Wollo University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences
Dessie, Amhara | Ethiopia
Main Specialties: Clinical & Laboratory Immunology, Epidemiology, Infectious Disease, Medical Microbiology, Public Health
Additional Specialties: MSc. in Medical Microbiology
I have graduated in MSc in Medical Microbiology from Mekelle University, Ethiopia; and I am a lecturer and health researcher in Wollo University, Dessie Ethiopia.
I have a keen interest in research and community service activities regarding infectious disease, microbial drug resistance and disease epidemiology.
Primary Affiliation: Wollo University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences - Dessie, Amhara , Ethiopia
Royal Society of Chemistry. 2019 Aug pp.481-516
Royal Society of Chemistry
Although high numbers of novel antibiotics are available in the market currently, it is still a challenge to treat intracellular pathogens. These therapeutic agents always need to be used in high doses, as their antibiotic concentrations are often sub-therapeutic. This is expensive and results in adverse systemic and localized side effects. The current rising threat of antibiotic resistance further complicates the treatment of intracellular pathogenic diseases. As a result, there is a crucial need for methods and systems that enable physicians to attain therapeutically effective intracellular concentrations of those antibiotics. In this scenario, the use of drug delivery systems carrying antibiotics showing targeted and effective antibacterial activity in vitro need to be considered and given due attention. Incorporating or encapsulating antibacterial drugs within these unique drug delivery systems offers better control of pharmacokinetic behavior of the active bactericidal molecule. Such new and advanced methods will replace old conventional antibiotics, which are becoming unusable due to resistance or toxicity. They are vital in rescuing the last-line therapeutic antibiotics through advancing the therapeutic index, broadening the antibiotic antimicrobial spectrum and avoiding failure due to membrane permeability problems, and thus shortening the current time required by classical treatments and reducing the extent of drug resistance. Hence, new and improved drug carriers have been established for treating intracellular pathogens, including antibiotics loaded into hydrogels, liposomes, micelles, polymeric carriers, and metal nanoparticles. This chapter focuses on the role of a drug delivery system as a potential tool against intracellular bacterial pathogens.
Public Health International. 2016 Nov 17;1(1):19-27.
Public Health International
Sexual Behavior and Risk Perception of HIV Infection among Young Students of Wollo University, Dessie Campus: A Cross Sectional Study Melaku Ashagrie1, Selamyhun Tadesse2, Fikir Alebachew3 1Department of Medical Laboratory, Dessie Health Science College, Dessie, Ethiopia 2Department of Medical Laboratory, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia 3Department of Nursing, Dessie Health Science College, Dessie, Ethiopia Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org (Melaku Ashagrie), email@example.com (Selamyhun Tadesse), firstname.lastname@example.org (Fikir Alebachew) Abstract: In Wollo University, Dessie Campus, as in many other Ethiopian towns, cities, universities and other settings of the world too, the sexual behaviors and self-assessment of the risk of HIV infection of young university students will strongly influence the course of HIV/AIDS. This study was conducted to assess the extent of risky sexual behaviors and factors that influences the risk perception of HIV infection in young students (17-29 years) of Wollo University, Dessie Campus from February 2010 - June 2010. A cross-sectional study design was applied to conduct the study. A total of 338 students in the age group 17-29 were selected using systematic random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire with key informants was the tool used to collect the required data from the study participants. From the total of 334 respondents, 236 (70.7%) were males and the remaining 98 (29.3%) were females. About 117 (35%) of the study participants were sexually experienced. Of these, 85 (72.6% had sex only with one partner, about 48.8% used condom consistently, about 27.4% had multiple sexual partners and 37.6 of the respondents did not use condom; and 19.1% of male and 8.2% of female respondents perceive themselves to have a medium chance of getting HIV. In general, female respondents were considerably more likely than males to report themselves at a higher risk of HIV infection. Sex, age at first sex, the number of life time partner, age difference with sex partners, condom use, taking HIV test, are found to be the predictors of risk perception of HIV infection among young students of Wollo University, Dessie Campus. Risk perception about HIV/AIDS was inconsistent with sexual behaviors the students encounter. Even though the majority of the respondents in this study perceived themselves as being at low or no risk of HIV infection; results from their reported sexual behavior indicate that a significant proportion of the respondents involve in risky sexual activities that could expose them to HIV infection and as a result distort their risk perception. Keywords: Sexual behavior, risk perception, HIV infection, young university students 1. Introduction Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is an age group that undergoes rapid physical, mental and social changes that place its life at risk. Consequently, most of the adolescents are exposed to casual sexual practices which predispose them to unwanted pregnancy, child bearing at early age, high risk abortion, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease, unemployment and criminal acts. This stage of development is highly exposed to risky sexual behaviors like