Publications by authors named "Mehwish Faheem"

9 Publications

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Role of modified diet and gut microbiota in metabolic endotoxemia in mice.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, GC University, Lahore, Pakistan.

This study was aimed at investigating the effect of cultured gut microbiota (GM) from obese humans coupled HFD in inducing metabolic endotoxemia in humanized mice. In total, 30 strains were isolated from 10 stool samples of obese patients. Following morphological and biochemical characterization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of six abundant isolates identified these Klebsiella aerogenes, Levilactobacillus brevis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis (MZ052089-MZ052094). In vivo trial using above isolates, known as human gut microbiota (HGM), was performed for six months. Sixteen mice were distributed into four groups, i.e., G1 (control) mice fed with chow diet, group 2 (G2) with HFD, group 3 (G3) with HFD + HGM and group 4 (G4) with chow diet + HGM. Body mass index (BMI) and plasma endotoxins were measured pre- and post-experiment. In vivo study revealed that HFD + HGM caused significant increase (3.9 g/cm at 20 weeks) in the body weight and BMI (0.4 g/cm post-experiment) of G3 mice compared to the other groups. One-way ANOVA showed significantly higher level of endotoxins (2.41, 4.08 and 3.7 mmol/L) in mice groups G2, G3 and G4, respectively, indicating onset of metabolic endotoxemia. Cecal contents of experimental mice groups showed a shift in microbial diversity as observed by all isolates belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes phyla, respectively. In conclusion, current study reported that minor alteration in GM composition through HFD feeding and cultured GM transfer has significant impact in development of metabolic endotoxemia, possibly via modified intestinal permeability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02491-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative evaluation of the toxicological effect of silver salt (AgNO ) and silver nanoparticles on Cyprinus carpio synthesized by chemicals and marine algae using scanning electron microscopy.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 25;84(7):1531-1541. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pattoki, Pakistan.

The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) results in the unintentional release into the water body. Therefore, understanding of the potentially harmful impacts of AgNPs and Ag-salt on aquatic animals is a need of time. This study was design to analyze the oxidative stress and histopathological damages in Cyprinus carpio. The synthesis of AgNPs from Halymenia porphyraeformis and by reduction of chemical was done. Nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, SEM, XRD, and FTIR analysis. The comparative toxicological effect of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ch-AgNPs), green silver nanoparticles (Gr-AgNPs), and Ag-salt on C. carpio was analyzed. For oxidative stress analysis, different tests Lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase, glutathione reduction (GST), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were performed. The highest LPO 245.168 ± 0.034 was recorded in Ch-AgNPs-treated gills and the lowest 56.4532 ± 0.02 was found in Gr-AgNPs-treated liver. Maximum GSH 56.4065 ± 0.13 was observed in Gr-AgNPs liver and minimum 40.781 ± 0.54 was recorded in Ag-salt gills. The maximum quantity of catalase 68.0162 ± 0.09 was noted in the Ag-salt-treated liver and the minimum was calculated 17.3665 ± 0.01 in the liver of Ch-AgNPs and highest values of GST 765.829 ± 0.11 were recorded in gills of Gr-AgNPs and lowest 633.08 ± 0.26 in the liver of Ch-AgNPs-treated fish. In conclusion, maximum destruction was found in the gills and liver of the fish treated with chemical and green AgNPs followed by Ag-salt as compared to control. The adverse effects of AgNPs and Ag-salt were probably related to the oxidative stress in the fish that lead to histopathological damage of its vital organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23710DOI Listing
July 2021

Dietary Black Seed Effects on Growth Performance, Proximate Composition, Antioxidant and Histo-Biochemical Parameters of a Culturable Fish, Rohu ().

