Publications by authors named "Meirong Wang"

45 Publications

Type I Interferon Promotes Humoral Immunity in Viral Vector Vaccination.

J Virol 2021 10 8;95(22):e0092521. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Recombinant viral vectors represent an important platform for vaccine delivery. Our recent studies have demonstrated distinct innate immune profiles in responding to viral vectors of different families (e.g., adenovirus versus poxvirus): while human Ad5 vector is minimally innate immune stimulatory, the poxviral vector ALVAC induces strong innate response and stimulates type I interferon (IFN) and inflammasome activation. However, the impact of the innate immune signaling on vaccine-induced adaptive immunity in viral vector vaccination is less clear. Here, we show that Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), another poxviral vector, stimulated a type I IFN response in innate immune cells through cGAS-STING. Using MVA-HIV vaccine as a model, we found that type I IFN signaling promoted the generation of humoral immunity in MVA-HIV vaccination . Following vaccination, type I IFN receptor-knockout (IFNAR1) mice produced significantly lower levels of total and HIV gp120-specific antibodies compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Consistent with the antibody response, a type I IFN signaling deficiency also led to reduced levels of plasma cells and memory-like B cells compared to WT mice. Furthermore, analysis of vaccine-induced CD4 T cells showed that type I IFN signaling also promoted the generation of a vaccine-specific CD4 T-cell response and a T follicular helper (Tfh) response in mice. Together, our data indicate a role for type I IFN signaling in promoting humoral immunity in poxviral vector vaccination. The study suggests that modulating type I IFN and its associated innate immune pathways will likely affect vaccine efficacy. Viral vectors, including MVA, are an important antigen delivery platform and have been commonly used in vaccine development. Understanding the innate host-viral vector interactions and their impact on vaccine-induced immunity is critical but understudied. Using MVA-HIV vaccination of WT and IFNAR1 mice as a model, we report that type I IFN signaling promotes humoral immunity in MVA vaccination, including vaccine-induced antibody, B-cell, and Tfh responses. Our findings provide insights that not only add to our basic understanding of host-viral vector interactions but also will aid in improving vaccine design by potentially modulating type I IFN and its associated innate immune pathways in viral vector vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00925-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8549508PMC
October 2021

Development of a competency model for general practitioners after standardized residency training in China by a modified Delphi method.

BMC Fam Pract 2021 08 26;22(1):171. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of General Practice, School of General Practice and Continuing Education, Capital Medical University, No. 10, Xitoutiao, You An Men Wai, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: The "5 + 3" residency training is the main stream general practitioner training program in China. However, a competency model is absent for evaluating the clinical competence attained by general practitioners after training. This study was conducted to develop a consensus set of competencies for general practitioners after standardized residency training in China.

Methods: A modified Delphi process was deployed to develop the competency model, including two stages: (1) generation of an initial set of competencies derived from literature review, behavioral observation of GP-patient consultations, and critical incidents interview of GPs; (2) a 2-round, web-based Delphi survey of experts in general practice, selected using purposive sampling, to prioritize and gain consensus on the essential competencies of GPs.

Results: From literature review, behavioral observation, and critical incidents interview, 46 competencies in 7 domains were identified. After two rounds of Delphi survey of 28 participants (the mean age was 47.9 [9.3] years and 64.3% were women) representing a range of health professionals (GPs, managers, and researchers), a consensus was reached on 50 competencies categorized into 7 domains.

Conclusion: A consensus-based competency model for general practitioners in China has been identified which may be used to evaluate the general practitioners' clinical competence after standardized training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-021-01508-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8390270PMC
August 2021

Comparison of the caregivers' and community health professionals' views on home health care services for disabled older adults: a cross-sectional study in Beijing, China.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 26;21(1):389. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of General Practice and Continuing Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: In an era of an increasingly ageing society, part of healthcare for older adults can be provided in patients' homes, and the need for home health care services (HHCSs) is increasing. This study sought to determine whether a gap exists between the views of community health professionals and the caregivers of disabled older adults towards HHCSs in Beijing, China.

Methods: A cross-sectional study with two comparative questionnaire surveys was conducted in Beijing, China. One survey was administered to the caregivers of disabled older adults, and the other was administered to health professionals in community health service institutions (CHSIs). T-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to explore potential differences between the views of caregivers and community health professionals towards HHCSs.

Results: We received 370 valid questionnaires from caregivers and 224 questionnaires from health professionals. Of the 370 caregivers, 314 (84.9%) were willing to apply for HHCSs for the older adults, but only 20.5% (N = 76) received HHCSs. Over 80% of the caregivers accepted out-of-pocket costs less than 100 yuan per visit. Caregivers' demands on home nursing services were significantly higher than those of health guidance services (Z = - 7.725, P < 0.001). Most of the 224 health professionals chose "health professionals' personal safety cannot be guaranteed" as a problem limiting the provision of HHCSs (N = 151, 40.8%). The health professionals' attitudes towards home nursing services were significantly less positive than those towards health guidance services (Z = - 10.081, P < 0.001). For home nursing services, health professionals' attitude scores were lower than the caregivers' demand scores (Z = - 4.960, P < 0.001), while for health guidance services, health professionals' attitude scores were higher than the caregivers' demand scores (Z = - 8.373, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Gaps exist between the views of caregivers and health professionals on HHCSs. Compared to health professionals with a higher willingness to provide health guidance services, caregivers need home nursing services. Feasible policies should be implemented to safeguard the rights and interests of health professionals, and qualified health professionals should be trained for HHCSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06400-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077684PMC
April 2021

Construction and Immunological Evaluation of an Adenoviral Vector-Based Vaccine Candidate for Lassa Fever.

