 and ULK4 were primarily associated with the risk of aggressive PCa.

Conclusions: Our approach demonstrates the advantage of gene sequencing in the search for genetic variants associated with PCa and the benefits of sampling patients with a strong family history of disease or an aggressive form of disease.

Patient Summary: Multiple genes are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) among men with a strong family history of this disease or among men with an aggressive form of PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.07.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881048PMC
March 2021

Development and Validation of the Gene Expression Predictor of High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Molecular SubTYPE (PrOTYPE).

Clin Cancer Res 2020 10 17;26(20):5411-5423. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose: Gene expression-based molecular subtypes of high-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer (HGSOC), demonstrated across multiple studies, may provide improved stratification for molecularly targeted trials. However, evaluation of clinical utility has been hindered by nonstandardized methods, which are not applicable in a clinical setting. We sought to generate a clinical grade minimal gene set assay for classification of individual tumor specimens into HGSOC subtypes and confirm previously reported subtype-associated features.

Experimental Design: Adopting two independent approaches, we derived and internally validated algorithms for subtype prediction using published gene expression data from 1,650 tumors. We applied resulting models to NanoString data on 3,829 HGSOCs from the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. We further developed, confirmed, and validated a reduced, minimal gene set predictor, with methods suitable for a single-patient setting.

Results: Gene expression data were used to derive the predictor of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma molecular subtype (PrOTYPE) assay. We established a standard as a consensus of two parallel approaches. PrOTYPE subtypes are significantly associated with age, stage, residual disease, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and outcome. The locked-down clinical grade PrOTYPE test includes a model with 55 genes that predicted gene expression subtype with >95% accuracy that was maintained in all analytic and biological validations.

Conclusions: We validated the PrOTYPE assay following the Institute of Medicine guidelines for the development of omics-based tests. This fully defined and locked-down clinical grade assay will enable trial design with molecular subtype stratification and allow for objective assessment of the predictive value of HGSOC molecular subtypes in precision medicine applications..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572656PMC
October 2020

Targeting of inflammatory pathways with R2CHOP in high-risk DLBCL.

Leukemia 2021 02 5;35(2):522-533. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma, and front line therapies have not improved overall outcomes since the advent of immunochemotherapy. By pairing DNA and gene expression data with clinical response data, we identified a high-risk subset of non-GCB DLBCL patients characterized by genomic alterations and expression signatures capable of sustaining an inflammatory environment. These mutational alterations (PIM1, SPEN, and MYD88 [L265P]) and expression signatures (NF-κB, IRF4, and JAK-STAT engagement) were associated with proliferative signaling, and were found to be enriched in patients treated with RCHOP that experienced unfavorable outcomes. However, patients with these high-risk mutations had more favorable outcomes when the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide was added to RCHOP (R2CHOP). We are the first to report the genomic validation of a high-risk phenotype with a preferential response towards R2CHOP therapy in non-GCB DLBCL patients. These conclusions could be translated to a clinical setting to identify the ~38% of non-GCB patients that could be considered high-risk, and would benefit from alternative therapies to standard RCHOP based on personalized genomic data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0766-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483252PMC
February 2021

Compliance with cancer screening and influenza vaccination guidelines in non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors.

J Cancer Surviv 2020 06 2;14(3):316-321. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose: Compliance with US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) age-appropriate cancer screening and immunization guidelines in lymphoma survivors is not known. We sought to measure compliance in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) survivors and identify any differences based on patient, disease, and treatment characteristics.

Methods: Eligible NHL survivors were identified from the Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) prospective cohort study. Survivors self-reported colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer screening and influenza immunization in a questionnaire 3 years post-diagnosis (FU3). The USPSTF guidelines were used to define compliance. Chi-square tests were used to compare characteristics of compliant versus non-compliant survivors.

Results: A total of 1833 MER participants from 2005 to 2012 completed a FU3. Rates of breast and prostate cancer screening were 96% and 72%, respectively. No differences in compliance based on patient or disease characteristics or treatment were observed. Ninety-two percent of survivors were compliant with colorectal cancer screening. Older age, indolent lymphoma histology, and 2008-2012 year of diagnosis were associated with higher compliance. Eighty-two percent of survivors were compliant with influenza vaccination and older age was associated with higher compliance.

