Publications by authors named "Meichen Wang"

37 Publications

Aflatoxin Exposure Among Mothers and Their Infants from the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

Matern Child Health J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Objectives: We examined breast milk of mothers and urine of infants before and after introduction of supplementary foods for aflatoxin M (AFM) and the association between AFM with maternal and infant diet.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among mothers and infants ages 0-6 months and 7-12 months from June-October 2014. Sociodemographic, dietary, birth, and health data were collected. A breast milk sample was collected from each mother and a urine sample from each infant at baseline (time point 1) and monthly for 2 time points thereafter; samples collected at baseline and time point 3 were tested for AFM.

Results: Almost 5% of breast milk and 15.7% of urine samples tested AFM-positive. The median AFM in breast milk was 0.020 ng/mL and in urine 0.077 ng/mg creatinine. At time point 3, infants of 5 of the 6 mothers in each group who were AFM-positive in breast milk were also AFM-positive in urine. Mothers' consumption of cooked maize/maize dough ≥ 3 days per week (OR 2.96, 95% CI = 1.19-7.34) and mothers' consumption of tamales made from maize ≥ 3 days per week (OR 0.28, 95% CI = 0.10-0.73) were significantly associated with AFM in infant urine.

Conclusion: This is the first study in Guatemala documenting aflatoxin exposure in both breast milk of lactating mothers and infants´ urine during the first year of life. This may have important implications in understanding the multicausality of the high rates of stunting among children < 5 years old in Guatemala.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-021-03151-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D with obesity-related indices in Chinese adults: A cross-sectional study.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 26;9(4):2260-2268. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene Peking University Health Science Center Beijing China.

Obesity has been a well-known risk factor of low-level serum vitamin D. Compared with the traditional obesity-related indicator (body mass index, BMI), associations for two novel anthropometric indices, a body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, still remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the associations of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) status with these three obesity-related indices among Chinese adults. A total of 1666 individuals were included. Anthropometric measurements were performed to calculate the indices, and fasting blood was collected to determine serum 25(OH)D deficiency (<12 ng/ml) and insufficiency (12-20 ng/ml). Deficiency or insufficiency of 25(OH)D was found in 37.5% and 43.1% of the participants, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, a significantly increased prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency was observed for higher ABSI (OR 2.334, 95% CI 1.458-3.734;  = 0.002) and BRI (OR 2. 215, 95%CI 1.365-3.594;  = 0.010), and for higher BMI in men. Regarding 25(OH)D insufficiency, a significant association was also found for ABSI (OR 2.372, 95%CI 1.558-3.612;  = 0.001). The area under the ROC of ABSI (0.731, 95%CI 0.687-0.774) for predicting a low level of 25(OH)D was significantly larger than that of BMI (0.695, 95%CI 0.649-0.741) in men, but not in women. A positive association between obesity and lower 25(OH)D serum concentration was found among Chinese adults. Besides BMI, novel obesity-related indicator, ABSI and BRI were associated with lower serum 25(OH)D to some extent, and further studies are needed to clarify their potential to be used as screening tools in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020955PMC
April 2021

Mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles enhanced inactivated PRRSV targeting dendritic cells and increased T cell immunity.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 May 5;235:110237. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Life Science and Technology, Dalian University, Dalian, 116622, PR China; Institute of Immunology, Dalian University, Dalian, 116622, PR China. Electronic address:

The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antigen carrier using mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles with entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in inducing T cell mediated immunity in vitro. Gelatin nanoparticles (GNP) were modified with mannose to form mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles (MnGNP), which can efficiently and specifically target monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). The inactivated PRRSV was encapsulated in the MnGNP and GNP, referred to as MnGNP-PRRSV and GNP-PRRSV, respectively. All these prepared nanometer particles were characterized for size, surface charge, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. The efficacy of MnGNP in targeting MoDCs was investigated, as well as the subsequent MoDCs maturation and T cell mediated cytotoxicity. The developed MnGNP-PRRSV particle was characterized with a nanometric size of 302.67 ± 3.2 nm, surface charge of 23.81 ± 1.26 mV, and PRRSV encapsulation efficiency of 63.2 ± 1.85 %. The maximum uptake of MnGNP in MoDCs in vitro was 15.5 times higher than GNP with a shorter reaction time that peaked 4 h earlier. The uptake of MnGNP-PRRSV induced maturation of MoDCs and significantly enhanced expression of SWC-3a, CD80, CD1, SLA I, SLA II on MoDCs, compared to PRRSV (p < 0.001). The cytokine secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 was also increased in MoDCs when treated with MnGNP-PRRSV, compared to PRRSV (p < 0.05). The matured MoDCs triggered T lymphocytes in autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) activation, proliferation, and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocyte, suggesting increased amount of activated T cells after MnGNP-PRRSV treatment. Additionally, the function of T cells to kill PRRSV infected cells was 83.98 ± 2.62 % when triggered by MnGNP-PRRSV, compared to 60 ± 4.7 % in PRRSV group (p < 0.001). These results indicate that MnGNP with entrapped inactivated PRRSV can effectively and specifically target dendritic cells for maturation and activation, and subsequently improve T cell activation, proliferation and function to kill PRRSV infected cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2021.110237DOI Listing
May 2021

Preparation and Characterization of Graphene from Refined Benzene Extracted from Low-Rank Coal: Based on the CVD Technology.

Molecules 2021 Mar 28;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

CCTEG Shengyang Reserach Institute, Shengyang 110000, China.