Viruses 2021 03 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Laboratory of Vaccine and Antibody Engineering, Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing 100071, China.

Lassa virus (LASV) is a rodent-borne arenavirus circulating in West African regions that causes Lassa fever (LF). LF is normally asymptomatic at the initial infection stage, but can progress to severe disease with multiorgan collapse and hemorrhagic fever. To date, the therapeutic choices are limited, and there is no approved vaccine for avoiding LASV infection. Adenoviral vector-based vaccines represent an effective countermeasure against LASV because of their safety and adequate immunogenicity, as demonstrated in use against other emerging viral infections. Here, we constructed and characterized a novel Ad5 (E1-, E3-) vectored vaccine containing the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) of LASV. Ad5-GPC elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice. Moreover, a bioluminescent imaging-based BALB/c mouse model infected with GPC-bearing and luciferase-expressing replication-incompetent LASV pseudovirus was utilized to evaluate the vaccine efficacy. The bioluminescence intensity of immunized mice was significantly lower than that of control mice after being inoculated with LASV pseudovirus. This study suggests that Ad5-GPC represents a potential vaccine candidate against LF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13030484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001012PMC
March 2021

Health education services utilization and its determinants among migrants: a cross-sectional study in urban-rural fringe areas of Beijing, China.

BMC Fam Pract 2021 01 16;22(1):23. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

School of General Practice and Continuing Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: Domestic migration poses a challenge for China as migrants have little access to preventive healthcare services and are vulnerable to certain risks and diseases. This research sought to unveil and explore the determinant factors associated with health education utilization as a key aspect in basic public health services for migrants in Beijing, China.

Methods: A sample of 863 inter-provincial migrants, 18 years old and above, was selected by three-stage stratified cluster sampling method in urban-rural fringe areas of Beijing during 2016 to 2017. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in the questionnaire survey. The effects of the explanatory variables on health education utilization from predisposing, enabling, health behaviors and need variables were used to demonstrate by Anderson health service utilization model.

Results: The study revealed that 61.6% migrants desired to receive health education, while only 53.8% of them received in the past year. There were differences in the utilization and needs of health education among the migrants in different ages and genders. Many migrants desired to gain access to various types of health education information from the internet. Chi-square independence test lists such major determinant factors in migrants whole health education as age, "Hukou" registration system, marital status, education level, long-term residence plan in Beijing, one or more children in Beijing, employment status, housing source, average daily working time, exercises, health knowledge, smoking, self-rated health. The binary logistic regression indicates that the migrants with younger age, high education level, one or more children in Beijing, exercises and good self-rated health were more likely to receive whole health education. The results also show that average daily working time of enabling variables and exercise of health behavior variables were the strong and consistent determinants of three types of health education utilization, including communicable, non-communicable and occupational diseases.

Conclusion: Gaps exist between the needs and utilization in health education and more attention should be given to the migrants with heavy workload and low education level. Feasible policies and measures, such as multiple health information channels, should be vigorously implemented to ensure equitable and easy access to health education for migrants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-021-01368-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811350PMC
January 2021

Ultrasound-guided internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve block on postoperative sore throat: A randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2020 20;15(11):e0241834. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Anesthesia, ChanCheng Center Hospital, Foshan, China.

Introduction: Ultrasound-guided internal branch of the upper laryngeal nerve block (USG-guided iSLN block) have been used to decrease the perioperative stress response of intubation. It is more likely to be successful than blindly administered superior laryngeal nerve blocks with fewer complications. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of USG-guided iSLN block to treat postoperative sore throat (postoperative sore throat, POST) after extubation.

Methods: 100 patients, aged from 18 to 60 years old, ASA I~II who underwent general anesthesia and suffered from the moderate to severe postoperative sore throat after extubation were randomized into two groups(50 cases per group). Patients in group S received USG-guided iSLN block bilaterally (60mg of 2% lidocaine, 1.5ml each side), whereas those in group I received inhalation with 100 mg of 2% lidocaine and 1mg of budesonide suspension diluted with normal saline (oxygen flow 8 L /min, inhalation for 15 minutes). The primary outcome were VAS scores in both groups before treatment (T0), 10 min (T1), 30 min(T2), 1h(T3), 2 h(T4), 4h(T5), 8h(T6), 24h(T7), and 48h(T8) after treatment. The secondary outcome were satisfaction scores after treatment, MAP, HR, and SPO2 fromT0 to T8. The adverse reactions such as postoperative chocking or aspiration, cough, hoarseness, dyspnea were also observed in both groups.

Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score than that in group I at points of T1 ~ T6 (P < 0.01). HR of group S was lower than that of group I at points of T1 ~ T2and T4 (P < 0.05), and MAP was lower than that of group I at points of T1 ~ T3 (P < 0.05). Satisfaction scores of group S were higher than that of group I (P <0.05), In group S, 2 case (4%) needed to intravenous Flurbiprofen Injection 50 mg to relieve pain; in group I, 13 cases (26%) received Flurbiprofen Injection. 2 case of group S appeared throat numbness after treatment for 3 hours; 2 patients have difficult in expectoration after treatment recovered after 3hour. No serious adverse events were observed in both groups.

Conclusion: Compared with inhalation, USG-guided iSLN block may effectively relieve the postoperative sore throat after extubation under general anesthesia and provided an ideal treatment for POST in clinical work.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241834PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679017PMC
January 2021

Awareness, utilization and influencing factors of social supports for main informal caregivers of schizophrenia patients: a cross-sectional study in primary care settings in Beijing, China.