Conclusion: NHL survivors have high compliance with USPSTF recommendations for cancer screening and immunization. Survivors who are younger or have aggressive lymphomas are less likely to meet the colorectal cancer screening guidelines. Older survivors are more likely to receive influenza vaccination.

Implications For Cancer Survivors: Measures to further improve preventive care for NHL survivors, especially those younger in age, are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11764-019-00846-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261247PMC
June 2020

Coverage profile correction of shallow-depth circulating cell-free DNA sequencing via multidistance learning.

Pac Symp Biocomput 2020 ;25:599-610

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Sciences, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55901, USA,

Shallow-depth whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) is a popular approach for non-invasive genomic screening assays, including liquid biopsy for early detection of invasive tumors as well as non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for common fetal trisomies. In contrast to nuclear DNA WGS, ccfDNA WGS exhibits extensive inter- and intra- sample coverage variability that is not fully explained by typical sources of variation in WGS, such as GC content. This variability may inflate false positive and false negative screening rates of copy-number alterations and aneuploidy, particularly if these features are present at a relatively low proportion of total sequenced content. Herein, we propose an empirically-driven coverage correction strategy that leverages prior annotation information in a multi-distance learning context to improve within-sample coverage profile correction. Specifically, we train a weighted k-nearest neighbors-style method on non-pregnant female donor ccfDNA WGS samples, and apply it to NIPS samples to evaluate coverage profile variability reduction. We additionally characterize improvement in the discrimination of positive fetal trisomy cases relative to normal controls, and compare our results against a more traditional regression-based approach to profile coverage correction based on GC content and mappability. Under cross-validation, performance measures indicated benefit to combining the two feature sets relative to either in isolation. We also observed substantial improvement in coverage profile variability reduction in leave-out clinical NIPS samples, with variability reduced by 26.5-53.5% relative to the standard regression-based method as quantified by median absolute deviation. Finally, we observed improvement discrimination for screening positive trisomy cases reducing ccfDNA WGS coverage variability while additionally improving NIPS trisomy screening assay performance. Overall, our results indicate that machine learning approaches can substantially improve ccfDNA WGS coverage profile correction and downstream analyses.
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February 2021

Human Pegivirus Infection and Lymphoma Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 08;71(5):1221-1228

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Human pegivirus (HPgV) is a single-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae. Although no definitive association between HPgV infection and disease has been identified, previous studies have suggested an association of HPgV viremia with risk of lymphomas.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, including 1 cohort study and 14 case-control studies, assessing the association of HPgV viremia with adult lymphomas. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, overall and by geographic region and lymphoma subtype.

Results: The overall OR for lymphoma was 2.85 (95% CI, 1.98-4.11), with statistically significantly elevated ORs observed in 8 of 15 studies. There was a small amount of heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 28.9%; Q = 18.27, P = .16), and the funnel plot provided no evidence for publication bias. The strongest association with lymphoma risk was observed for studies from Southern Europe (OR, 5.68 [95% CI, 1.98-16.3]), whereas weaker ORs (with 95% CIs) were observed for studies from North America (2.24 [1.76-2.85]), Northern Europe (2.90 [.45-18.7), and the Middle East (2.51 [.87-7.27]), but all of similar magnitude. Participants with HPgV viremia had statistically significantly increased risks (OR [95% CI]) for developing diffuse large B-cell (3.29 [1.63-6.62]), follicular (3.01 [1.95-4.63]), marginal zone (1.90 [1.13-3.18]), and T-cell (2.11 [1.17-3.89]) lymphomas, while the risk for Hodgkin lymphoma (3.53 [.48-25.9]) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (1.45 [.45-4.66]) were increased but did not achieve statistical significance.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis supports a positive association of HPgV viremia with lymphoma risk, overall and for the major lymphoma subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442854PMC
August 2020

Developmental subtypes assessed by DNA methylation-iPLEX forecast the natural history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Blood 2019 08 10;134(8):688-698. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, and.