Industrial preparation of graphene has been a research hotspot in recent years. Finding an economical and practical carbon source and reducing the cost of production and instrument is significant in industrial graphene production. Coal is a common carbon source. Efficient improvement and utilization in the cleaning of coal has recently been a popular research area. In this study, we developed a set of graphene preparation methods based on Anhui Huainan's low-rank gas coal (HNGC). Using self-built experimental equipment, benzene precursor was prepared from HNGC and used as carbon source to realize graphene growth. The quality of the graphene was characterized by a high-resolution microscope and Raman spectrometer. This study provides a new idea and method for the preparation of low-rank coal-based graphene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037014PMC
March 2021

Edible clay inclusion in the diet of oysters can reduce tissue residues of polychlorinated biphenyls.

Toxicol Environ Health Sci 2020 Dec 3;12(4):355-361. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Objective: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic and persistent environmental pollutants that are readily absorbed and accumulated in high concentrations in fatty tissues of humans and animals. Invertebrate animals, such as oysters, are vulnerable and sensitive to PCB contamination.

Methods: Previously, our in vitro isothermal studies have shown that acid processed montmorillonites (APM) can effectively bind PCBs and Aroclors. Therefore, in a novel application of this work, a dietary strategy for shellfish was developed using APM, and its parent clay to reduce exposures to PCBs in oysters. PCB residues in oysters with clay treatment at different dietary inclusion rates and durations were measured and compared to a washout treatment.

Results: The efficacy and safety of this strategy were supported by a significant reduction of PCB residues with the inclusion of a low level of APM (0.05%) during a 4-day treatment. Moreover, this sorbent strategy reduced PCB residues in oysters in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

Conclusions: Based on our results, it is possible that clay-based sorbents such as APM, can be included in the diet to significantly reduce exposures to PCBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13530-020-00058-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968863PMC
December 2020

Atomic structure and electrical property of ionic liquids at the MoS electrode with varying interlayer spacing.

J Mol Model 2021 Jan 18;27(2):41. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, CAS Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Understanding the structure and properties at the electrolyte-electrode interface is vital for the rational design of the supercapacitors or other electrochemical devices. In this work, we explored the influence of interlayer spacing of the MoS electrode on the interfacial structure and electrical properties of sodium-ionic liquids (ILs) electrolytes via performing the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. From the number density, charge density, and electrical potential distribution near the surface, the Mo- and S-terminal edges possess positive and negative features when the interlayer spacing is less than 8.5 Å. Meanwhile, the strength of the first density layer of ILs increases with the increase of the interlayer spacing of MoS for both Mo- and S- terminal surfaces in the neutral or charging state. Furthermore, the coordination number of sodium ion at the electrode surface was analyzed, and it was shown that the S-terminal surface has a larger coordination number than that on the Mo-terminal surface. Interestingly, the coordination number of MoS with the interlayer spacing of 8.0 Å is the lowest in the ranges of 6.5~8.5 Å. The electrolyte's charge screening factor also reflects the opposite electrical state of Mo- and S-terminal surfaces and weakens with increasing the interlayer spacing and surface charge density. The obtained understanding of ILs at electrode interfaces with different layer spacings in this work will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of ILs-based sodium supercapacitors or other electrochemical devices in critical chemical engineering processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-020-04644-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Risks Assessment Associated with Different Sources of Metals in Abandoned Soil of Zhuxianzhuang Coal Mine, Huaibei Coalfield (Anhui, China).

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Feb 3;106(2):370-376. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

National Engineering Research Center of Coal Mine Water Hazard Controlling (Suzhou University), Suzhou, 234000, Anhui, China.

In this paper, the 36 topsoil (0-10 cm) samples were collected and the contents of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb were analyzed. The results indicated that the contents of Cu and As in all samples exceeded the soil background values of Anhui province, while the Co and Pb contents were lower than the background values. Geo-statistics and positive matrix factorization were applied to identify the sources of soil heavy metals, which were nature factor (15.7%), industrial activities (21.2%), coal mine (50.9%) and traffic emission (12.2%), respectively. The calculation results of health risk model based on positive matrix factorization model showed that coal mine activities accounted for the largest proportion of total source contribution, followed by industrial activities. In addition, compared with adults, the trend of health risk of children from four sources in three lands were same as adults, but their health risk was higher than adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-03069-4DOI Listing
February 2021

The dynamic changes of gangliosides in breast milk and the intake of gangliosides in maternal and infant diet in three cities of China.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2020 1;13(11):2870-2888. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University Xueyuan Road 38, Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Objective: To study the ganglioside intake of lactating mothers and its effect on the breast milk and infants.

Methods: The related information of mothers and infants was obtained by questionnaire survey, including the recipe, family information, and so on. The content of gangliosides in the mothers' food and breast milk was tested by HPLC-MS. The intake of gangliosides for infants was recorded and calculated. Then the dynamic changes of the content of gangliosides in breast milk and the impact on the development of infants were evaluated.

Results: GD3 was rich in milk and dairy products. The average intake of gangliosides for lactating mothers was 6.33 mg/day, of which GM3 was 3.02 mg/day and GD3 was 1.51 mg/day. The main food sources of gangliosides were meat (46.6%), eggs (26.6%), and dairy products (18.9%). The average content of gangliosides in breast milk was 9.58 mg/L. The content in 0-7 days after delivery (15.95 mg/L) was the highest, and then gradually decreased with time, getting the lowest in 6 months after delivery (6.47 mg/L). GM3 and GD3 were the two main types in breast milk. The average milk intake of infants under 6 months gradually increased from 570 mL to 1367 mL, and the daily intake of gangliosides was relatively stable, with a median of 6.4 mg. There was no significant relationship between the intake of gangliosides and physical development in infants.