BMC Fam Pract 2020 09 17;21(1):192. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

School of General Practice and Continuing Education, Capital Medical University, Fengtai district, No. 10, You An Men Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: Most schizophrenia patients are supported by main informal caregivers at home in China. This study aims to investigate the further needs of social supports for main informal caregivers of schizophrenia patients and to analyze influencing factors on the awareness and utilization of social supports in Beijing. The results of this study could potentially act as reference for health professionals to implement appropriate and effective support programs.

Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used in this study. Awareness, utilization and influencing factors of social supports for main informal caregivers were investigated using questionnaires in 6 urban districts in Beijing. Meanwhile, individual in-depth interviews with 10 main informal caregivers from the urban districts of Beijing were conducted to identify the caregivers' perspective on social supports and their further needs.

Results: Quantitative results showed that although the government provided multi-channel resources for schizophrenia patients and their families, awareness and utilization of the resources such as rehabilitation and relevant subsidies were less than 10.0 and 5.0% respectively. Most caregivers in in-depth interviews expressed that they had negative experiences with respect to obtaining social supports, and they emphasized that more support would be needed in terms of financial support, respect, and rehabilitation institutions.

Conclusions: The awareness and utilization of social supports are low for main informal caregivers of schizophrenia patients. More services and improved public attitudes are needed for schizophrenia patients and their caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-020-01257-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496203PMC
September 2020

Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus quality indicators in general practice by a modified Delphi method in Beijing, China.

BMC Fam Pract 2020 07 19;21(1):146. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Department of General Practice, School of General Practice and Continuing Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: The service capacity of primary care has improved in China. General practice also takes growing responsibility in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but there are concerns about the paucity of evidence of the quality of care delivered. And there is an absence of systematic quality indicators of type 2 diabetes mellitus in general practice in China. This study aimed to develop a set of type 2 diabetes mellitus quality indicators to facilitate quality measurement in general practice in China.

Methods: Preliminary quality indicators were generated and refined by literature review and an expert consultation meeting. Two rounds of email-based Delphi survey and a consensus meeting were carried out to identify quality indicators. Delphi questionnaires with 43 indicators were sent to 30 participants in the first round. There were 16 general practitioners and 10 community health service center leaders from primary care, 3 endocrinologists and a primary care researcher in the first round. And 27 out of the 30 participants participated in the second round. The consensus meeting was held among 9 participants to refine the indicators and a last round of rating was carried out in the meeting. The indicators were rated in terms of importance and feasibility. The agreement criteria were defined as median ≥ 7.0 and ≥ 85.0% of ratings in the 7-9 tertile for importance; median ≥ 7.0 and ≥ 65.0, 70.0, 75.0% of ratings in the 7-9 tertile for feasibility respectively in the three rounds of rating.

Results: After 2 rounds of Delphi survey and the consensus meeting, total 38 indicators achieved consensus for inclusion in the final set of indicators. The final set of indicators were grouped into 7 domains: access (5 indicators), monitoring (12 indicators), health counseling (7 indicators), records (2 indicators), health status (7 indicators), patient satisfaction (2 indicators) and self-management (3 indicators).

Conclusions: A set of 38 potential quality indicators of type 2 diabetes mellitus in general practice were identified by an iterative Delphi process in Beijing, China. Preliminary approach for measurement and data collection were described. However, the indicators still need to be validated by testing in a further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-020-01215-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370510PMC
July 2020

MxB impedes the NUP358-mediated HIV-1 pre-integration complex nuclear import and viral replication cooperatively with CPSF6.

Retrovirology 2020 06 29;17(1):16. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Virology/Institute of Medical Virology/Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Allergy & Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Background: The human myxovirus resistance 2 (Mx2/MxB) protein was originally found to regulate cytoplasmic-nuclear transport but was recently reported to restrict HIV-1 replication by binding to HIV-1 capsid (CA), preventing uncoating, the nuclear import of pre-integration complex (PIC) and viral DNA integration. This work explores the mechanisms of MxB-mediated HIV-1 inhibition.

Results: We demonstrated that MxB represses NUP358-mediated PIC nuclear import and HIV-1 replication. Moreover, MxB's effects on PIC nuclear import and HIV-1 replication depend critically on cofactor cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 6 (CPSF6). MxB binds nucleoporin NUP358, blocks NUP358-CA interaction, thereby impeding the nuclear import of HIV-1 PIC with CPSF6 binding to PIC. More intriguingly, CPSF6's role in nuclear import depends on MxB, being a facilitator of HIV-1 nuclear import on its own, but becoming an inhibitor when MxB is present.

Conclusions: Our work establishes that MxB impedes the NUP358-mediated HIV-1 nuclear import and viral replication cooperatively with CPSF6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-020-00524-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322711PMC
June 2020

Knowledge, attitudes and skills of dementia care in general practice: a cross-sectional study in primary health settings in Beijing, China.

BMC Fam Pract 2020 05 16;21(1):89. Epub 2020 May 16.

School of General Practice and Continuing Education, Capital Medical University, No. 10, You An Men Wai Xi Tou Tiao, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: General practitioners (GPs) play a significant role in dementia care. However, the knowledge and attitudes of them towards dementia care are poorly characterized. The present study aimed to investigate GPs' knowledge, attitudes and skills of dementia care in primary health settings in Beijing.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 27 community health service centers (CHSCs) in Beijing. The GPs' knowledge, attitudes and skills were assessed utilizing the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), Dementia Care Attitude Scale (DCAS) and self-designed questionnaire, respectively.