Alterations in global DNA methylation patterns are a major hallmark of cancer and represent attractive biomarkers for personalized risk stratification. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) risk stratification studies typically focus on time to first treatment (TTFT), time to progression (TTP) after treatment, and overall survival (OS). Whereas TTFT risk stratification remains similar over time, TTP and OS have changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies, such as the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib. We have shown that genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in CLL are strongly associated with phenotypic differentiation and patient outcomes. Here, we developed a novel assay, termed methylation-iPLEX (Me-iPLEX), for high-throughput quantification of targeted panels of single cytosine guanine dinucleotides from multiple independent loci. Me-iPLEX was used to classify CLL samples into 1 of 3 known epigenetic subtypes (epitypes). We examined the impact of epitype in 1286 CLL patients from 4 independent cohorts representing a comprehensive view of CLL disease course and therapies. We found that epitype significantly predicted TTFT and OS among newly diagnosed CLL patients. Additionally, epitype predicted TTP and OS with 2 common CLL therapies: chemoimmunotherapy and ibrutinib. Epitype retained significance after stratifying by biologically related biomarkers, immunoglobulin heavy chain mutational status, and ZAP70 expression, as well as other common prognostic markers. Furthermore, among several biological traits enriched between epitypes, we found highly biased immunogenetic features, including IGLV3-21 usage in the poorly characterized intermediate-programmed CLL epitype. In summary, Me-iPLEX is an elegant method to assess epigenetic signatures, including robust classification of CLL epitypes that independently stratify patient risk at diagnosis and time of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019000490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6706807PMC
August 2019

A combination of the immunohistochemical markers CK7 and SATB2 is highly sensitive and specific for distinguishing primary ovarian mucinous tumors from colorectal and appendiceal metastases.

Mod Pathol 2019 12 25;32(12):1834-1846. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Inst Clinical Scienses, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Primary ovarian mucinous tumors can be difficult to distinguish from metastatic gastrointestinal neoplasms by histology alone. The expected immunoprofile of a suspected metastatic lower gastrointestinal tumor is CK7/CK20/CDX2/PAX8. This study assesses the addition of a novel marker SATB2, to improve the diagnostic algorithm. A test cohort included 155 ovarian mucinous tumors (105 carcinomas and 50 borderline tumors) and 230 primary lower gastrointestinal neoplasms (123 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 107 appendiceal neoplasms). All cases were assessed for SATB2, PAX8 CK7, CK20, and CDX2 expression on tissue microarrays. Expression was scored in a 3-tier system as absent, focal (1-50% of tumor cells) and diffuse ( >50% of tumor cells) and then categorized into either absent/present or nondiffuse/diffuse. SATB2 and PAX8 expression was further evaluated in ovarian tumors from an international cohort of 2876 patients (expansion cohort, including 159 mucinous carcinomas and 46 borderline mucinous tumors). The highest accuracy of an individual marker in distinguishing lower gastrointestinal from ovarian mucinous tumors was CK7 (91.7%, nondiffuse/diffuse cut-off) followed by SATB2 (88.8%, present/absent cut-off). The most effective combination was CK7 and SATB2 with accuracy of 95.3% using the 3-tier interpretation, absent/focal/diffuse. This combination outperformed the standard clinical set of CK7, CK20 and CDX2 (87.5%). Re-evaluation of outlier cases confirmed ovarian origin for all but one case. The accuracy of SATB2 was confirmed in the expansion cohort (91.5%). SATB2 expression was also detected in 15% of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma but less than 5% of other ovarian histotypes. A simple two marker combination of CK7 and SATB2 can distinguish lower gastrointestinal from ovarian primary mucinous tumors with greater than 95% accuracy. PAX8 and CDX2 have value as second-line markers. The utility of CK20 in this setting is low and this warrants replacement of this marker with SATB2 in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0302-0DOI Listing
December 2019

Late Relapses in Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With Immunochemotherapy.

J Clin Oncol 2019 07 6;37(21):1819-1827. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

1 Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose: In patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), most relapses occur within the first 2 years of diagnosis. We sought to define the rate and outcome of late relapses that occurred after achieving event-free survival at 24 months (EFS24).

Methods: We prospectively followed 1,324 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL from 2002 to 2015 and treated with immunochemotherapy. Cumulative incidences of late DLBCL and indolent lymphoma relapses were analyzed as competing events. Postrelapse survival was defined as time from first relapse to death from any cause.

