Publications by authors named "Mehtap Evran"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outcomes of surgical and/or medical treatment in patients with prolactinomas during long-term follow-up: a retrospective single-centre study.

Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2020 Dec 17;42(2):153-157. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Objectives: Prolactinoma is the most common cause of pituitary tumours. Current medical guidelines recommend dopamine agonists (cabergoline or bromocriptine) as the initial therapy for prolactinoma. However, surgical removal can also be considered in selected cases, such as patients with macroadenomas with local complications (bleeding or optic chiasm pressure) or those not responding to medical treatment.

Methods: The present retrospective study included patients with prolactinomas (n=43; female, 24; male, 19) who were primarily managed with medical (n=32) or surgical (n=11) treatment.

Results: Macroadenoma (n=29.67%) was commonly detected in both genders (female, 54%; male, 84%). Moreover, the mean pre-treatment prolactin levels were similar in both genders (female, 683.3 ± 1347 ng/mL; male, 685.4 ± 805 ng/mL; p=0.226). Surgically treated patients had a greater reduction in tumour size (27.7 ± 17.9 mm pre-treatment vs. 8.72 ± 14.2 mm post-treatment) than non-surgically treated ones (12.5 ± 7.5 mm pre-treatment vs. 4.1 ± 4.2 mm post-treatment; p=0.00). However, the decrease in prolactin levels was similar between the two patient groups (p=0.108). During the follow-up period (10.6 ± 7.0 years), the average cabergoline dose of the patients was 1.42 ± 1.47 mcg/week.

Conclusions: Although a surgical approach was considered for selected cases of prolactinoma, the average dose used for medical treatment was highly inadequate for the patients in the present study.
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December 2020

Pituitary Volume in Patients with Primary Empty Sella and Clinical Relevance to Pituitary Hormone Secretion: A Retrospective Single Center Study.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 ;17(8):1018-1024

Faculty of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Background: According to neuroradiological findings, empty sella seems to be deprived of pituitary tissue in sella turcica. Changing size of the pituitary volume is closely related to the occurrence of primary empty sella. The aim of the study is to determine pituitary dysfunction in patients with partial or total primary empty sella and the significance of pituitary volume measurements in these patients.

Methods: This study was designed retrospectively. 67 patients (55 females, 12 males) diagnosed with primary empty sella syndrome between the years of 2015-2019 were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: partial (PES) and total (TES) empty sella by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Basal anterior pituitary and its hormones were assessed. We also included 26 healthy control subjects (19 females, 7 males) to compare the differences in pituitary volumes. Volumes were measured by using Osirix Dicom Viewer (Pixmeo SARL, Geneve, Swiss) in 3.0 Tesla scanner MRI.

Results: 82.1% (n=55) of all patients were PES and the others were (n=12) TES. Hypopituitarism, known as one or more pituitary hormones deficiency, was found in 12 patients (17.9%). While 9 of them had total PES, the others had partial PES. Secondary adrenal insufficiency and gonadotropin deficiency were more prevalent in patients with TES. Mean volume measurements of patients with TES, PES and healthy subjects were 0.23±0.17, 0.35±0.15, 0.54±0.17 cm3, respectively. Except for IGF1 values (p=0.026), there was not any significant correlation found between the anterior pituitary hormones and volume measurements.

Conclusion: Although volume measurement has helped in the diagnosis of pituitary empty sella (partial or total), it does not seem to have any significant correlation with pituitary secretory function.
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January 2021

Clinical Relevance and Immunohistochemical Patterns of Silent Pituitary Adenomas: 10 Years of Single-centre Experience.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 ;17(2):310-317

Cukurova University, Faculty of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Adana, Turkey.

Background: Silent pituitary adenomas are clinically non-functional (i.e., without clinically evident pituitary hormone production).

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate subjects with silent pituitary adenomas for possible variations in their clinical status.

Methods: A total of 102 patients who had undergone surgery for pituitary adenoma and had been diagnosed with silent pituitary adenoma was included in the study. The patients' preoperative and postoperative hormonal parameters and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features were collected, and pathological specimens were re-evaluated.