Results: A total of 341 participants returned the questionnaire. The overall mean score of GPs' dementia knowledge measured by the ADKS was 21.42 (SD = 2.73) out of 30 (71.4%), GPs' attitudes to dementia care was 36.25 (SD = 5.12) out of 50 (72.5%), and GPs' self-confidence on dementia care skills was 53.93 (SD = 9.57) out of 75 (71.9%). GPs' overall knowledge towards dementia care was limited and the attitudes were generally positive. They had low level recognition of their roles towards dementia care. The majority of GPs believed that dementia care was within a specialist's domain not that of general practice.

Conclusion: GPs demonstrate low levels of dementia knowledge and skills, but express generally positive attitudes towards dementia in this study. It is much needed to translate detailed dementia care handbook, and adequate dementia knowledge training for GPs into practice to improve care outcomes for people with dementia in China. In addition, dementia management should be covered in the national basic package of public health services in primary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-020-01164-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231407PMC
May 2020

Fc-Based Recombinant Henipavirus Vaccines Elicit Broad Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Mice.

Viruses 2020 04 23;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Vaccine and Antibody Engineering, Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing, China.

The genus (HNVs) includes two fatal viruses, namely Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). Since 1994, NiV and HeV have been endemic to the Asia-Pacific region and responsible for more than 600 cases of infections. Two emerging HNVs, Ghana virus (GhV) and Mojiang virus (MojV), are speculated to be associated with unrecognized human diseases in Africa and China, respectively. Despite many efforts to develop vaccines against henipaviral diseases, there is presently no licensed human vaccine. As HNVs are highly pathogenic and diverse, it is necessary to develop universal vaccines to prevent future outbreaks. The attachment enveloped glycoprotein (G protein) of HNVs mediates HNV attachment to the host cell's surface receptors. G proteins have been used as a protective antigen in many vaccine candidates for HNVs. We performed quantitative studies on the antibody responses elicited by the G proteins of NiV, HeV, GhV, and MojV. We found that the G proteins of NiV and HeV elicited only a limited cross-reactive antibody response. Further, there was no cross-protection between MojV, GhV, and highly pathogenic HNVs. We then constructed a bivalent vaccine where the G proteins of NiV and HeV were fused with the human IgG1 Fc domain. The immunogenicity of the bivalent vaccine was compared with that of monovalent vaccines. Our results revealed that the Fc-based bivalent vaccine elicited a potent antibody response against both NiV and HeV. We also constructed a tetravalent Fc heterodimer fusion protein that contains the G protein domains of four HNVs. Immunization with the tetravalent vaccine elicited broad antibody responses against NiV, HeV, GhV, and MojV in mice, indicating compatibility among the four antigens in the Fc-fusion protein. These data suggest that our novel bivalent and tetravalent Fc-fusion proteins may be efficient candidates to prevent HNV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232446PMC
April 2020

A global coexpression network of soybean genes gives insights into the evolution of nodulation in nonlegumes and legumes.

New Phytol 2019 09 25;223(4):2104-2119. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Center of Integrative Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430070, China.

A coexpression network is a powerful tool for revealing genes' relationship with many biological processes. Mass transcriptomic and genomic data from different plant species provide the foundation for understanding the evolution of nodulation across the Viridiplantae at a systematic level. We used weighted coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to mine a nodule-related module (NRM) in Glycine max. Comparative genomic analysis of 78 green plant species revealed that NRM genes are recruited from different evolutionary nodes along with gene duplication events. A set of core coexpressed genes within legumes may play vital roles in regulating nodule environments essential for nitrogen fixation, including oxygen concentrations, sulfur transport, and iron homeostasis (such as GmCHY). The regulation of these genes occurred mainly at the transcription level, although some of them, such as sulfate transporters, may also undergo positive selection at protein level. We revealed that ancient orthologs and duplication events before the origin of legumes were preadapted for symbiosis. Conserved coregulated genes found within legumes paved the way for nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. These findings provide significant insights into the evolution of nodulation and indicate promising candidates for identifying other key components of legume nodulation and nitrogen fixation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15845DOI Listing
September 2019

Safe trapping of cesium into doping-enhanced pollucite structure by geopolymer precursor technique.

J Hazard Mater 2019 04 10;367:577-588. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Institute for Advanced Ceramics, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, PR China; Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural-Functional Integration Materials & Green Manufacturing Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, PR China.

Safe trapping of radioactive nuclear waste such as Cs has become a grim issue with the popularity of nuclear power and the growing yield of nuclear waste. To address this intractable problem, pollucite has been screened out as an ideal material for the long-term storage of Cs due to its low leaching rate and good chemical and thermal stability. With an effort to further enhance its immobilization capability and practical values, we herein report a robust route to prepare pollucite from ion-doped geopolymer at low temperature (≤1000 °C), achieving high Cs content (33.37 wt.%) and the lowest leaching rate of Cs (2.51 × 10 g m d) to date. Meanwhile, the leaching mechanism of Cs in pollucite is revealed via leaching tests coupled with SEM-EDS analysis. Therefore, this contribution may provide an alternative route to preparing pollucite and open up new possibilities in the immobilization of Cs for real-world applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.01.013DOI Listing
April 2019

The needs of informal caregivers and barriers of primary care workers toward dementia management in primary care: a qualitative study in Beijing.

BMC Fam Pract 2018 12 20;19(1):201. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

School of General Practice and Continuing Education, Capital Medical University, No.10 Xitoutiao, You An Men, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: Informal caregivers of people with dementia in Beijing are increasingly called upon to provide home-based care for their patients due to the increasing number of dementia patients and the shortage of standardized institutional solutions of care for patients in China. This study aimed to clarify the needs of informal caregivers and barriers of primary care workers toward dementia management in primary care in Beijing to provide references that may help to improve the care and services provided to individuals with dementia and their family caregivers residing in urban China.

Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used in this study. We performed individual in-depth interviews with 10 informal caregivers. Moreover, we carried out focus group interviews with 29 primary care workers. Content analysis was used to separately identify themes and codes. Discrepancies were discussed until final agreement was achieved.

Results: Three themes representing the core attitudes of informal caregivers and primary care workers were identified: care knowledge and skills, psychological counseling, and collaborative management. Most primary care workers believed that the management of dementia patients in primary care was necessary. However, due to the heavy work load and different medical specialties involved, these workers were unable to manage it.

Conclusions: Professional training focused on dementia for primary care workers should be strengthened. At the same time, the establishment of a community-based dementia team management model that includes specialists, community health service centers (CHSCs), and community committees should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-018-0890-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302289PMC
December 2018

Synthesis of natural product inulavosin via Ga(OTf)-Catalyzed Hetero Diels-Alder Dimerization of salicyl alcohol derivative.

Nat Prod Res 2019 Oct 8;33(20):2911-2916. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

a School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology , Weihai , P. R. China.

Inulavosin, a natural melanogenesis inhibitor, has been synthesized smoothly from readily available and inexpensive starting materials by using a Ga(OTf)-catalyzed room temperature hetero Diels-Alder dimerization of salicyl alcohol derivative and a regioselective phenol monobromination as the key steps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1509338DOI Listing
October 2019

MicroRNA-663b promotes cell proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition by directly targeting SMAD7 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Oct 7;16(4):3129-3134. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of ENT, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, Hubei 430014, P.R. China.

MicroRNAs (miRs) serve important roles in the development of various types of human cancer, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In the present study, the expression levels of miR-663b in NPC were investigated and its role and underlying mechanisms were examined. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess miR-663b expression levels in NPC tissues and C666-1 cells. TargetScan was applied to predict the putative targets of miR-663b and the dual luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the predictions. To investigate the role of miR-663b in NPC, the NPC C666-1 cell line was transfected with miR-663b mimics, miR-663b inhibitors or negative control. The Cell Counting kit-8 assay was performed for cell proliferation detection and western blot analysis was applied to determine the expression levels of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated proteins. Results indicated that when compared with the adjacent normal tissues and the normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, miR-663b expression levels were significantly upregulated in the NPC tissues and the NPC cells (P<0.01). Notably, SMAD7 is a target gene of miR-663b and may be inhibited by miR-663b. Results indicated that NPC cell proliferation was significantly promoted by miR-663b mimics and significantly inhibited by miR-663b inhibitors (P<0.05 and P<0.01). In addition, the results indicated that, when compared with the negative control group the expression levels of E-cadherin were significantly decreased, whereas the expression levels of N-cadherin, Vimentin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly increased in the cells of the miR-663b mimics group (P<0.05 and P<0.01). However, cells in the miR-663b inhibitors group exhibited the opposite effects. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that miR-663b functions as a tumor promoter in NPC via promoting NPC cell proliferation and EMT by directly targeting SMAD7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2018.6576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143915PMC
October 2018

[Regression analysis to select native-like structures from decoys of antigen-antibody docking].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2018 Jun;34(6):993-1001

Institute of Biotechnology, Academy of Military Medical Science, Chinese Academy of Military Sciences, Beijing 100071, China.

Given the increasing exploitation of antibodies in different contexts such as molecular diagnostics and therapeutics, it would be beneficial to unravel properties of antigen-antibody interaction with modeling of computational protein-protein docking, especially, in the absence of a cocrystal structure. However, obtaining a native-like antigen-antibody structure remains challenging due in part to failing to reliably discriminate accurate from inaccurate structures among tens of thousands of decoys after computational docking with existing scoring function. We hypothesized that some important physicochemical and energetic features could be used to describe antigen-antibody interfaces and identify native-like antigen-antibody structure. We prepared a dataset, a subset of Protein-Protein Docking Benchmark Version 4.0, comprising 37 nonredundant 3D structures of antigen-antibody complexes, and used it to train and test multivariate logistic regression equation which took several important physicochemical and energetic features of decoys as dependent variables. Our results indicate that the ability to identify native-like structures of our method is superior to ZRANK and ZDOCK score for the subset of antigen-antibody complexes. And then, we use our method in workflow of predicting epitope of anti-Ebola glycoprotein monoclonal antibody-4G7 and identify three accurate residues in its epitope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.170493DOI Listing
June 2018

Analysis of health service utilization of migrants in Beijing using Anderson health service utilization model.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 06 18;18(1):462. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

The School of General Practice and Continuing Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: Migrants are the unique production of China's urbanization process. They are often excluded from social welfare and security systems of cities, and often exposed to high health risk related closely to their health problems. This research sought to unveil and explore the influencing factors on health services utilization of migrants in Beijing.

Methods: A sample of 2014 inter-provincial migrants and 4578 residents with Beijing "Hukou" who were 15 years old and above was chosen by three-stage stratified cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted via face-to-face interviews. Anderson health service utilization model was used to demonstrate the effects of the explanatory variables on health seeking behavior from predisposing, enabling and need variables.