Conclusion: This study is the first to report the dietary ganglioside intake of Chinese city mothers. This study is also the first to indirectly infer the demand of infant ganglioside by detecting the components of breast milk. It will accumulate basic data for improving the diet of Chinese mothers and the recommended amount of infant nutrients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716121PMC
November 2020

Decreased bioavailability of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in genetically modified corn with activated carbon or calcium montmorillonite clay inclusion in soil.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Feb 27;100:131-143. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77845, USA. Electronic address:

The widespread use of pesticides has resulted in detectable residues throughout the environment, sometimes at concentrations well above regulatory limits. Therefore, the development of safe, effective, field-practical, and economically feasible strategies to mitigate the effects of pesticides is warranted. Glyphosate is an organophosphorus herbicide that is degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a toxic and persistent metabolite that can accumulate in soil and sediment and translocate to plants. In this study, we investigated the binding efficacy of activated carbon (AC) and calcium montmorillonite (CM) clay to decrease AMPA bioavailability from soil and AMPA translocation to plants. Adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic studies on AC and CM were conducted and showed tight binding (enthalpy values >-20 kJ/mol) for AMPA with high capacities (0.25 mol/kg and 0.38 mol/kg, respectively), based on derivations from the Langmuir model. A hydra assay was utilized to indicate toxicity of AMPA and the inclusion of 1% AC and CM both resulted in 90% protection of the hydra (**p ≤ 0.01). Further studies in glyphosate-contaminated soil showed that AC and CM significantly reduced AMPA bioavailability by 53% and 44%, respectively. Results in genetically modified (GM) corn showed a conversion of glyphosate to AMPA in roots and sprouts over a 10-day exposure duration. Inclusion of AC and CM reduced AMPA residues in roots and sprouts by 47%-61%. These studies collectively indicate that AC and CM are effective sorbents for AMPA and could be used to reduce AMPA bioavailability from soil and AMPA residues in GM corn plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.06.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719843PMC
February 2021

Testing the efficacy of broad-acting sorbents for environmental mixtures using isothermal analysis, mammalian cells, and H. vulgaris.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 28;408:124425. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Electronic address:

The hazards associated with frequent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, Aroclors, plasticizers, and mycotoxins are well established. Adsorption strategies have been proposed for the remediation of soil and water, although few have focused on the mitigation of mixtures. This study tested a hypothesis that broad-acting sorbents can be developed for diverse chemical mixtures. Adsorption of common and hazardous chemicals was characterized using isothermal analysis from Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The most effective sorbents included medical-grade activated carbon (AC), parent montmorillonite clay, acid-processed montmorillonite (APM), and nutrient-amended montmorillonite clays. Next, we tested the ability of broad-acting sorbents to prevent cytotoxicity of class-specific mixtures using 3 mammalian in vitro models (HLF, ESD3, and 3T3 cell lines) and the hydra assay. AC showed the highest efficacy for mitigating pesticides, plasticizers, PAHs, and mycotoxins. Clays, such as APM, were effective against pesticides, Aroclors, and mycotoxins, while amended clays were most effective against plasticizers. Finally, a sorbent mixture was shown to be broadly active. These results are supported by the high correlation coefficients for the Langmuir model with high capacity, affinity, and free energy, as well as the significant protection of cells and hydra (p < 0.05). The protection percentages in 3T3 cells and hydra showed the highest correlation as suggested by both Pearson and Spearman with r = 0.84 and rho = 0.73, respectively (p < 0.0001). Collectively, these studies showed that broad-acting sorbents may be effective in preventing toxic effects of chemical mixtures and provided information on the most effective sorbents based on adsorption isotherms, and in vitro and aquatic organism test methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904642PMC
April 2021

Enhanced adsorption of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) by edible, nutrient-amended montmorillonite clays.

Water Res 2021 Jan 20;188:116534. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Electronic address:

Humans and animals are frequently exposed to PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) through drinking water and food; however, no therapeutic sorbent strategies have been developed to mitigate this problem. Montmorillonites amended with the common nutrients, carnitine and choline, were characterized for their ability to bind 4 representative PFAS (PFOA, PFOS, GenX, and PFBS). Adsorption/desorption isothermal analysis showed that PFOA, PFOS (and a mixture of the two) fit the Langmuir model with high binding capacity, affinity and enthalpy at conditions simulating the stomach. A low percentage of desorption occurred at conditions simulating the intestine. The results suggested that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, and hydrogen bonding were responsible for sequestering PFAS into clay interlayers. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggested the key mode of interaction of PFAS was through fluorinated carbon chains, and confirmed that PFOA and PFOS had enhanced binding to amended clays compared to GenX and PFBS. The safety and efficacy of amended montmorillonite clays were confirmed in Hydra vulgaris, where a mixture of amended sorbents delivered the highest protection against a PFAS mixture. These important results suggest that the inclusion of edible, nutrient-amended clays with optimal affinity, capacity, and enthalpy can be used to decrease the bioavailability of PFAS from contaminated drinking water and diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725962PMC
January 2021

Insights into the interactions of bisphenol and phthalate compounds with unamended and carnitine-amended montmorillonite clays.

