Publications by authors named "Mei Han Ng"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reduced infiltration of regulatory T cells in tumours from mice fed daily with gamma-tocotrienol supplementation.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Pathology Division, School of Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Gamma-tocotrienol (γT3) is an analogue of vitamin E with beneficial effects on the immune system, including immune-modulatory properties. This study reports the immune-modulatory effects of daily supplementation of γT3 on host T helper (Th) and T regulatory cell (T ) populations in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. Female BALB/c mice were fed with either γT3 or vehicle (soy oil) for 2 weeks via oral gavage before they were inoculated with syngeneic 4T1 mouse mammary cancer cells (4T1 cells). Supplementation continued until the mice were euthanized. Mice (n = 6) were euthanized at specified time-points for various analysis (blood leucocyte, cytokine production and immunohistochemistry). Tumour volume was measured once every 7 days. Gene expression studies were carried out on tumour-specific T lymphocytes isolated from splenic cultures. Supplementation with γT3 increased CD4 (p < 0.05), CD8 (p < 0.05) T-cells and natural killer cells (p < 0.05) but suppressed T cells (p < 0.05) in peripheral blood when compared to animals fed with the vehicle. Higher interferon (IFN)-γ and lower transforming growth factor (TGF)-ꞵ levels were noted in the γT3 fed mice. Immunohistochemistry findings revealed higher infiltration of CD4 cells, increased expression of interleukin-12 receptor-beta-2 (IL-12ꞵ2R), interleukin (IL)-24 and reduced expression of cells that express the forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) in tumours from the γT3-fed animals. Gene expression studies showed the down-regulation of seven prominent genes in splenic CD4 T cells isolated from γT3-fed mice. Supplementation with γT3 from palm oil-induced T cell-dependent cell-mediated immune responses and suppressed T cells in the tumour microenvironment in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13650DOI Listing
July 2021

Stable W/O/W multiple nanoemulsion encapsulating natural tocotrienols and caffeic acid with cisplatin synergistically treated cancer cell lines (A549 and HEP G2) and reduced toxicity on normal cell line (HEK 293).

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Feb 22;121:111808. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Bandar Seri Begawan BE1410, Brunei Darussalam. Electronic address:

This work aimed to evaluate the effects of encapsulated tocotrienols (TRF) and caffeic acid (CA) in water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple nanoemulsion with cisplatin towards cancer cells. This work is important considering the limited efficacy of cisplatin due to tumour resistance, as well as its severe side effects. A549 and HEP G2 cancer cell lines were utilised for evaluating the efficacy of the encapsulated W/O/W while HEK 293 normal cell line was used for evaluating the toxicity. TRF, CA and CIS synergistically improved apoptosis in the late apoptotic phase in A549 and HEP G2 by 23.1% and 24.9%, respectively. The generation of ROS was enhanced using TRF:CA:CIS by 16.9% and 30.2% for A549 and HEP G2, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed an enhanced cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase for both A549 and HEP G2. TRF, CA and CIS led to cell death in A549 and HEP G2. For HEK 293, ~33% cell viability was found when only CIS was used while >95% cell viability was observed when TRF, CA and CIS were used. This study demonstrates that the encapsulated TRF and CA in W/O/W with CIS synergistically improved therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells, as well as lowered the toxicity effects towards normal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111808DOI Listing
February 2021

Ultrasound-assisted production of palm oil-based isotonic W/O/W multiple nanoemulsion encapsulating both hydrophobic tocotrienols and hydrophilic caffeic acid with enhanced stability using oil-based Sucragel.

Ultrason Sonochem 2020 Jun 31;64:104995. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Sunway University, No. 5, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

In this work, the effects of thickeners and tonicity towards producing stable palm oil-based water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple nanoemulsion using ultrasound and microfluidizer were investigated. Palm oil, Sucragel, polyglycerol polyricinoleate, Tween 80, Xanthan gum, and NaCl were used. W/O/W was formed under the optimized conditions of ultrasound at 40% amplitude and for 180 s of irradiation time, whereas for the microfluidizer, the optimized conditions were 350 bar and 8 cycles. This is the first work that successfully utilized Sucragel (oil-based thickener) in imparting enhanced stability in W/O/W. W/O/W with isotonic stabilization produced the lowest change in the mean droplet diameter (MDD), NaCl concentration, and water content by 1.5%, 2.6%, and 0.4%, respectively, due to reduced water movement. The final optimized W/O/W possessed MDD and dispersity index of 175.5 ± 9.8 and 0.232 ± 0.012, respectively. The future direction of formulating stable W/O/W would be by employing oil phase thickeners and isotonicity. The observed ~12 times lesser energy consumed by ultrasound than microfluidizer to generate a comparable droplet size of ~235 nm, further confirms its potential in generating the droplets energy-efficiently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.104995DOI Listing
June 2020

Applications of packed and capillary supercritical fluid chromatography in the separation of tocochromanols.