Animals (Basel) 2020 Dec 29;11(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Animal and Aquatic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

This feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary black seed () supplementation on the growth performance, muscles proximate composition, antioxidant and histo-biochemical parameters of rohu (). Fingerlings (8.503 ± 0.009 g) were fed on 0.0%, 1% and 2.5% black seed supplemented diets for 28 days. Fish sampling was done on the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of experiment. The results of the present study indicated that black seed supplementation significantly increased growth performance and muscles protein contents of rohu over un-supplemented ones. Lipid peroxidation levels significantly decreased in all the studied tissues (liver, gills, kidney and brain) of black seed fed rohu, whereas the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione) activities were increased in all the studied tissues of black seed supplemented rohu at each sampling day. The hepatic-nephric marker enzymes levels were decreased for black seed fed rohu. The present study showed that tested black seed levels are safe for rohu. Black seed is cheaply available in local markets of Pakistan; therefore, based on the results of the present study, it is suggested that black seed has potential to be used as natural growth promoter and antioxidant in the diet of rohu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11010048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824491PMC
December 2020

Evaluation of Cadmium Chloride-Induced Toxicity in Chicks Via Hematological, Biochemical Parameters, and Cadmium Level in Tissues.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Sep 30;199(9):3457-3469. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Zoology, The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Cadmium is a heavy metal and a non-biodegradable environmental contaminant, and its omnipresence ensures its recurrent exposure to humans and animals. Its intake by chicks leads to fatal implications. Cadmium chloride (CdCl) because of its bio-accumulative nature is an emerging threat to the poultry industry as well as to the humans which consumes these cadmium-intoxicated chickens. In the current study, the target was to elucidate the toxic effects of CdClon body weight, hematological, and biochemical parameters as well as its bioaccumulation in different organs of broiler chicks. Various concentrations of CdCl (0, 12, 24, 38, and 48 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to five groups (A, B, C, D, and E) of broiler chicks, respectively. The biometric screening of the exposed birds was carried out by hematological parameters such as packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total protein, white blood cells (WBC), and hemoglobin (Hb), as well as biochemical parameters superoxide dismutase (SOD), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with commercially available kits. Metal accumulation in different organs was detected using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The compound exposure produced a varied impact on broiler birds. Hematological parameters showed a significant decrease except for WBC. Biochemical parameters also decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. However, it was revealed that the body weight of chickens was not affected considerably after CdCl exposure. A direct relationship was detected between the accumulation of metal within tissues (lungs, heart, and flesh) and exposure frequency. It can be deduced that an increase in Cd deposition in tissues may lead to an alteration in hematological-biochemical markers which may significantly contribute to systemic toxicity in broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02453-9DOI Listing
September 2021

Detrimental Effects of Bisphenol Compounds on Physiology and Reproduction in Fish: A Literature Review.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jan 17;81:103497. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA.

Bisphenol-A is one of the most studied endocrine-chemicals, which is widely used all over the world in plastic manufacture. Because of its extensive use, it has become one of the most abundant chemical environmental pollutants, especially in aquatic environments. BPA is known to affect fish reproduction via estrogen receptors but many studies advocate that BPA affects almost all aspects of fish physiology. The possible modes of action include genomic, as well as and non-genomic mechanisms, estrogen, androgen, and thyroid receptor-mediated effects. Due to the high detrimental effects of BPA, various analogs of BPA are being used as alternatives. Recent evidence suggests that the analogs of BPA have similar modes of action, with accompanying effects on fish physiology and reproduction. In this review, a detailed comparison of effects produced by BPA and analogs and their mode of action is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2020.103497DOI Listing
January 2021

Bisphenol-A induced antioxidants imbalance and cytokines alteration leading to immune suppression during larval development of Labeo rohita.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 7;27(21):26800-26809. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Recently, the oxidative stress and immunotoxicity biomarkers have been extensively used in embryotoxicity using fish embryos as promising models especially after exposure to chemical-like environmental estrogens. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor and is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Larvae of Labeo rohita were exposed to low concentrations of BPA (10, 100, 1000 μg/l) for 21 days. Innate immune system, antioxidants parameters, and developmental alterations were used as biomarkers. Exposure to BPA caused developmental abnormalities including un-inflated swim bladder, delayed yolk sac absorption, spinal curvature, and edema of pericardium. Lipid peroxidation increased and activity of catalase (p < 0.05), superoxide dismutase (p < 0.05), and glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.01) decreased after exposure to BPA. Level of reduced glutathione also decreased (p < 0.05) in BPA-exposed group. Lower expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (p < 0.05) and interferon-γ (p < 0.001) was observed in BPA-exposed groups while expression of interleukin-10 increased (p < 0.05) in larvae exposed to 10 μg/l BPA. Moreover, exposure of BPA caused a concentration-dependent increase in expression of heat shock protein 70 (p < 0.05). The present study showed that the exposure to BPA in early life stages of Labeo rohita caused oxidative stress and suppress NF-κB signaling pathway leading to immunosuppression. The results presented here demonstrate the cross talk between heat shock protein 70 and cytokines expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08959-yDOI Listing
July 2020

Validation of Housekeeping Genes for Gene Expression Profiling in Fish: A Necessity.