Results: The study reveals that the rate of 'having symptoms' of migrants was lower than that of residents with "Hukou" only in the group of 25 to 34 years old in the past month. 503 migrants (25.0%) and 1441 (31.5%) residents with "Hukou" reported at least one episode of discomfort in the past month, and the rate of health service seeking behavior among migrants (46.8%) was lower than residents with "Hukou" (62.6%) (P < 0.0001). Chi-square independence test shows that age, ethnicity, employment status, having chronic disease and the degree of symptom were the major determinants affecting migrants to receive health services. The binary logistic regression indicates that the degree of symptom as the need variable and ethnicity as the predisposing variable were the strong and consistent determinants of health services seeking behavior. The migrants with moderate degree and severe degree of symptom in the past month were at 1.623-times (OR = 1.623) and 5.035-times (OR = 5.035) higher chances of seeking health services respectively, comparing to mild degree of symptom. Minority migrants were less likely to seek health services than Han migrants (OR = 0.282).

Conclusions: The results indicate that the current health delivery system is not conducive for migrants to seek appropriate health services. Relevant policies and feasible measures, including increasing the coverage of health insurance and improving the health perception of migrants should be vigorously implemented to provide affordable health services and change health service utilization behaviors for migrants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3271-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6006712PMC
June 2018

Optical amplification of Airy beams by photorefractive two-wave mixing.

Opt Express 2018 Mar;26(6):7281-7287

We propose and demonstrate nonlinear amplifications of self-accelerating Airy beams by two-wave mixing in photorefractive crystals both numerically and experimentally. By employing a broad Gaussian beam as the pump beam, we show that weak signal Airy beams can be significantly amplified under both diffusion and drift mechanisms. It is revealed that not only higher optical gains but also faster response time can be achieved in the presence of an external electric field, where the drift mechanism dominates. We verify that the self-accelerating and self-healing characteristics of the Airy beams are well preserved during the nonlinear amplification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.007281DOI Listing
March 2018

Correlation of microRNA profiles with disease risk and severity of allergic rhinitis.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2018 1;11(3):1791-1802. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Otolaryngology Heard and Neck Surgery, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430000, China.

To explore the correlation of microRNA (miRNA) profiles with disease risk and severity in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). miRNA expression profiles in nasal mucosa samples from 8 AR patients and 8 matched non-atopic controls were detected by microarray. Twelve differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) in microarray analysis were further validated in nasal mucosa samples from 48 AR patients and 50 controls by qPCR assay. Individual nasal symptom score (INSS) and total nasal symptom score (TNSS) were used to evaluated the disease severity of AR. AR patients could be distinguished from controls according to the principal component analysis (PCA) plot analysis in the microarray, and 27 down-regulated and 51 up-regulated DEMs were identified by volcano plot. qPCR validation disclosed that miR-126-5p, miR-19a-5p and miR-26a-5p expression was up-regulated in AR patients compared with controls. Multivariate logistic regression displayed that miR-126-5p, miR-19a-5p and miR-26a-5p are independent predictive factors for AR risk, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis exhibited that the combination of miR-126-5p, miR-19a-5p and miR-26a-5p predicts the risk of AR with a high area under curve (AUC) of 0.866 (95% CI: 0.797-0.936). In addition, expression of miR-126-5p, miR-19a-5p and miR-181c-3p were positively correlated with TNSS. Therefore, miRNA profiles distinguish AR patients from controls and the combination of miR-126-5p, miR-19a-5p and miR-26a-5p could serve as novel biomarker for AR risk.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6958134PMC
March 2018

Interactions of WRKY15 and WRKY33 transcription factors and their roles in the resistance of oilseed rape to Sclerotinia infection.

Plant Biotechnol J 2018 04 9;16(4):911-925. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

National Key Lab of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Rapeseed Improvement in Wuhan, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

WRKY transcription factors are known to participate in the defence responses of higher plants. However, little is known about the roles of such proteins, especially regarding their functions in the resistance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes stem rot. In this study, we identified BnWRKY33 as a S. sclerotiorum-responsive gene that positively regulates resistance to this pathogen by enhancing the expression of genes involved in camalexin synthesis and genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). We also identified a S. sclerotiorum-responsive region in the promoter of BnWRKY33, which we revealed to be a relatively conserved W-box region in the promoters of homologous genes in different species. Using this S. sclerotiorum-responsive region as bait in a yeast one-hybrid assay, we identified another WRKY transcription factor, BnWRKY15, and observed that both BnWRKY15 and BnWRKY33 could bind to this region. In addition, BnWRKY15 overexpression simultaneously increased the susceptibility of B. napus to S. sclerotiorum and down-regulated BnWRKY33 after different durations of infection. Furthermore, BnWRKY15, which contains a transcriptional repression domain, exhibited reduced transactivation ability and could reduce the transactivation ability of BnWRKY33 in Arabidopsis protoplast assays. Therefore, we suggest that the increased susceptibility of BnWRKY15-overexpressing plants results from reduced BnWRKY33 expression, which is due to the inhibition of BnWRKY33 transcriptional activation by BnWRKY15.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867032PMC
April 2018

Non-diffracting optical Bloch oscillations in hexagonal photonic lattices.