J Sep Sci 2020 Jan 25;43(1):285-291. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Engineering and Processing Research Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Tocochromanols consisting of tocopherols and tocotrienols, is collectively known as vitamin E. Similarity in their structures, physical and chemical properties rendered the tocochromanols to be subject of chromatography interest. Supercritical fluid chromatography is a highly efficient tool for the separation and analysis of tocochromanols. Separation and analysis of tocochromanols using supercritical fluid chromatography had been carried out in the past using capillary or packed columns. Each of these techniques offer their own advantages and drawbacks. Besides being used for analysis, packed column supercritical fluid chromatography found applications as a purification and content enrichment tool. Emergence of new equipment and stationary phase technologies in recent years also helped in making supercritical fluid chromatography a highly efficient tool for the separation and analysis of tocochromanols. This paper gives an insight into the use of capillary and packed columns in supercritical fluid chromatography for the separation and/or analysis of tocochromanols. The types of stationary phase used, as well as chromatographic conditions are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201900342DOI Listing
January 2020

Ultrasound-assisted water-in-palm oil nano-emulsion: Influence of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and NaCl on its stability.

Ultrason Sonochem 2019 Apr 8;52:353-363. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Graphene & Advanced 2D Materials Research Group (GAMRG), School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, No. 5, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

This study aimed to formulate a stable palm oil-based water-in-oil (W/O) nano-emulsion. Emphasis was placed on the effects of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), medium chain triglyceride (MCT), lecithin and sodium chloride (NaCl) addition towards the stability of nano-emulsion. Among the performed analyses were mean droplet diameter (MDD), dispersity index (DI), critical micelle concentration (CMC), lipid peroxidation, viscosity, sedimentation index (SI) and surface morphology. The most stable optimized palm oil-based W/O nano-emulsion was produced using 61.25 wt% of palm oil, 26.25 wt% of MCT, 2.5 wt% of PGPR and 10 wt% of water (0.5 M of NaCl). The MDD and DI of the obtained W/O nano-emulsion were 143.1 ± 8.8 and 0.131 ± 0.094, respectively. After 2 weeks, no sedimentation was observed in W/O nano-emulsion with MDD and DI were 151.2 ± 6.5 nm and 0.156 ± 0.025 respectively. This study clearly found that polyricinoleate non-polar fatty acids of PGPR bound to non-polar fatty acids of palm oil through van der Waals intermolecular forces. While, polyglycerol polar head of PGPR interacts with water molecules through hydrogen bonding, as well as by the bound glyceride units of palm oil. The addition of NaCl further reduced MDD by 70 nm and improved the stability of nano-emulsion through electrostatic and steric repulsions attributed to the dissociation of Na and Cl ions. This study aids to widen the knowledge and interest on the utilization of palm oil for the generation of W/O nano-emulsion, as well as to better understand the interaction between palm oil and PGPR/NaCl in producing nano-emulsion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.12.012DOI Listing
April 2019

The Effect of Pressure and Solvent on the Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Separation of Tocol Analogs in Palm Oil.

Molecules 2017 Aug 29;22(9). Epub 2017 Aug 29.

Engineering and Processing Research Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia.

There are six tocol analogs present in palm oil, namely α-tocopherol (α-T), α-tocomonoenol (α-T₁), α-tocotrienol (α-T₃), γ-tocotrienol (γ-T₃), β-tocotrioenol (β-T₃) and δ-tocotrienol (δ-T₃). These analogs were difficult to separate chromatographically due to their similar structures, physical and chemical properties. This paper reports on the effect of pressure and injection solvent on the separation of the tocol analogs in palm oil. Supercritical CO₂ modified with ethanol was used as the mobile phase. Both total elution time and resolution of the tocol analogs decreased with increased pressure. Ethanol as an injection solvent resulted in peak broadening of the analogs within the entire pressure range studied. Solvents with an eluent strength of 3.4 or less were more suitable for use as injecting solvents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151672PMC
August 2017

Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

J Chromatogr Sci 2016 Apr 2;54(4):633-8. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Engineering and Processing Research Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmv241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4885407PMC
April 2016

Production of Nanoemulsions from Palm-Based Tocotrienol Rich Fraction by Microfluidization.