Comput Chem Eng 2020 Dec 21;143. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Montmorillonite clays could be promising sorbents to mitigate toxic compound exposures. Bisphenols A (BPA) and S (BPS) as well as phthalates, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), are ubiquitous environmental contaminants linked to adverse health effects. Here, we combined computational and experimental methods to investigate the ability of montmorillonite clays to sorb these compounds. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted that parent, unamended, clay has higher binding propensity for BPA and BPS than for DBP and DEHP; carnitine-amended clay improved BPA and BPS binding, through carnitine simultaneously anchoring to the clay through its quaternary ammonium cation and forming hydrogen bonds with BPA and BPS. Experimental isothermal analysis confirmed that carnitine-amended clay has enhanced BPA binding capacity, affinity and enthalpy. Our studies demonstrate how computational and experimental methods, combined, can characterize clay binding and sorption of toxic compounds, paving the way for future investigation of clays to reduce BPA and BPS exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2020.107063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591107PMC
December 2020

Dietary Diversity Is Associated With Memory Status in Chinese Adults: A Prospective Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 2;12:580760. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background And Aim: Subjective memory complaints are common in elderly people. Nutrition plays an important role in keeping brain health, however, the evidence on dietary diversity and subjective memory status is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary diversity score (DDS) on memory status in Chinese adults in a prospective cohort study.

Methods: Data of the China Health and Nutrition Survey was used in this study. A total of 4356 participants aged 50 years or older were enrolled in the analysis. DDS was calculated based on the dietary recall data collected in the wave of 2011. Information on self-report memory status (OK, good, or bad) and memory change in the past 12 months (stayed the same, improved, or deteriorated) were obtained from the wave of 2015. A memory score was calculated based on a subset of items of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-modified. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of DDS with memory status and memory change, and linear regression models were carried out to estimate the association between DDS and memory score.

Results: In the study population, the percentages of participants who thought their memory was OK, bad, and good were 43.3, 24.3, and 32.4%, respectively. There were 1.4% of participants reported memory improvement in the past 12 months and 47.2% reported memory decline. Average memory score among participants was 12.8 ± 6.1. Compared with participants who thought their memory was OK, a higher DDS was associated with self-reported good memory (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.15, 95%CI 1.07-1.24) and inversely associated with bad memory (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.75-0.89). In subgroup analysis, however, in participants aged 65 years and above, the association between DDS and self-reported good memory was insignificant (OR 1.09, 95%CI 0.94-1.25). Compared with participants whose memory stayed the same, higher DDS was inversely associated with memory decline (OR 0.85, 95%CI 0.80-0.91). Besides, higher DDS was associated with higher memory score (β 0.74, 95%CI 0.56-0.91).

Conclusion: This study revealed that higher DDS was associated with better memory status and was inversely associated with self-reported memory decline in Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.580760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494158PMC
September 2020

Tight sorption of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead by edible activated carbon and acid-processed montmorillonite clay.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 2;28(6):6758-6770. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Heavy metal exposure in humans and animals commonly occurs through the consumption of metal-contaminated drinking water and food. Although many studies have focused on the remediation of metals by purification of water using sorbents, limited therapeutic sorbent strategies have been developed to minimize human and animal exposures to contaminated water and food. To address this need, a medical grade activated carbon (MAC) and an acid processed montmorillonite clay (APM) were characterized for their ability to bind heavy metals and mixtures. Results of screening and adsorption/desorption isotherms showed that binding plots for arsenic, cadmium, and mercury sorption on surfaces of MAC (and lead on APM) fit the Langmuir model. The highest binding percentage, capacity, and affinity were shown in a simulated stomach model, and the lowest percentage desorption (< 18%) was shown in a simulated intestine model. The safety and protective ability of MAC and APM were confirmed in a living organism (Hydra vulgaris) where 0.1% MAC significantly protected the hydra against As, Cd, Hg, and a mixture of metals by 30-70%. In other studies, APM showed significant reduction (75%) of Pd toxicity, compared with MAC and heat-collapsed APM, suggesting that the interlayer of APM was important for Pb sorption. This is the first report showing that edible sorbents can bind mixtures of heavy metals in a simulated gastrointestinal tract and prevent their toxicity in a living organism. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10973-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855320PMC
February 2021

Potential Applications of Clay-Based Therapy for the Reduction of Pesticide Exposures in Humans and Animals.

Appl Sci (Basel) 2019 Dec 6;9(24). Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

The risk of pesticide exposure in humans and animals may be magnified following natural and man-made disasters such as hurricanes and floods that can result in mobilization and redistribution of contaminated sediments. To develop broad-acting sorbents for mixtures of diverse toxins, we have processed calcium and sodium montmorillonite clays with high concentrations of sulfuric acid. These acid-processed montmorillonite clays (APMs) have shown limited hydration and swelling in water, higher surface areas, and lower trace metal levels than the parent clays, prior to processing. Isothermal analyses have indicated that newly developed APMs are highly active sorbents, with significantly increased binding capacities for a wide range of pesticides, including pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), lindane, diazinon, linuron, trifluralin and paraquat. The safety and protective effects of APMs, against pesticide design mixtures, were confirmed in a living organism (). Further work is planned to confirm the safety of the APMs in long-term rodent studies. This is the first report of a sorbent material (other than carbon) with high binding efficacy for mixtures of these pesticides. Based on our results, APMs (and similar clays), may be able to decrease human and animal pesticide exposures during disasters and emergencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/app9245325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494192PMC
December 2019

Neutral Human Milk Oligosaccharides Are Associated with Multiple Fixed and Modifiable Maternal and Infant Characteristics.