Results: In 847 patients who achieved EFS24, the cumulative incidence of late relapse was 6.9% at 3 years, 9.3% at 5 years, and 10.3% at 8 years after EFS24. The incidence of DLBCL relapse was similar in patients with DLBCL alone at diagnosis (6.3% at 5 years), compared with patients with concurrent indolent lymphoma at diagnosis (5.2%; = .46). However, the rate of indolent lymphoma relapse was higher in patients with concurrent indolent lymphoma (7.4% 2.1% at 5 years; < .01). In patients with DLBCL alone, the rate of DLBCL relapse was similar in the germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) (4.1% at 5 years) and non-GCB (4.0%; = .71) subtypes, whereas the rate of indolent lymphoma relapse was higher in patients with the GCB subtype (3.9% 0.0% at 5 years; = .02). Postrelapse survival was inferior for patients who relapsed with DLBCL than for those who relapsed with indolent lymphoma (median 29.9 months unreached; < .01).

Conclusion: Patients with DLBCL with a concurrent indolent lymphoma and those with the GCB subtype had a higher rate of late relapse, owing to increased relapses with indolent lymphoma. Patients who relapsed with DLBCL had a worse prognosis than those who relapsed with indolent lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001527PMC
July 2019

Impact of metformin use on the outcomes of newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2019 09 28;186(6):820-828. Epub 2019 May 28.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The diabetes mellitus (DM) drug metformin targets mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibits lymphoma growth in vitro. We investigated whether metformin affected outcomes of newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL, n = 869) and follicular lymphoma (FL, n = 895) patients enrolled in the Mayo component of the Molecular Epidemiology Resource cohort study between 2002 and 2015. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, prognostic index and treatment were used to estimate the association of metformin exposure (No DM/No metformin; DM/No metformin; DM/Metformin) with event-free (EFS), lymphoma-specific (LSS) and overall (OS) survival. Compared to No DM/No metformin DLBCL patients, there was no association of DM/Metformin (n = 48; HR = 1·05, 95% CI 0·59-1·89) or DM/No metformin(n = 54; HR = 1·41, 95% CI 0·88-2·26) with EFS; results were similar for LSS and OS. Compared to No DM/No metformin FL patients, there was no association of DM/Metformin (n = 37; HR = 1·16, 95% CI 0·71-1·89) or DM/No metformin (n = 19; HR = 1·16, 95% CI 0·66-2·04) with EFS; results were similar for LSS. However, DM/Metformin was associated with inferior OS (HR = 2·17; 95% CI 1·19-3·95) compared to No DM/No metformin. In conclusion, we found no evidence that metformin use was associated with improved outcomes in newly diagnosed DLBCL and FL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731132PMC
September 2019

Evaluation of vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway target genes reveals UGT2A1/2 and EGFR polymorphisms associated with epithelial ovarian cancer in African American Women.

Cancer Med 2019 05 18;8(5):2503-2513. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6536963PMC
May 2019

An expanded variant list and assembly annotation identifies multiple novel coding and noncoding genes for prostate cancer risk using a normal prostate tissue eQTL data set.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(4):e0214588. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, SW, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America.

Prostate cancer (PrCa) is highly heritable; 284 variants have been identified to date that are associated with increased prostate cancer risk, yet few genes contributing to its development are known. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies link variants with affected genes, helping to determine how these variants might regulate gene expression and may influence prostate cancer risk. In the current study, we performed eQTL analysis on 471 normal prostate epithelium samples and 249 PrCa-risk variants in 196 risk loci, utilizing RNA sequencing transcriptome data based on ENSEMBL gene definition and genome-wide variant data. We identified a total of 213 genes associated with known PrCa-risk variants, including 141 protein-coding genes, 16 lncRNAs, and 56 other non-coding RNA species with differential expression. Compared to our previous analysis, where RefSeq was used for gene annotation, we identified an additional 130 expressed genes associated with known PrCa-risk variants. We detected an eQTL signal for more than half (n = 102, 52%) of the 196 loci tested; 52 (51%) of which were a Group 1 signal, indicating high linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the peak eQTL variant and the PrCa-risk variant (r2>0.5) and may help explain how risk variants influence the development of prostate cancer.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214588PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453468PMC
December 2019

The utility of prognostic indices, early events, and histological subtypes on predicting outcomes in non-follicular indolent B-cell lymphomas.