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2019;29(6):565-579

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a reliable tool for gene expression analysis in various organisms. Its use in aquaculture and study of fish physiology is increasing day by day. Relative quantification of mRNA through real-time qPCR requires suitable housekeeping genes/reference genes. Expression of housekeeping genes were thought to be constant in different tissues under various physiological and experimental conditions. In light of the literature reviewed here, it is clear that expression of most of the genes varied in different physiological conditions, under different experimental conditions, and in different gender. Use of housekeeping genes without proper validation may lead to erroneous results and misinterpretation of data. To solve this problem, various types of user-friendly software are now available for validation of housekeeping genes. Moreover, it is recommended to use more than one housekeeping gene for relative quantification. Using the geometric mean of the three most stable genes as a housekeeping gene can also solve this problem to some extent. Therefore, there is a dire need to validate a set of housekeeping genes in the species under study and in various tissues depending on the experimental design to obtain valid and reproducible results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2019028964DOI Listing
September 2020

Modulation of brain kisspeptin expression after bisphenol-A exposure in a teleost fish, Catla catla.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2019 Feb 3;45(1):33-42. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Physiology and Cell biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect the neuroendocrine system which in turn influences the reproductive regulation. Neuronal genes disrupted by EDCs are the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh2), the Kiss/GPR54 system that regulates gonadotropin release and cyp19b gene encoding brain aromatase. In the present study, pubertal Catla catla expected to spawn for first the time in the coming season were exposed to graded concentration of bisphenol-A (10, 100, 1000 μg/l) for 14 days. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of neuroendocrine genes, i.e., kisspeptins and their receptors, gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II and brain aromatase were studied after 14 days exposure. Results showed that bisphenol-A (BPA) strongly upregulated expression of kiss1, kiss2, gpr54a, and gnrh2 in fish exposed to 10 μg/l BPA. Fish exposed to 1000 μg/l BPA, expression of kiss1 and gnrh2 were comparable to control while kiss2 mRNA increased compared to controls. Brain aromatase (cyp19b) mRNA expression increased in fish exposed to both 10 and 1000 μg/l BPA. These results indicate that BPA exposure can disrupt organization of the kisspeptin signaling pathways. This neuroendocrine disruption may be the underlying mechanism by which a suite of reproductive abnormalities are induced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-018-0532-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Disruption of the Reproductive Axis in Freshwater Fish, Catla catla, After Bisphenol-A Exposure.

Zoolog Sci 2017 Oct;34(5):438-444

2 Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.

Environmental estrogens such as bisphenol-A (BPA) cause reproductive disorders in many vertebrate species, especially fish. BPA is used extensively in the manufacture of plastic and plastic products, epoxy resins, and dental sealants. The presence of BPA in sewage and surface water raises a potential threat to aquatic populations. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BPA on ovarian histology and transcription of key genes involved in reproduction. Adult female Catla catla were exposed to graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100, 1000 µg/l) for 14 days. Ovary histology and expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star), ovary aromatase (cyp19a), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr), and luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) were evaluated in ovary of female fish after 14 days. Fish ovaries from the control and 10 µg/l BPA exposed groups included primary oocytes (POCs), while fish exposed to higher concentrations of BPA (100 and 1000 µg/l) contained tertiary and mature oocytes with increased numbers of atretic follicles. Significant increases in mRNA transcripts of star were observed in fish exposed to 100 and 1000 µg/l BPA. A 15-fold increase in the expression of ovary aromatase (cyp19a) was detected in fish exposed to 100 µg/l BPA. fshr increased in a dose-dependent manner. Increases in the expression of lhr, although not statistically significant, were observed in fish exposed to 100 and 1000 µg/l BPA when compared to control. The results of the present study indicate that BPA causes alterations in the expression patterns of genes involved in the reproductive pathway, which may lead to negative effects on the reproductive system in female fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2108/zs170009DOI Listing
October 2017
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