Results: Immunohistochemistry results of the 102 patients were as follows: hormone-negative adenomas (n=35) 35.5%; FSH+LH-positivity (n=32) 31.3%; ACTH-positivity (n=11) 10.7%; α-subunit- positivity (n= 9) 8.8%; prolactin-positivity (n=8) 7.8%; GH-positivity (n=6) 5.4%; and plurihormonal adenoma (n=1). The mean sizes of SGA, SGHA, and SCA were 28.0±12.7, 30.0±16.0, and 27.7±8.9mm (p>0.05), respectively. With the exception of silent gonadotroph adenomas (SGAs), female gender dominance was shown in patients with silent growth hormone adenoma (SGHA) and silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA). Although no clinical relevance was observed in relation to hormonal excess, preoperative GH (4.21±4.6, vs. 0.27±0.36 p=0.00) was slightly more elevated in SGHA than in GH-negative adenomas. Additionally, preoperative basal ACTH values (47.3±28.7 vs. 23.9±14.4, p=0.003) were also higher in SCA compared to the other types. Our findings revealed SCAs to be of more aggressive behaviour than SGHAs and SGAs due to invasiveness in radiological imaging, their elevated re-operation, and postoperative ACTH values.

Conclusion: Silent pituitary adenomas represent a challenging diagnostic tumour group. Careful initial evaluation of patients with pituitary adenomas should consider any mild signs and symptoms of functionality, particularly in cases of GH- and ACTH-secreting adenomas.
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January 2021

Possible role of the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the clinical course of prostate neoplasia in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Mar 13;75(3):e13723. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Aim: The expression of the cognate receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in malignant tissues of patients with type 2 diabetes has been suggested as a co-factor determining the clinical course and prognosis. We aimed to investigate the relationship between RAGE expression and clinicopathological features of prostate neoplasia.

Methods: Tissue samples of 197 patients, 64 (24 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 controls) with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 133 (71 patients with type 2 diabetes and 62 controls) with localised or metastatic prostate cancer (LPCa/MetPCa) were included in the study. The expression of RAGE in prostate specimens was studied immunohistochemically. RAGE scores were determined according to the extent of immunoreactivity and staining intensity.

Results: RAGE expression in BPH group (patients with type 2 diabetes and controls) was negative. Patients with both LPCa and MetPCa had significantly higher scores than those with BPH (P < .001). The mean RAGE scores of patients with type 2 diabetes LPCa and MetPCa were 4.71 ± 3.14 and 4.97 ± 3.69. The mean scores of control LPCa and MetPCa were 1.52 ± 1.87 and 1.69 ± 1.58, respectively. The scores of patients with type 2 diabetes LPCa and MetPCa were significantly higher than those of control LPCa and MetPCa (P = .01 and P < .001, respectively).

Conclusion: We found higher RAGE expression levels in malignant prostate neoplasia than in BPH. As expected, patients with diabetes had higher scores than control patients. Disease progression and survival parameters were worse in patients with high RAGE levels. RAGE expression may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer.
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March 2021

Hospitalization costs associated with diabetic foot ulcers treated by a multidisciplinary team in clinical practice. A retrospective study from southern Turkey.

Ann Ital Chir 2021 ;92:87-91

Purpose: Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is a common problem throughout the world and results in major economic consequences for the patients and country. We aim to describe the estimated cost of illness in patients with DFU in southern Turkey.

Methods: A total of 148 (F=55, M=93) patients with DFU were included in this retrospective study. Patients characteristics, duration time of hospitalisations, biochemical parameters and the presence of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease were recorded from our database. The cost of each patient was recorded from financial affairs and the billing department unit of our hospital.

Results: The average unit cost of each patient was £ 730.90±664.9. The major component in the total cost were medication (£ 258.8±360.9) and hospitalisation fees (£ 76.58±56.3). One hundred and fifteen (77.7%) of the patients had peripheral arterial diseases. While we could not determine significant correlations between the patients' demographical features (age, gender, p>0.05), biochemical parameters (plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c % (HbA1c %)) and year of diagnoses with diabetes mellitus , the length of hospitalisation, presence of peripheral artery diseases and whether amputation (minor or major) was performed were significantly correlated with the total expenses.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the cost of DFU could show variability in relation to countries' level of development. We highlighted similar studies in other countries; the major factors of total expenses were length of hospitalisation, medication prescription and use of surgery.

Key Words: Costs, Diabetic foot, Multidisciplinary team.
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August 2021

HbA1c level decreases in iron deficiency anemia.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Feb 6;133(3-4):102-106. Epub 2020 May 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Background: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is the major form of glycosylated hemoglobin. There are conflicting data on changes in HbA1c levels in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of HbA1c levels in the presence of IDA, the effects of iron treatment on HbA1c levels, as well as the relationship between the severity of anemia and HbA1c levels in patients without diabetes.

Design And Methods: A total of 263 patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) who were admitted to Cukurova University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Hematology or who were followed up in this clinic and diagnosed as having IDA were included in the study. A total of 131 patients had IDA. The control group comprised 132 age-matched and sex-matched healthy individuals.