Am J Hematol 2019 06 10;94(6):658-666. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Division Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplantation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Indolent B-cell lymphomas other than follicular lymphoma account for up to 10% of all B-cell neoplasms. While they typically follow a slowly progressive course, some patients experience rapid progression and early mortality. Prognostic scoring systems have not been adopted, hindering the ability of clinicians or researchers to predict outcomes, or risk-stratify patients during clinical trials. To address this, we evaluated the utility of existing prognostic indices and novel, early disease-related outcomes, to predict subsequent long term survival. Baseline characteristics and outcomes data were generated from a longitudinal cohort study that prospectively enrolled 632 patients newly diagnosed with marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, or B-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified, beginning in 2002. The International Prognostic Index (IPI), Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI), and MALT International prognostic index (MALT-IPI) demonstrated c-statistics that ranged from 0.593-0.612 for event-free survival (EFS), and 0.683-0.714 for overall survival (OS). Patients who attained event-free survival at 12 months (EFS12) experienced similar mortality to the US general population (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] 1.19; 95% CI 0.95-1.46). Patients who did not attain EFS12 had subsequent worse morality (SMR 3.14 (95% CI 2.05-4.59). The MALT-IPI demonstrated utility in predicting subsequent long-term outcomes among patients with non-follicular indolent B-cell lymphomas. This index should be used by clinicians giving guidance to patients at the time of initial diagnosis, and risk stratification during clinical studies. The divergent long-term outcomes experienced by patients who do or do not attain EFS12 suggest there exists a subset of patients who harbor high-risk disease. Future research efforts should focus on methods to identify these patients at the time of diagnosis, in order to enable risk-tailored therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137349PMC
June 2019

Molecular signatures of X chromosome inactivation and associations with clinical outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 04;28(8):1331-1342

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a key epigenetic gene expression regulatory process, which may play a role in women's cancer. In particular tissues, some genes are known to escape XCI, yet patterns of XCI in ovarian cancer (OC) and their clinical associations are largely unknown. To examine XCI in OC, we integrated germline genotype with tumor copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation information from 99 OC patients. Approximately 10% of genes showed different XCI status (either escaping or being subject to XCI) compared with the studies of other tissues. Many of these genes are known oncogenes or tumor suppressors (e.g. DDX3X, TRAPPC2 and TCEANC). We also observed strong association between cis promoter DNA methylation and allele-specific expression imbalance (P = 2.0 × 10-10). Cluster analyses of the integrated data identified two molecular subgroups of OC patients representing those with regulated (N = 47) and dysregulated (N = 52) XCI. This XCI cluster membership was associated with expression of X inactive specific transcript (P = 0.002), a known driver of XCI, as well as age, grade, stage, tumor histology and extent of residual disease following surgical debulking. Patients with dysregulated XCI (N = 52) had shorter time to recurrence (HR = 2.34, P = 0.001) and overall survival time (HR = 1.87, P = 0.02) than those with regulated XCI, although results were attenuated after covariate adjustment. Similar findings were observed when restricted to high-grade serous tumors. We found evidence of a unique OC XCI profile, suggesting that XCI may play an important role in OC biology. Additional studies to examine somatic changes with paired tumor-normal tissue are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625007PMC
April 2019

The association of physical activity before and after lymphoma diagnosis with survival outcomes.

Am J Hematol 2018 12 17;93(12):1543-1550. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

The impact of physical activity (PA) on lymphoma survival is not known. The association of PA and change in PA with overall (OS), lymphoma-specific (LSS) and event-free (EFS) survival was evaluated in a prospective cohort of newly diagnosed lymphoma patients (2002-2012). We calculated Leisure Score Indexes (mLSI) from the self-reported usual adult PA (baseline) and at 3-years post-diagnosis (FU3), grouping patients by active vs insufficiently active by the American Cancer Society PA guidelines. Associations of PA with survival were assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox models stratified by lymphoma subtype, adjusted for age, sex, baseline BMI, and comorbidity score with change scores further adjusted for baseline PA. Three thousand sixty participants were evaluable at baseline and 1371 at FU3. Active patients had superior survival from baseline [HR (CI): OS 0.82 (0.72-0.94); LSS 0.74 (0.61-0.90); EFS 0.92 (0.82-1.02)] and FU3 [HR (CI): OS 0.64 (0.46-0.88); LSS 0.32 (0.18-0.59); EFS 0.82 (0.61-1.10)] compared to insufficiently active. An increase in mLSI from baseline to FU3 (vs stable mLSI) was associated with superior OS (HR = 0.70, CI 0.49-1.00) and LSS (HR = 0.49, CI 0.26-0.94).The continuous change in mLSI at FU3 was significantly associated with OS, LSS and EFS; maintained across subgroups and appeared linear. Higher PA among lymphoma patients at diagnosis and 3 years is significantly associated with OS, LSS, and EFS. Increasing PA after diagnosis is significantly associated with improved OS and LSS supporting an important role for PA in lymphoma survivorship and the need for intervention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386179PMC
December 2018