Opt Express 2017 Apr;25(7):7475-7482

Light beams undergoing optical Bloch oscillations (OBOs) in two-dimensional (2D) photonic lattices suffer from severe diffraction along the perpendicular direction to the oscillation plane. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate that such diffraction could be suppressed in hexagonal photonic lattices via sophisticated managements of the discrete diffraction. By positioning the Fourier spectrum of the beam to a special region in the Brillouin zone, the light driven by the OBO experiences normal and anomalous diffractions alternatively, leading to a non-diffracting propagation for a long distance. We show that non-diffracting OBOs can be implemented not only for Gaussian beam but also for other complex 2D beams including self-accelerating Airy beams and vortex beams. Our results provide novel insights into the diffraction or dispersion engineering of waves in periodic structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.007475DOI Listing
April 2017

Construction of a non-enzymatic sensor based on the poly(o-phenylenediamine)/Ag-NPs composites for detecting glucose in blood.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017 Feb 1;71:844-851. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

A non-enzymatic glucose sensor, based on the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs)/poly (o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) composites, is developed by the electrochemical polymerization of o-phenylenediamine and electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on an indium tin oxide electrode. The Ag-NPs/PoPD composites are characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed glucose sensor demonstrates a wide linear range from 0.15 to 13mmolL with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The proposed glucose sensor can be used to detect glucose in blood sample with a satisfactory result. In addition, the proposed sensor presents the advantages, such as facile preparation, low cost, high sensitivity and fast response time. It also exhibits good anti-interference performance and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.10.080DOI Listing
February 2017

Optical Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling of Airy beams in ionic-type photonic lattices.

Opt Express 2016 Aug;24(16):18332-9

We report on the existence of optical Bloch oscillations (OBOs) and Zener tunneling (ZT) of Airy beams in ionic-type photonic lattices with a refractive index ramp. Different from their counterparts in uniform lattices, Airy beams undergoing OBOs show an alternatively switched concave and convex trajectory as well as a periodical revival of input beam profiles. Moreover, the ionic-type photonic lattice established in photorefractive crystal exhibits a reconfigurable lattice structure, which provides a flexible way to tune the amplitude and period of the OBOs. Remarkably, it is demonstrated that the band gap of the lattice can be readily controlled by rotating the lattice inducing beam, which forces the ZT rate to follow two significant different decay curves amidst decreasing index gradient. Our results open up new possibilities for all-optical switching, routing and manipulation of Airy beams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.018332DOI Listing
August 2016

Ultralong time response of magnetic fluid based on fiber-optic evanescent field.

Appl Opt 2016 Jul;55(21):5585-90

The ultralong time (a few hours) response properties of magnetic fluid using etched optical fiber are visualized and investigated experimentally. The operating structure is made by injecting magnetic fluid into a capillary tube that contains etched single-mode fiber. An interesting extreme asymmetry is observed, in which the transmitted light intensity after the etched optical fiber cannot reach the final steady value when the external magnetic field is turned on (referred to as the falling process), while it can reach the stable state quickly once the magnetic field is turned off (referred to as the rising process). The relationship between the response times/loss rates of the transmitted light and the strength of the applied magnetic field is obtained. The physical mechanisms of two different processes are discussed qualitatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.55.005585DOI Listing
July 2016

Longitudinal spin separation of light and its performance in three-dimensionally controllable spin-dependent focal shift.

Sci Rep 2016 Feb 17;6:20774. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Optical Information Technology, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710129, China.

Spin Hall effect of light, which is normally explored as a transverse spin-dependent separation of a light beam, has attracted enormous research interests. However, it seems there is no indication for the existence of the longitudinal spin separation of light. In this paper, we propose and experimentally realize the spin separation along the propagation direction by modulating the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase. Due to the spin-dependent divergence and convergence determined by the PB phase, a focused Gaussian beam could split into two opposite spin states, and focuses at different distances, representing the longitudinal spin separation. By combining this longitudinal spin separation with the transverse one, we experimentally achieve the controllable spin-dependent focal shift in three dimensional space. This work provides new insight on steering the spin photons, and is expected to explore novel applications of optical trapping, manipulating, and micromachining with higher degree of freedom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep20774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756704PMC
February 2016

Astaxanthin prevents pulmonary fibrosis by promoting myofibroblast apoptosis dependent on Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission.

J Cell Mol Med 2015 Sep 27;19(9):2215-31. Epub 2015 Jun 27.

Medicine Research Center, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, China.

Promotion of myofibroblast apoptosis is a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. This study investigated the antifibrotic effect of astaxanthin on the promotion of myofibroblast apoptosis based on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that astaxanthin can inhibit lung parenchymal distortion and collagen deposition, as well as promote myofibroblast apoptosis. Astaxanthin demonstrated pro-apoptotic function in myofibroblasts by contributing to mitochondrial fission, thereby leading to apoptosis by increasing the Drp1 expression and enhancing Drp1 translocation into the mitochondria. Two specific siRNAs were used to demonstrate that Drp1 is necessary to promote astaxanthin-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in myofibroblasts. Drp1-associated genes, such as Bcl-2-associated X protein, cytochrome c, tumour suppressor gene p53 and p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis, were highly up-regulated in the astaxanthin group compared with those in the sham group. This study revealed that astaxanthin can prevent pulmonary fibrosis by promoting myofibroblast apoptosis through a Drp1-dependent molecular pathway. Furthermore, astaxanthin provides a potential therapeutic value in pulmonary fibrosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.12609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4568926PMC
September 2015

Altered β1,6-GlcNAc and bisecting GlcNAc-branched N-glycan on integrin β1 are associated with early spontaneous miscarriage in humans.

Hum Reprod 2015 Sep 24;30(9):2064-75. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Box 197, No. 1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, PR China

Study Question: Do N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-V) and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) play an important role in early spontaneous miscarriage (ESM) in humans.

Summary Answer: The dynamic balance between GnT-V and GnT-III expression in chorionic villi differed between early normal pregnancy and ESM and was associated with altered β1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (β1,6-GlcNAc) and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (bis-GlcNAc) branched N-glycans on integrin β1.

What Is Known Already: GnT-V contributes to metastasis, while GnT-III is recognized as a metastasis suppressor. It has been reported that GnT-V contributes to placentation in the early phase of pregnancy, possibly regulating trophoblast invasion. However, the expressions of GnT-V and GnT-III in ESM have not been reported.