Results: The mean HbA1c level was significantly lower in the group with IDA (5.4%) than in the healthy control group (5.9%; p < 0.05). When the patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of anemia through Hb levels, HbA1c levels were observed to decrease as the severity of the anemia increased (5.5%, 5.4%, and 5%, respectively; p > 0.05). The HbA1c levels of the patients with IDA were higher after iron therapy (from 5.4 ± 0.5 to 5.5 ± 0.3; p = 0.057). The mean hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpusculer hemoglobin (MCH), and ferritin values also increased after iron therapy (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The study results showed that IDA was associated with low HbA1c levels, and increased after iron therapy. Based on the study findings, it is necessary to consider the possible effects of IDA on HbA1c levels.
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February 2021

Markers of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Pituitary Adenoma: A Case Series of 303 Patients.

Horm Metab Res 2019 Nov 4;51(11):709-713. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Medical Faculty, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

To assess the demographic characteristics and hormonal status of patients who presented to our clinic with pituitary adenoma and to demonstrate the presence, prevalence, and relationship of metabolic syndrome parameters in these patients. The study included 303 patients with known or newly diagnosed pituitary adenoma and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The patients were classified into 3 groups; acromegaly (ACRO) (n=54),prolactinoma (PRLoma) (n=163), and non-functional adenoma (NFA) (n=86). in 55.6% (n=172) and 52% (n=163) of the patients, respectively. The waist circumference of all patients (p<0.001) and body mass index (BMI) of patients with PRLoma (p=0.03) and ACRO (p<0.001) were found to be significantly higher than in the controls. The HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-IR values were significantly higher in the ACRO and PRLoma groups, whereas the insulin and HOMA-IR values were significantly higher in the NFA group compared with the control group (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). When the 3 patient groups were compared, waist circumference and BMI were significantly higher in the ACRO group than in the PRLoma group (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively). In patients developing pituitary failure after treatment, age, waist circumference, plasma glucose, low-density lipoproteins and triglyceride values were significantly increased when compared with those without pituitary failure after treatment (p<0.001). In our study, it was found that there was increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk in functional pituitary adenoma and NFA.
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November 2019

Diagnostic efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.

Endocr Connect 2019 Jul;8(7):838-845

Division of Endocrinology, Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Cukurova University Medical Faculty, Department of Internal Medicine, Adana, Turkey.

Background: The management of adrenal incidentaloma is still a challenge with respect to determining its functionality (hormone secretion) and malignancy. In this light, we performed 18F-FDG PET/CT scan to assess the SUVmax values in different adrenal masses including Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, primary hyperaldosteronism and non-functional adrenal adenomas.

Methods: Total 109 (73 F, 36 M) patients with adrenal mass (incidentaloma), mean age of 53.3 ± 10.2 years (range, 24-70) were screened by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Data of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of the patients were assessed by the same specialist. Adrenal masses were identified according to the calculated standardized uptake values (SUVs). Clinical examination, 24-h urine cortisol, catecholamine metabolites, 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test, aldosterone/renin ratio and serum electrolytes were analyzed.

Results: Based on the clinical and hormonal evaluations, there were 100 patients with non-functional adrenal mass, four with cortisol-secreting, four with pheochromocytomas and one with aldosterone-secreting adenoma. Mean adrenal mass diameter of 109 patients was 2.1 ± 4.3 (range, 1-6.5 cm). The 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of the patients revealed that lower SUVmax values were found in non-functional adrenal masses (SUVmax 3.2) when compared to the functional adrenal masses including four with cortisol-secreting adenoma (SUVmax 10.1); four with pheochromcytoma (SUVmax 8.7) and one with aldosterone-secreting adenomas (SUVmax 3.30). Cortisol-secreting (Cushing syndrome) adrenal masses showed the highest SUVmax value (10.1), and a cut-off SUVmax of 4.135 was found with an 84.6% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma.

Conclusions: Consistent with the similar studies, non-functional adrenal adenomas typically do not show increased FDG uptake and a certain form of functional adenoma could present various FDG uptake in FDG PET/CT. Especially functional adrenal adenomas (cortisol secreting was the highest) showed increased FDG uptake in comparison to the non-functional adrenal masses. Therefore, setting a specific SUVmax value in the differentiation of malignant adrenal lesion from the benign one is risky and further studies, including a high number of functional adrenal mass are needed.
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July 2019

Multidisciplinary approach for patients with functional and non-functional adrenal masses and review of the literature.