Nutrients 2020 Mar 20;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

We aimed to identify if maternal and infant factors were associated with neutral human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) variability and examined the associations between HMOs concentration and infant growth and disease status in healthy Chinese mothers over a 6-month lactation period. We recruited mothers and their full-term infants as our subjects. At 1-5 days, 8-14 days, 4 weeks, and 6 months postpartum, all participants were interviewed to collect breast milk samples, obtain follow-up data and measure infant length and weight at their local hospital. A total of 23 neutral HMOs were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)- mass spectrometer (MS). Secretor and Lewis phenotype were determined by the concentration of 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and Lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP)-II. The associations between maternal and infant factors with HMOs concentrations were investigated. A total of 464 human breast milk samples were collected from 116 mothers at four different time points. In total, 76.7% mothers were found to be Secretor and Lewis positive phenotype (Se+Le+), 17.2% were Se-Le+, 4.3% were Se+Le-, and 1.7% were Se-Le-. Several individual HMOs, including 2'-FL, Lactodifucotetraose (LDFT), LNFP-I were determined by Secretor phenotype. Most individual HMOs decreased at the later stage of lactation, except 3'-FL. We suggest that Secretor phenotype and lactation stage could influence most of the neutral HMOs. Concentrations of specific HMOs may be associated with maternal age, allergic history, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, infant gestational age and gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146356PMC
March 2020

Association of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome in eight cities in China.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Mar 3;8(3):1406-1414. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene School of Public Health Peking University Beijing China.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the cross-sectional association of serum ferritin (SF) and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among adults in eight cities in China.

Methods: Subjects were recruited using a combination of systematic cluster random sampling and purposive sampling in eight cities in China. The sociodemographic characteristics, data of lifestyle factors, self-reported disease history, and 24-hr dietary intake were obtained using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometry was performed, and fasting blood was collected to test the SF, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterols. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations, adjusting for age, city level, smoking, drinking, weekly moderate-to-vigorous activity, dietary factors, hs-CRP, and BMI.

Results: Serum ferritin level is positively correlated with total cholesterol, TG, FBG, HOMA-IR, and hs-CRP after adjusting for age and BMI. The odds ratio (OR) for MetS in the highest quartile of SF was 2.23 (1.32, 3.77) after adjusting for men, compared with the lowest quartile. An elevated ferritin concentration was significantly related to hypertriglyceridemia ( < .001) and elevated glucose ( = .013) among men, but not among women. Furthermore, compared with Q1, the OR for insulin resistance in the ferritin Q4 group was 3.08 (1.50, 6.32) among men and 1.96 (1.19, 3.24) among women.

Conclusion: A positive association between elevated SF and MetS and its components including hypertriglyceridemia and elevated glucose was found in multivariate analyses among men, and SF levels are independently associated with IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063359PMC
March 2020

A high capacity bentonite clay for the sorption of aflatoxins.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2020 Feb 2;37(2):332-341. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Previously a calcium bentonite clay (CB) has been shown to tightly bind aflatoxins , significantly reduce mortality and morbidity in animals, and decrease molecular biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure in humans and animals. Extensive studies have shown that CB is safe for human and animal consumption. In further work, we have investigated a highly active sodium bentonite (SB) clay (SB-E) with enhanced aflatoxin sorption efficacy compared to CB and other clays. Computational models and isothermal analyses were used to characterise toxin/clay surface interactions, predict mechanisms of toxin sorption, and gain insight into: 1) surface capacities and affinities, and 2) thermodynamics and sites of toxin/surface interactions. We have also used a toxin-sensitive living organism () to confirm the safety and predict the efficacy of SB-E against aflatoxin toxicity. Compared to CB, SB-E had a higher capacity for aflatoxin B (AfB) at pH 2 and 6.5. Results from this work suggest that high capacity clays such as SB-E can be used as effective aflatoxin enterosorbents to decrease short-term exposures in humans and animals when included in food and/or water during extended droughts and outbreaks of aflatoxicosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2019.1662493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989347PMC
February 2020

Strong Adsorption of Dieldrin by Parent and Processed Montmorillonite Clays.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 03 22;39(3):517-525. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Widespread use of pesticides has resulted in the accumulation of pesticide residues in the environment due to their persistence and stability. To reduce potential exposures, we have developed broad-acting clay-based sorbents that can be included in the diet as enterosorbents to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of chemicals. In the present study, parent and acid-processed calcium montmorillonite clays (CM and APM, respectively) were used to determine their potential as sorbents of the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin. We used adsorption isotherms, thermodynamics, and dosimetry studies to determine the capacities and affinities of the clays, the enthalpies of the binding reactions, and potential doses of sorbent that could protect against high exposures. Adsorption isotherms for APM fit a Langmuir model with high enthalpy (suggesting chemisorption) and high capacity (Q value = 0.45 mol kg ), indicating tight binding of dieldrin. Cultures of Hydra vulgaris were used to determine the ability of sorbents to protect a living organism from dieldrin toxicity. The inclusion of acid-processed clays resulted in the highest reduction of dieldrin toxicity (70%) in the hydra. Further work indicated that both CM and APM can significantly reduce the bioavailability of dieldrin from soil (p ≤ 0.01). These results suggest that APM (and similar clays) can be effective sorbents of dieldrin and may be included in the diet and/or soil to protect against environmental exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:517-525. © 2019 SETAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047628PMC
March 2020

Montmorillonites Can Tightly Bind Glyphosate and Paraquat Reducing Toxin Exposures and Toxicity.