Molecules 2015 Nov 5;20(11):19936-46. Epub 2015 Nov 5.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

In the present study, tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) nanoemulsions were produced as an alternative approach to improve solubility and absorption of tocotrienols. In the present study, droplet size obtained after 10 cycles of homogenization with increasing pressure was found to decrease from 120 to 65.1 nm. Nanoemulsions stabilized with Tween series alone or emulsifier blend Brij 35:Span 80 (0.6:0.4 w/w) homogenized at 25,000 psi and 10 cycles, produced droplet size less than 100 nm and a narrow size distribution with a polydispersity index (PDI) value lower than 0.2. However blend of Tween series with Span 80 produced nanoemulsions with droplet size larger than 200 nm. This work has also demonstrated the amount of tocols losses in TRF nanoemulsion stabilized Tweens alone or emulsifier blend Brij 35:Span 80 (0.6:0.4 w/w) ranged between 3%-25%. This can be attributed to the interfacial film formed surrounding the droplets exhibited different level of oxidative stability against heat and free radicals created during high pressure emulsification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331996PMC
November 2015

Super, red palm and palm oleins improve the blood pressure, heart size, aortic media thickness and lipid profile in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

PLoS One 2013 11;8(2):e55908. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Oleic acid has been shown to lower high blood pressure and provide cardiovascular protection. Curiosity arises as to whether super olein (SO), red palm olein (RPO) and palm olein (PO), which have high oleic acid content, are able to prevent the development of hypertension.

Methodology/principal Findings: Four-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were fed 15% SO, RPO or PO supplemented diet for 15 weeks. After 15 weeks of treatment, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SHR treated with SO, RPO and PO were 158.4±5.0 mmHg (p<0.001), 178.9±2.7 mmHg (p<0.001) and 167.7±2.1 mmHg (p<0.001), respectively, compared with SHR controls (220.9±1.5 mmHg). Bradycardia was observed with SO and PO. In contrast, the SBP and heart rate of treated WKY rats were not different from those of WKY controls. The SO and PO significantly reduced the increased heart size and thoracic aortic media thickness observed in untreated SHR but RPO reduced only the latter. No such differences, however, were observed between the treated and untreated WKY rats. Oil Red O enface staining of thoracic-abdominal aorta did not show any lipid deposition in all treated rats. The SO and RPO significantly raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the SHR while body weight and renal biochemical indices were unaltered in both strains. Serum lipid profiles of treated SHR and WKY rats were unchanged, with the exception of a significant reduction in LDL-C level and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (atherogenic index) in SO and RPO treated SHR compared with untreated SHR.

Conclusion: The SO, RPO and PO attenuate the rise in blood pressure in SHR, accompanied by bradycardia and heart size reduction with SO and PO, and aortic media thickness reduction with SO, RPO and PO. The SO and RPO are antiatherogenic in nature by improving blood lipid profiles in SHR.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055908PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3569425PMC
August 2013

Application of supercritical fluid chromatography in the quantitative analysis of minor components (carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene) from palm oil.

Lipids 2005 Apr;40(4):429-32

Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), No. 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The application of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled with a UV variable-wavelength detector to isolate the minor components (carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene) in crude palm oil (CPO) and the residual oil from palm-pressed fiber is reported. SFC is a good technique for the isolation and analysis of these compounds from the sources mentioned. The carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene were isolated in less than 20 min. The individual vitamin E isomers present in palm oil were also isolated into their respective components, alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocopherol, gamma-tocotrienol, and delta-tocotrienol. Calibration of all the minor components of palm as well as the individual components of palm vitamin E was carried out and was found to be comparable to those analyzed by other established analytical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-006-1400-6DOI Listing
April 2005

Separation of vitamin E (tocopherol, tocotrienol, and tocomonoenol) in palm oil.

Lipids 2004 Oct;39(10):1031-5

Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Selangor, Malaysia.

Previous reports showed that vitamin E in palm oil consists of various isomers of tocopherols and tocotrienols [alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocopherol, gamma-tocotrienol, and delta-tocotrienol), and this is normally analyzed using silica column HPLC with fluorescence detection. In this study, an HPLC-fluorescence method using a C30 silica stationary phase was developed to separate and analyze the vitamin E isomers present in palm oil. In addition, an alpha-tocomonoenol (alpha-T1) isomer was quantified and characterized by MS and NMR. (alpha-T1 constitutes about 3-4% (40+/-5 ppm) of vitamin E in crude palm oil (CPO) and is found in the phytonutrient concentrate (350+/-10 ppm) from palm oil, whereas its concentration in palm fiber oil (PFO) is about 11% (430+/-6 ppm). The relative content of each individual vitamin E isomer before and after interesterification/transesterification of CPO to CPO methyl esters, followed by vacuum distillation of CPO methyl esters to yield the residue, remained the same except for alpha-T and gamma-T3. Whereas alpha-T constitutes about 36% of the total vitamin E in CPO, it is present at a level of 10% in the phytonutrient concentrate. On the other hand, the composition of gamma-T3 increases from 31% in CPO to 60% in the phytonutrient concentrate. Vitamin is present at 1160+/-43 ppm, and its concentrations in PFO and the phytonutrient concentrate are 4,040+/-41 and 13,780+/-65 ppm, respectively. The separation and quantification of alpha-T1 in palm oil will lead to more in-depth knowledge of the occurrence of vitamin E in palm oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-004-1327-yDOI Listing
October 2004
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