Study Design, Size, Duration: Villous samples from 6 to 9 weeks of gestation were collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from May 2013 to September 2014 from 60 normal pregnant women undergoing elective termination of pregnancy and from 40 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ESM.

Participants, Materials, Setting, Methods: Quantitative PCR and western blots were used to examine the GnT-V and GnT-III mRNA (Mgat5 and Mgat3) and protein expression, respectively, of chorionic villi in both the ESM group and the normal group from week 6 to week 9. We used immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry to detect the location of GnT-V and GnT-III. Lectin fluorescence and histochemistry were used to test the location of β1,6-GlcNAc and bis-GlcNAc branching in the normal and ESM groups. To assess the functional capacity of GnT-V and GnT-III in the chorionic villi between the two groups, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit to measure the activity of these enzymes. Using co-precipitated integrin α5β1 followed by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-L and PHA-E blotting, we investigated whether GnT-V and GnT-III could modify the N-glycosylation profile in terms of the β1,6-GlcNAc and bis-GlcNAc structures in integrin α5β1 during the first trimester in both groups.

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: In the normal group expression and activity of GnT-V and the concentration of its product, β1,6-GlcNAc were higher at week 9 than at weeks 6, 7 and 8 (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression and activity of GnT-III and the concentration of its product, bis-GlcNAc were higher at week 6 than at weeks 7, 8 and 9 (P < 0.05). Compared with the normal group, the ESM group exhibited a lower expression of GnT-V and β1,6-GlcNAc (P < 0.05) and a higher expression of GnT-III and bis-GlcNAc (P < 0.05) with consistent changes in enzymatic activity. Immunofluorescence showed that GnT-V was located mainly in the cytoplasm of syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs) and chorionic villous cytotrophoblasts (CTBs), in both the ESM group and the normal group. β1,6-GlcNAc N-glycan was mainly located outside of the STB and CTB layer in normal villi and was expressed only rarely in the ESM villi. GnT-III was expressed primarily in the cytoplasm of STBs and expressed only very weakly in the CTBs of normal villi, whereas it was highly expressed in both the STBs and CTBs in the ESM group. bis-GlcNAc was primarily located outside of the STBs in the normal villi, whereas it was expressed much more abundantly outside of both the STBs and CTBs in the ESM group at each week of gestation. Moreover, decreased β1,6-GlcNAc-branched N-glycans and increased bis-GlcNAc-branched N-glycans on integrin β1 (P < 0.05) were observed in the ESM group.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: Our findings provide a new insight for studying the mechanism of clinical ESM in humans and it might be valuable for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of ESM.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: The study lacks experiments in vitro to disclose the precise mechanism by which GnT-V and GnT-III regulate ESM. In some cases, degradation of the tissues after the miscarriage event cannot be ruled out.

Study Funding/competing Interests: This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31271546). The authors have no competing interests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dev153DOI Listing
September 2015

DEHP exposure impairs mouse oocyte cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly through estrogen receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms.

J Hazard Mater 2015 Nov 1;298:232-40. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China. Electronic address:

Estrogen plays an essential role in the development of mammalian oocytes, and recent studies suggest that it also regulates primordial follicle assembly in the neonatal ovaries. During the last decade, potential exposure of humans and animals to estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals has become a growing concern. In the present study, we focused on the effect of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a widespread plasticizer with estrogen-like activity, on germ-cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly in the early ovarian development of mouse. Neonatal mice injected with DEHP displayed impaired cyst breakdown. Using ovary organ cultures, we revealed that impairment was mediated through estrogen receptors (ERs), as ICI 182,780, an efficient antagonist of ER, reversed this DEHP-mediated effect. DEHP exposure reduced the expression of ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR), and Notch2 signaling components. Finally, DEHP reduced proliferation of pregranulosa precursor cells during the process of primordial folliculogenesis. Together, our results indicate that DEHP influences oocyte cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation through several mechanisms. Therefore, exposure to estrogen-like chemicals during fetal or neonatal development may adversely influence early ovarian development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.05.052DOI Listing
November 2015

Evolutionary dynamics of ecological niche in three Rhinogobio fishes from the upper Yangtze River inferred from morphological traits.

Ecol Evol 2015 Feb 7;5(3):567-77. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Wuhan, Hubei, 430072, China ; The Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences Wuhan, Hubei, 430072, China.

In the past decades, it has been debated whether ecological niche should be conserved among closely related species (phylogenetic niche conservatism, PNC) or largely divergent (traditional ecological niche theory and ecological speciation) and whether niche specialist and generalist might remain in equilibrium or niche generalist could not appear. In this study, we employed morphological traits to describe ecological niche and test whether different niche dimensions exhibit disparate evolutionary patterns. We conducted our analysis on three Rhinogobio fish species (R. typus,R. cylindricus, and R. ventralis) from the upper Yangtze River, China. Among the 32 measured morphological traits except body length, PCA extracted the first four principal components with their loading scores >1.000. To find the PNC among species, Mantel tests were conducted with the Euclidean distances calculated from the four principal components (representing different niche dimensions) against the pairwise distances calculated from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations. The results showed that the second and the third niche dimension, both related to swimming ability and behavior, exhibited phylogenetic conservatism. Further comparison on niche breadth among these three species revealed that the fourth dimension of R. typus showed the greatest width, indicating that this dimension exhibited niche generalism. In conclusion, our results suggested that different niche dimensions could show different evolutionary dynamic patterns: they may exhibit PNC or not, and some dimensions may evolve generalism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4328762PMC
February 2015
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