ACS Omega 2019 Oct 17;4(18):17702-17713. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, United States.

Among the numerous contaminants of soil, glyphosate and paraquat are two of the most widely used herbicides that are commonly detected in the environment. Soil and sediment contaminated with glyphosate, paraquat, and other environmental toxins can be mobilized and redistributed to lawns, vegetable gardens, parks, and water supplies in vulnerable communities at the site of disasters such as hurricanes and flooding. Glyphosate and paraquat bind strongly to soils containing clays, making their bioavailability (bioaccessibility) from these types of soil very low. Because of their affinity for clay-based soils, it is possible that montmorillonite clays could be administered as a therapeutic agent in the diet of animals and humans to decrease short-term exposure and toxicity. In this study, we investigated the sorption mechanisms of glyphosate and paraquat onto active surfaces of calcium montmorillonite (CM) and sodium montmorillonite (SM) clays and derived binding parameters, including capacity, affinity, and enthalpy. Additionally, we used these parameters to predict the reduction in bioavailability under different pH and temperature conditions and to estimate the theoretical dose of clay that could protect against severe paraquat toxicity and lethality. Computational modeling and simulation studies depicted toxin sorption mechanisms at different pH values. Additionally, a toxin-sensitive living organism () was used to confirm the safety of the clay and its ability to protect against toxicity from glyphosate and paraquat. The high efficacy of CM and SM shown in this study supports the natural binding activity of glyphosate and paraquat to clay-based soils. Following disasters and medical emergencies, montmorillonite clays could be administered by capsules and tablets, or added to food and flavored water, to reduce toxin bioavailability and human and animal exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822125PMC
October 2019

Strong adsorption of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by processed montmorillonite clays: Potential applications as toxin enterosorbents during disasters and floods.

Environ Pollut 2019 Dec 7;255(Pt 1):113210. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA. Electronic address:

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been detected as prevalent environmental contaminants in water, food and biota. Previous studies in vitro have shown that a variety of sorbent materials, including carbon, can sorb PCBs; however, PCB sorbents that can be added to food or drinking water to decrease toxin bioavailability in humans and animals have not been reported. To address this problem, we have developed broad-acting and highly effective sorbents for PCBs using montmorillonite clays reported to be safe for consumption in animals and humans. In this study, calcium montmorillonite clays were acid processed (APMs) and the interactions of six PCB congeners (PCB 77, 126, 153, 157, 154 and 155) on the surfaces of APMs were characterized. Computational models and isothermal analyses were used to derive surface capacities and affinities, delineate mechanisms and predict the thermodynamics of sorption. To confirm the safety and predict the efficacy of APMs against individual PCBs and common mixtures (Aroclors 1254 and 1260), we have also used a living organism (Hydra vulgaris) that is sensitive to toxins. APMs significantly protected hydra against the toxicity of PCBs and Aroclors. This finding was supported by studies showing tight binding; high capacity, affinity, and enthalpy; and a low therapeutic dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878994PMC
December 2019

Development of broad-acting clays for the tight adsorption of benzo[a]pyrene and aldicarb.

Appl Clay Sci 2019 Feb 20;168:196-202. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

People and animals can be unintentionally exposed to complex mixtures of hazardous chemicals that can threaten the safety of food and water supplies following natural and man-made disasters and emergencies. Our research has focused on the development of broad-acting adsorbents that will tightly bind environmental contaminants in the gastrointestinal tract and decrease their bioavailability to humans and animals during these events. In this study, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and aldicarb were used as representative chemicals due to their high toxicity and extensive distribution in the environment. Both chemicals have been commonly detected in water and sediments in the US, and their distribution and concentrations can be enhanced during disasters. To address this problem, we have amended and functionalized montmorillonite clays with the nutrients, L-carnitine and choline to enhance their attraction for lipophilic toxins, such as BaP and aldicarb. Based on equilibrium isothermal analyses, we have demonstrated a significantly increased binding capacity (Qmax) and affinity (Kd) for BaP and aldicarb compared to the parent clay. Adsorption isotherms also showed that talc bound strongly to BaP with the highest Qmax, which was twice that of activated carbon. Additionally, cultures of adult hydra with a metabolism activation package were used as an toxicity indicator to confirm the ability of test adsorbents to protect against toxicity at low inclusion levels. We anticipate that the optimal adsorbents developed can be delivered in food and flavored water, or administered by sachet or capsule during emergencies and disasters to decrease human and animals exposures to environmental toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2018.11.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6703832PMC
February 2019

Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Water Quality Evaluation of Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation Limestone Water in Sulin Mining Area in Northern Anhui, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 07 14;16(14). Epub 2019 Jul 14.

School of Earth and Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, China.

The Taiyuan formation limestone water in the Huaibei coalfield is not only the water source for coal mining, but also the water source for industry and agriculture in mining areas. Its hydrogeochemical characteristics and water quality are generally concerning. In this paper, conventional ion tests were carried out on the Taiyuan formation limestone water of 16 coal mines in the Sunan and Linhuan mining areas of the Huaibei coalfield. Piper trigram, Gibbs diagram and an ion scale coefficient map were used to analyze the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Taiyuan formation limestone water. The water quality was evaluated in a fuzzy comprehensive manner. The results show that the main cation and anion contents in the Taiyuan formation limestone water were Na > Mg > Ca > K, SO > HCO > Cl. There were differences in the hydrogeochemical types of the Taiyuan formation limestone water in the two mining areas; HCO-Na type water was dominant in the Sunan mining area and SO·Cl-Na type water was dominant in the Linhuan mining area. The chemical composition of the Taiyuan formation limestone water is mainly affected by the weathering of the rock and is related to the dissolution of the evaporated salt and the weathering of the silicate. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation results show that the V-type water accounts for a large proportion of the Taiyuan formation limestone water in the study area and the water quality is poor. This study provides a basis for the development and utilization of the Taiyuan formation limestone water and water environmental protection in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678644PMC
July 2019

Diet quality, consumption of seafood and eggs are associated with sleep quality among Chinese urban adults: A cross-sectional study in eight cities of China.