Comparison of tumor staging systems for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Mar 27;80(3):639-645. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are at increased risk for poor outcomes as a result of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC).

Objective: To compare the relative effectiveness of tumor staging systems for CSCC in a well-defined cohort of patients with CLL.

Methods: This retrospective outcomes study included 454 CSCC tumors among 161 patients with underlying CLL who were evaluated at a single academic medical center. Each tumor was staged according to Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), Union for International Cancer Control eighth edition (UICC8), and American Joint Committee on Cancer seventh edition (AJCC7) and eighth edition (AJCC8) criteria. We compared the effectiveness of tumor risk stratification according to each system.

Results: The BWH tumor staging system demonstrated superior risk stratification relative to the AJCC7 criteria (C-index, 0.725 vs 0.615; P = .036) and trended toward improved stratification relative to the AJCC8 (C-index, 0.796 vs 0.732; P = .214) and UICC8 (C-index, 0.725 vs 0.636; P = .096) staging systems.

Limitations: Our study must be interpreted in the context of its retrospective design and relatively small number of adverse outcomes available for statistical analysis.

Conclusions: The BWH system outperformed the AJCC7 criteria and trended toward superior risk stratification relative to both the AJCC8 and UICC8 criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2018.08.018DOI Listing
March 2019

Autoimmune cytopenias in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with ibrutinib in routine clinical practice at an academic medical centre.

Br J Haematol 2018 11 16;183(3):421-427. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The effects of ibrutinib on the natural history of autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) among chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients treated in routine clinical practice require further investigation. Using the Mayo Clinical CLL Database, 193 CLL patients treated with ibrutinib between November 2013 and January 2017 outside the context of a clinical trial were identified; complete review of their medical records was performed for details of past history of AIC and treatment-emergent AIC. We identified 29/193 (15%) patients with history of AIC prior to ibrutinib start. Of 12 patients requiring AIC therapy at ibrutinib start, 8 (67%) were able to discontinue or de-escalate AIC treatment, and no patient had worsening of their AIC after initiating ibrutinib. Eleven (6%) patients developed treatment-emergent AIC after a median of 59 (range, 6-319) days following the initiation of ibrutinib, 7 of whom (64%) were able to continue ibrutinib. Overall and event-free survival from time of ibrutinib start were not significantly different between patients with history of AIC and those with no history of AIC. Treatment-emergent AIC were seen exclusively in patients with unmutated IGHV and were associated with a shorter EFS. These results suggest a low rate of treatment-emergent AIC and improvement in patients with existing AIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234062PMC
November 2018

Association of p16 expression with prognosis varies across ovarian carcinoma histotypes: an Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium study.

J Pathol Clin Res 2018 10 21;4(4):250-261. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC, USA.

We aimed to validate the prognostic association of p16 expression in ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) and to explore it in other ovarian carcinoma histotypes. p16 protein expression was assessed by clinical-grade immunohistochemistry in 6525 ovarian carcinomas including 4334 HGSC using tissue microarrays from 24 studies participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. p16 expression patterns were interpreted as abnormal (either overexpression referred to as block expression or absence) or normal (heterogeneous). CDKN2A (which encodes p16) mRNA expression was also analyzed in a subset (n = 2280) mostly representing HGSC (n = 2010). Association of p16 expression with overall survival (OS) was determined within histotypes as was CDKN2A expression for HGSC only. p16 block expression was most frequent in HGSC (56%) but neither protein nor mRNA expression was associated with OS. However, relative to heterogeneous expression, block expression was associated with shorter OS in endometriosis-associated carcinomas, clear cell [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02, 95% confidence (CI) 1.47-2.77, p < 0.001] and endometrioid (HR: 1.88, 95% CI 1.30-2.75, p = 0.004), while absence was associated with shorter OS in low-grade serous carcinomas (HR: 2.95, 95% CI 1.61-5.38, p = 0.001). Absence was most frequent in mucinous carcinoma (50%), and was not associated with OS in this histotype. The prognostic value of p16 expression is histotype-specific and pattern dependent. We provide definitive evidence against an association of p16 expression with survival in ovarian HGSC as previously suggested. Block expression of p16 in clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma should be further validated as a prognostic marker, and absence in low-grade serous carcinoma justifies CDK4 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjp2.109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174617PMC
October 2018

