Publications by authors named "Melanie S Reece"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Postprandial Triglycerides Predict Newborn Fat More Strongly than Glucose in Women with Obesity in Early Pregnancy.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2018 08 22;26(8):1347-1356. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Objective: Maternal obesity (OB) accounts for the majority of large-for-gestational-age infants, and newborn percent fat (NB%fat) correlates strongest with childhood OB. In addition to maternal glucose, fasting triglycerides (TGs) may contribute, but postprandial triglycerides (PPTGs) are unstudied. It was hypothesized that fasting TGs and PPTGs are higher in women with OB compared with women with normal weight (NW) throughout pregnancy, correlate more strongly with NB%fat than glucose, and may relate to dietary chylomicron TGs.

Methods: Fasting TGs and PPTGs, free fatty acids, glucose, and insulin were prospectively measured 10 times over 4 hours after a controlled liquid breakfast early (14-16 weeks) and later (26-28 weeks) in pregnancy in 27 mothers with NW and 27 with OB. NB%fat was measured by dual x-ray absorptometry.

Results: Fasting TGs and PPTGs were already ≥ 30% higher in mothers with OB at 14 to 16 weeks (P < 0.001) versus mothers with NW. In mothers with OB, a simple 1-hour (r = 0.71; P < 0.01) or 2-hour (r = 0.69; P < 0.01) PPTG at 14 to 16 weeks correlated strongest with NB%fat. In mothers with NW, the increase in TGs from early to later pregnancy correlated strongest with NB%fat (r = 0.57; P < 0.01). Maternal glucose did not statistically add to prediction models.

Conclusions: These novel data suggest that 1- or 2-hour PPTGs might be a new target for early intervention in pregnancies with OB to prevent excess newborn adiposity and attenuate child OB risk.
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August 2018

Can Fetal Limb Soft Tissue Measurements in the Third Trimester Predict Neonatal Adiposity?

J Ultrasound Med 2016 Sep 14;35(9):1915-24. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado USA.

Objectives: Neonatal adiposity is associated with chronic metabolic sequelae such as diabetes and obesity. Identifying fetuses at risk for excess neonatal body fat may lead to research aimed at limiting nutritional excess in the prenatal period. We sought to determine whether fetal arm and leg soft tissue measurements at 28 weeks' gestation were predictive of neonatal percent body fat METHODS : In this prospective observational cohort study of singleton term pregnancies, we performed sonography at 28 and 36 weeks' gestation, including soft tissue measurements of the fetal arm and thigh (fractional limb volume and cross-sectional area). We estimated the neonatal body composition (percent body fat) using anthropometric measurements and air displacement plethysmography. We estimated Spearman correlations between sonographic findings and percent body fat and performed modeling to predict neonatal percent body fat using maternal characteristics and sonographic findings.

Results: Our analysis of 44 women yielded a mean maternal age of 30 years, body mass index of 26 kg/m(2), and birth weight of 3382 g. Mean neonatal percent body fat was 8.1% by skin folds at birth and 12.2% by air displacement plethysmography 2 weeks after birth. Fractional thigh volume measurements at 28 weeks yielded the most accurate model for predicting neonatal percent body fat (R(2) = 0.697; P = .001), outperforming models that used abdominal circumference (R(2)= 0.516) and estimated fetal weight (R(2)= 0.489).

Conclusions: Soft tissue measurements of the fetal thigh at 28 weeks correlated better with neonatal percent body fat than currently used sonographic measurements. After validation in a larger cohort, our models may be useful for prenatal intervention strategies aimed at the prevention of excess fetal fat accretion and, potentially, optimization of long-term metabolic health.
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September 2016

The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods.

Biomed Res Int 2015 27;2015:123078. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Objective: DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods.

Design: This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day.

Setting: Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Population: 871 pregnant women aged 18-40 were recruited between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants.

Methods: Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education.

Main Outcome Variable: Gestational length.

Results: Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0-4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7%) in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day) was significantly lower than in controls.

Conclusion: Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length.
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August 2016

Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Randomized to a Higher-Complex Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Manifest Lower Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, Glucose, and Free Fatty Acids: A Pilot Study.

Diabetes Care 2016 Jan 29;39(1):39-42. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO.

Objective: Diet therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has focused on carbohydrate restriction but is poorly substantiated. In this pilot randomized clinical trial, we challenged the conventional low-carbohydrate/higher-fat (LC/CONV) diet, hypothesizing that a higher-complex carbohydrate/lower-fat (CHOICE) diet would improve maternal insulin resistance (IR), adipose tissue (AT) lipolysis, and infant adiposity.

Research Design And Methods: At 31 weeks, 12 diet-controlled overweight/obese women with GDM were randomized to an isocaloric LC/CONV (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein; n = 6) or CHOICE (60%/25%/15%; n = 6) diet. All meals were provided. AT was biopsied at 37 weeks.

Results: After ∼7 weeks, fasting glucose (P = 0.03) and free fatty acids (P = 0.06) decreased on CHOICE, whereas fasting glucose increased on LC/CONV (P = 0.03). Insulin suppression of AT lipolysis was improved on CHOICE versus LC/CONV (56 vs. 31%, P = 0.005), consistent with improved IR. AT expression of multiple proinflammatory genes was lower on CHOICE (P < 0.01). Infant adiposity trended lower with CHOICE (10.1 ± 1.4 vs. 12.6 ± 2%, respectively).

Conclusions: A CHOICE diet may improve maternal IR and infant adiposity, challenging recommendations for a LC/CONV diet.
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January 2016

Continuous glucose profiles in obese and normal-weight pregnant women on a controlled diet: metabolic determinants of fetal growth.

Diabetes Care 2011 Oct 20;34(10):2198-204. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Objective: We sought to define 24-h glycemia in normal-weight and obese pregnant women using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) while they consumed a habitual and controlled diet both early and late in pregnancy.

Research Design And Methods: Glycemia was prospectively measured in early (15.7 ± 2.0 weeks' gestation) and late (27.7 ± 1.7 weeks' gestation) pregnancy in normal-weight (n = 22) and obese (n = 16) pregnant women on an ad libitum and controlled diet. Fasting glucose, triglycerides (early pregnancy only), nonesterified fatty acids (FFAs), and insulin also were measured.

Results: The 24-h glucose area under the curve was higher in obese women than in normal-weight women both early and late in pregnancy despite controlled diets. Nearly all fasting and postprandial glycemic parameters were higher in the obese women later in pregnancy, as were fasting insulin, triglycerides, and FFAs. Infants born to obese mothers had greater adiposity. Maternal BMI (r = 0.54, P = 0.01), late average daytime glucose (r = 0.48, P < 0.05), and late fasting insulin (r = 0.49, P < 0.05) correlated with infant percentage body fat. However, early fasting triglycerides (r = 0.67, P < 0.001) and late fasting FFAs (r = 0.54, P < 0.01) were even stronger correlates.

Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that obese women without diabetes have higher daytime and nocturnal glucose profiles than normal-weight women despite a controlled diet both early and late in gestation. Body fat in infants, not birth weight, was related to maternal BMI, glucose, insulin, and FFAs, but triglycerides were the strongest predictor. These metabolic findings may explain higher rates of infant macrosomia in obese women, which might be targeted in trials to prevent excess fetal growth.
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October 2011