Food Sci Nutr 2019 Jun 15;7(6):2091-2102. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health Peking University Health Science Center Beijing China.

Growing evidence has suggested that dietary modification is implicated with sleep alteration. Our study aimed to determine whether an association between diet in terms of diet quality, certain food consumption, and dietary nutrients intake and sleep quality existed in Chinese urban adults, which has been fully investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted among urban adults from eight Chinese cities. Total of 1,548 participants remained in the final analysis. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Chinese version of the Pittsburg Sleep Questionnaire Index. Diet quality, evaluated by Chinese Healthy Diet Index, and dietary intake, including food groups and nutrients, were derived from a semiquantitative Food Intake Frequencies Questionnaire and a single 24-hr dietary recall. The relationship between dietary variables and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Logistic regression analysis indicated that better diet quality, which features greater food diversity, higher ingestion of fruits and fish, along with higher seafood consumption, lower eggs consumption, and higher total energy intake, was significantly associated with lower risk of poor sleep quality in the crude model and the fully adjusted model with adjustment for gender, age, self-rated health condition, self-assessed mental stress, smoking, hypertension, and BMI. Therefore, we reached a conclusion that diet quality and certain food consumption were related to sleep quality. Although the associations observed in the cross-sectional study require further investigation in prospective studies, dietary intervention, such as enhancement in food diversity and consumption of fruits and seafood, might serve as a probable strategy for sleep improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593378PMC
June 2019

Development of enterosorbents that can be added to food and water to reduce toxin exposures during disasters.

J Environ Sci Health B 2019 24;54(6):514-524. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences , Texas A&M University , College Station , Texas , USA.

Humans and animals can be exposed to mixtures of chemicals from food and water, especially during disasters such as extended droughts, hurricanes and floods. Drought stress facilitates the occurrence of mycotoxins such as aflatoxins B (AfB) and zearalenone (ZEN), while hurricanes and floods can mobilize toxic soil and sediments containing important pesticides (such as glyphosate). To address this problem in food, feed and water, we developed broad-acting, clay-based enterosorbents that can reduce toxin exposures when included in the diet. In this study, we processed sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays with high concentrations of sulfuric acid to increase surface areas and porosities, and conducted equilibrium isothermal analyses and dosimetry studies to derive binding parameters and gain insight into: (1) surface capacities and affinities, (2) potential mechanisms of sorption, (3) thermodynamics (enthalpy) of toxin/surface interactions and (4) estimated dose of sorbent required to maintain toxin threshold limits. We have also used a toxin-sensitive living organism () to predict the safety and efficacy of newly developed sorbents. Our results indicated that acid processed montmorillonites were effective sorbents for AfB, ZEN and glyphosate, with high capacity and tight binding, and effectively protected hydra against individual toxins, as well as mixtures of mycotoxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2019.1604039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681816PMC
August 2019

NovaSil clay for the protection of humans and animals from aflatoxins and other contaminants.

Clays Clay Miner 2019 Feb 5;67(1):99-110. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program and Department of Environmental Health Science, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

Aflatoxin contamination of diets results in disease and death in humans and animals. The objective of the present paper was to review the development of innovative enterosorption strategies for the detoxification of aflatoxins. NovaSil clay (NS) has been shown to decrease exposures to aflatoxins and prevent aflatoxicosis in a variety of animals when included in their diets. Results have shown that NS clay binds aflatoxins with high affinity and high capacity in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a notable reduction in the bioavailability of these toxins without interfering with the utilization of vitamins and other micronutrients. This strategy is already being utilized as a potential remedy for acute aflatoxicosis in animals, and as a sustainable intervention diet. Animal and human studies have confirmed the apparent safety of NS and refined NS clay (with uniform particle size). Studies in Ghanaians at high risk of aflatoxicosis have indicated that NS (at a dose level of 0.25% w/w) is effective at decreasing biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure and does not interfere with levels of serum vitamins A and E, or iron or zinc. A new spinoff of this strategy is the development and use of broad-acting sorbents for the mitigation of environmental chemicals and microbes during natural disasters and emergencies. In summary, enterosorption strategies/therapies based on NS clay are promising for the management of aflatoxins and as sustainable public health interventions. The NS clay remedy is novel, inexpensive, and easily disseminated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42860-019-0008-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494129PMC
February 2019

Optimal Chemical Grouping and Sorbent Material Design by Data Analysis, Modeling and Dimensionality Reduction Techniques.