Human Pegivirus infection and lymphoma risk and prognosis: a North American study.

Br J Haematol 2018 09 29;182(5):644-653. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa and Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, IA, USA.

We evaluated the association of Human Pegivirus (HPgV) viraemia with risk of developing lymphoma, overall and by major subtypes. Because this virus has also been associated with better prognosis in the setting of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus, we further assessed the association of HPgV with prognosis. We used risk factor data and banked plasma samples from 2094 lymphoma cases newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2009 and 1572 frequency-matched controls. Plasma samples were tested for HPgV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and those with RNA concentrations <5000 genome equivalents/ml were confirmed using nested RT-PCR methods. To assess the role of HPgV in lymphoma prognosis, we used 2948 cases from a cohort study of newly diagnosed lymphoma patients (included all cases from the case-control study). There was a positive association of HPgV viraemia with risk of lymphoma overall (Odds ratio = 2·14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·63-2·80; P < 0·0001), and for all major subtypes except Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, and this was not confounded by other lymphoma risk factors. In contrast, there was no association of HPgV viraemia with event-free survival (Hazard ratio [HR] = 1·00; 95% CI 0·85-1·18) or overall survival (HR = 0·97; 95% CI 0·79-1·20) for lymphoma overall, or any of the subtypes. These data support the hypothesis for a role of HPgV in the aetiology of multiple lymphoma subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108902PMC
September 2018

Genomic Analysis Using Regularized Regression in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

Cancer Inform 2018 1;17:1176935118755341. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is a complex disease in which initiation and progression have been associated with copy number alterations, epigenetic processes, and, to a lesser extent, germline variation. We hypothesized that, when summarized at the gene level, tumor methylation and germline genetic variation, alone or in combination, influence tumor gene expression in HGSOC. We used Elastic Net (ENET) penalized regression method to evaluate these associations and adjust for somatic copy number in 3 independent data sets comprising tumors from more than 470 patients. Penalized regression models of germline variation, with or without methylation, did not reveal a role in HGSOC gene expression. However, we observed significant association between regional methylation and expression of 5 genes (, and ). CpGs retained in ENET model for BRCA2 and ZNF283 appeared enriched in several regulatory elements, suggesting that regularized regression may provide a novel utility for integrative genomic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1176935118755341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5802704PMC
February 2018

Network-directed cis-mediator analysis of normal prostate tissue expression profiles reveals downstream regulatory associations of prostate cancer susceptibility loci.

Oncotarget 2017 Oct 8;8(49):85896-85908. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Division of Laboratory Genetics, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with risk of prostate cancer. Many of these genetic variants are presumed to be regulatory in nature; however, follow-up expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) association studies have to-date been restricted largely to -acting associations due to study limitations. While -eQTL scans suffer from high testing dimensionality, recent evidence indicates most -eQTL associations are mediated by -regulated genes, such as transcription factors. Leveraging a data-driven gene co-expression network, we conducted a comprehensive -mediator analysis using RNA-Seq data from 471 normal prostate tissue samples to identify downstream regulatory associations of previously identified prostate cancer risk variants. We discovered multiple -eQTL associations that were significantly mediated by -regulated transcripts, four of which involved risk locus 17q12, proximal transcription factor , and target -genes with known HNF response elements (, , , ). We additionally identified evidence of -acting down-regulation of via rs10993994 corresponding to reduced co-expression of . The majority of these -mediator relationships demonstrated -eQTL replicability in 87 prostate tissue samples from the Gene-Tissue Expression Project. These findings provide further biological context to known risk loci and outline new hypotheses for investigation into the etiology of prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.20717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5689655PMC
October 2017