early sexual intercourse, unprotected sex, having multiple sexual partners, and will distort the individuals risk perception towards HIV/AIDS . HIV/AIDS pandemic is now a global crisis. It constitutes one of the most formidable challenges to development and social progress. It poses significant treats in the world with impacts that will be felt for many decades in the future. In the most affected countries the pandemic is eroding decades of development gains, undermining economies, threatening security and destabilizing the society especially the working young population. AIDS remains the most serious of infectious disease that challenge the public health. It is a leading cause of mortality worldwide and the primary cause of death in Sub Saharan Africa, illustrating the tremendous long term challenge that lies ahead for provision of treatment services with the hugely disproportionate impact on Sub Saharan Africa . The pandemic killed more than 25 million people globally. There are 33.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world today. Everyday over 6800 persons become infected with HIV and over 5700 persons are dying from AIDS. In 2007 alone 2.1 million people died of AIDS and 2.5 million were newly infected by HIV . The sub-Saharan region continues to be the region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Hence out of the 10% of the world's population that are living in Sub-Sahara Africa, 68% adults and nearly 90% of children infected with HIV are found in this region (i.e. over two-third of the global total). Estimates have also shown that in sub Saharan Africa, there were about 1.7 million newly infected people and roughly 1.6 million deaths (76% of the global death) of AIDS only in 2007 . Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 are the most threatened by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Globally, half of all the new cases of HIV infection are among young people (17-29). Sub Saharan Africa is home to 62% of these young people living with HIV . Besides this, women are at least 1.2 times at greater risk of infection than men. The ratio is highest among young people aged 15-24 year, where 75% of those infected are girls. And young girls are found to be 2.5 times more infected with HIV than young men . Ethiopia is among the Sub-Sahara African countries where the HIV/AIDS epidemic is at a critical phase and has become a threat for the country's overall socio economic development. Ethiopia is one of the countries highly affected by the epidemic and has become the third largest population of HIV infected people living in Africa, which represents about 9% of the world's HIV/AIDS cases . Currently, the HIV prevalence in Ethiopia is estimated to be 3.5% (10.5% among urban and 1.9% among rural population). The estimated HIV incidence was 0.26% in 2005, while the projected incidence rate shows a rising trend up to 2010 where it will be 0.28% . At the regional level, the Amhara region is one of the regions with the highest prevalence of HIV (4.5%) only next to the two administrative cities, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa and the dominantly urban region (Harari); which have a prevalence rate of 11.7 percent, 6.8 percent, and 5.2 percent respectively. In the region, the urban prevalence is 13.5% only next to the urban prevalence of Afar region (14.1 percent), while the rural prevalence is 3.2. In general, the region has the highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the country (i.e. 33.7% of the total number of people living with HIV/AIDS . Thus it is important to study the sexual behavior of people, especially; young adults who are at great risk of getting and spreading the epidemic and give appropriate recommendations that could help in preventing the epidemic. 2. Methods and materials: 2.1. Study Area and Period The study was conducted in Amhara region, Wollo University, Dessie Campus. The university is selected for this study because it is one of the newly established universities of the country which ever has no such assessment data. Dessie Campus is preferred since it has a high number of students when compared with the other campus of the University which is Kombolcha campus. Wollo University, Dessie campus is found in Amhara region North East Ethiopia around Dessie town which is 401k.m from Addis Ababa. The university is about 4.5k.m from Dessie town in the northern direction. It has latitude and longitude of 11o8׳N, 39o38׳E respectively with an elevation between 2470m and 2550m above sea level. It lies on a horizontal grass land nearby Tossa Mountain. The weather condition in the campus is cold ranging from 14-18oC. The University is established recently having only one batch graduated. The university has 41 different departments in its two campuses. There are a total of 2800 students in Dessie Campus of the university. 2.2. Study Design A cross sectional study was conducted. 2.3. Study population All regular students in Wollo University, Dessie Campus during the study period were the source population. Students under the age 17-29 years who were attending course in Wollo University Dessie Campus during the study period were the study population. Study subjects were selected from Health Science, Business, Social Science, and Agricultural colleges of the university. Students who were absent during data collection period and not voluntary to participate as well as students who were attending weekend and summer program were excluded. 2.4. Sample Size The sample size is estimated by the following formula: n = Z2 P(1-P) d2 ………………….. (1) Where n= the total sample size Z= the desired level of confidence interval 95%, (Z=1.96) P= sample proportion (50% since there is no study done before in this topic P=0.5). Then 1-P=1-0.5=0.5 d= margin of error, 5% of the value of the key indicator is taken for this study i.e. 0.05 n= 1.962 (0.5) (0.5) (0.05)2