ESCAPE 2018 4;43:421-426. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

The ultimate goal of the Texas A&M Superfund program is to develop comprehensive tools and models for addressing exposure to chemical mixtures during environmental emergency-related contamination events. With that goal, we aim to design a framework for optimal grouping of chemical mixtures based on their chemical characteristics and bioactivity properties, and facilitate comparative assessment of their human health impacts through read-across. The optimal clustering of the chemical mixtures guides the selection of sorption material in such a way that the adverse health effects of each group are mitigated. Here, we perform (i) hierarchical clustering of complex substances using chemical and biological data, and (ii) predictive modeling of the sorption activity of broad-acting materials via regression techniques. Dimensionality reduction techniques are also incorporated to further improve the results. We adopt several recent examples of chemical substances of Unknown or Variable composition Complex reaction products and Biological materials (UVCB) as benchmark complex substances, where the grouping of them is optimized by maximizing the Fowlkes-Mallows (FM) index. The effect of clustering method and different visualization techniques are shown to influence the communication of the groupings for read-across.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64235-6.50076-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284807PMC
July 2018

Association between nutrient patterns and serum lipids in Chinese adult women: A cross-sectional study.

Nutr Diet 2019 04 19;76(2):184-191. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Aim: To investigate the association between patterns of nutrient intake and serum lipids in Chinese women aged 18-80 years.

Methods: In the present study, cross-sectional data were analysed from 2886 female participants aged 18-80 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey wave 2009. Nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis combined with cluster analysis based on the data of nutrient intake for three consecutive days. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of nutrient patterns with serum lipids.

Results: Four nutrient patterns were identified in Chinese adult women, which were the plant-based pattern, carbohydrate and animal fat pattern, plant fat and sodium pattern, and the animal-based pattern. Participants following different patterns varied significantly in sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours and food consumption. Compared with the plant-based pattern, the carbohydrate and animal fat pattern was positively associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 4.57, 95% CI: 0.29-8.85, P = 0.036) and total cholesterol (β = 4.89, 95% CI: 0.34-9.44, P = 0.035). The corresponding rises for the animal-based pattern were 4.91 (95% CI: 0.99-8.82, P = 0.014) and 4.98 (95% CI: 0.82-9.15, P = 0.019), respectively.

Conclusions: Nutrient patterns with a high intake of animal fat and a low intake dietary fibre and with high intakes of animal fat, animal protein and cholesterol may increase the serum cholesterol in Chinese women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1747-0080.12480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7380030PMC
April 2019

Using an introduced index to assess the association between food diversity and metabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese adults.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2018 10 3;18(1):189. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Xueyuan Road 38, Haidian District, 100191, Beijing, China.

Background: It is reported that an increase in food diversity would lower the risk of cardiac-cerebral vascular diseases.

Methods: A new index was introduced to develop a Chinese healthy food diversity (HFD) index, exploring the association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among Chinese adults. Two sets of data were used. The primary data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2016 called the Chinese Urban Adults Diet and Health Study (CUADHS); the verification data were from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) of 2009. The Chinese HFD index was developed according to the Chinese Dietary Guideline, with food consumption information from 24-h dietary recalls. The association between the index and MetS and its components was explored in logistic regression models.

Results: Among 1520 participants in the CUADHS, the crude prevalence of MetS was 36.4%, which was 29.0% after the standardisation of age and gender by the 2010 Chinese national census. In the CUADHS, the HFD index ranged from 0.04 to 0.63. The value of the index among participants who are male, young, poorly educated, drinking or smoking, and with high energy intakes was significantly lower than that of their counterparts. In the verification dataset of the CHNS, there were 2398 participants, and the distribution of different genders and age groups was more balanced. The crude prevalence of MetS in the CHNS was 27.3% and the standardised prevalence was 19.5%. The Chinese HFD index ranged from 0.02 to 0.62. In the CUADHS, the Chinese HFD index was not significantly associated with MetS in covariate-adjusted models or with its components. In the CHNS, the Chinese HFD index had a significantly negative correlation with MetS and its components (i.e., elevated fasting glucose and elevated waist circumference) in covariate-adjusted models.

Conclusions: Increased food diversity may decrease the risk of MetS, which is important in dietary interventions of cardiac-cerebral vascular disease. This underscores the necessity of continued investigation into the role of HFD in the prevention of MetS and provides an integral framework for ongoing research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-018-0926-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171175PMC
October 2018

Sex-dependent difference in the association between frequency of spicy food consumption and risk of hypertension in Chinese adults.

Eur J Nutr 2019 Sep 4;58(6):2449-2461. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, No. 17 Tsinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100083, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The aim of our study was to explore the association between frequency of spicy food consumption and risk of hypertension in Chinese adults.

Methods: Data were extracted from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, consisting of 9273 apparently healthy adults. Height, weight, and blood pressure (BP) were measured and diet was assessed with three consecutive 24-h recalls in combination with a weighed food inventory. Frequency of spicy food consumption and degree of pungency in spicy food consumption were self-reported. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, or having known hypertension. Multilevel mixed-effects models were constructed to estimate changes in SBP and DBP levels as well as risk of hypertension.

Results: Higher frequency of spicy food consumption was significantly associated with lower SBP and DBP levels and lower risk of hypertension in female participants after adjustment for potential confounders (all P trend < 0.05) and cluster effects at different levels (individual, community, and province). Compared with female participants who did not eat spicy food, the adjusted odds ratios of hypertension were 0.740 (95% CI 0.569, 0.963; P = 0.025) in female participants who consumed usually, and 0.760 (95% CI 0.624, 0.925; P = 0.006) in female participants who ate spicy food with moderate pungency. There was no significant association of spicy food consumption with hypertension in male participants.

Conclusions: Frequency of spicy food consumption was inversely associated with risk of hypertension in female, but not male adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1797-8DOI Listing
September 2019