Health Sci Rep 2018 Mar 20;1(3):e22. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology Cukurova University Medical Faculty Adana Turkey.

Background: Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses that are discovered by imaging tests performed for other reasons.

Aims: In this retrospective study, we analysed 229 Turkish patients with adrenal masses and who presented with or without complaints.

Study Design: Descriptive retrospective study and review of the literature.

Methods: This study conducted a retrospective review of 229 patients with adrenal incidentalomas that were referred to Cukurova University Hospital's endocrinological department between 2009 and 2014. We reviewed detailed patient histories, physical examination findings, and symptoms and signs related to hormonal hypersecretion or malignant neoplasm and recorded clinical indications for performing diagnostic radiological imaging. The statistical analysis of data was performed using SPSS-19 software.

Results: Of the 229 patients reviewed, 195 (85.2%) had non-functional, benign adrenal adenomas, and 34 (14.8%) had functional lesions. Among those with functional lesions, 8 (3.5%) had lesions that secreted excess cortisol, 11 (4.8%) had lesions that secreted aldosterone, and 15 (6.6%) had lesions that secreted catecholamines. Eighty-four patients included in the study (36.8%) underwent adrenalectomy; in 14 of these cases, the adrenalectomy was performed before surgical treatment criteria occurred. The most frequent pathologic diagnosis was adrenal cortical neoplasia (n = 38); 32 of these patients had adenomas (Weiss <4 criteria), and 6 had carcinomas (Weiss >4 criteria). Other patient diagnoses included benign pheochromocytoma (n = 13), pseudocyst (n = 12), metastasis (n = 10), haemorrhage (n = 3), necrosis (n = 1), hyperplasia (n = 2), and other (n = 5).

Conclusions: Detailed endocrinological and radiological assessments of the mass nature and hormone status are necessary in cases of adrenal incidentaloma. Appropriate surgical treatment or periodic follow-up must be determined based on the assessment results.
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March 2018

Adipocytokines in Non-functional Adrenal Incidentalomas and Relation with Insulin Resistance Parameters.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2019 ;19(3):326-332

Endocrinology Department, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Objective: Adrenal incidentalomas are diagnosed incidentally during radiological screenings and require endocrinological investigations for hormonal activity and malignancy. In certain studies, it has been reported that non-functional incidentalomas can be associated with high adipocytokines levels affecting the insulin resistance just like the adipose tissue with metabolic syndrome. Here, we studied serum adipocytokine levels including leptin, resistin, visfatin, omentin 1 and adiponectin in subjects with non-functional adrenal incidentaloma.

Methods: Seventy-seven (77) patients (Female 57; Male 20) with non-functional adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI) were enrolled in the study. All patients' past medical history, physical examination including Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference were performed. The patients' demographic, radiologic, hormonal and biochemical parameters were recorded. To compare the parameters, a control group (CG) (n=30) was formed from healthy volunteers. Both groups were matched for age, gender, waist circumference and BMI. Serum adipocytokines including leptin, resistin, visfatin, omentin 1 and adiponectin were measured quantitatively by ELISA. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, sodium, potassium, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), lipid profiles, and dehidroepiandrostenedion sulphate (DHEAS) were measured.

Results: Mean age of the patients was 52.2±10.4 years. BMI and waist circumference of NFAI patients were 26.2±3.28 kg/m2 and 90.2 ±7.5cm, respectively. The mean age of the control group was 48.0±8.16. BMI and waist circumference values for the control group were 25.3±3.5 kg/m2 and 88.3±9.6 cm, respectively. When both groups were compared for age, gender, BMI and waist circumference were non-significant (p>0.05). Serum fasting insulin, total cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride levels of the NFAI group were significantly higher than CG (p<0.05). The insulin resistance index (HOMAIR) values of the NFAI subjects were found to be higher than CG (2.5±1.37, 1.1±0.3 p=0.00). Resistin level of NFAI group was also found to be higher than CG [286.6 ng/L vs. 197 ng/L; (P=0,00)], respectively. Leptin levels of NFAI were significantly higher than CG [441.1 ng/mL vs. 186.5 ng/mL; (P=0.00)] respectively. Adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in the NFAI group than in the CG [10.7 mg/L vs. 30.8 mg/L; (P=0.00)]. Comparision of visfatin and omentin levels was nonsignificant.

Conclusion: In this study on subjects with non-functional adrenal incidentaloma, we found not only significantly decreased serum adiponectin levels but also increased leptin, resistin levels as well as dyslipidemia, hypertension and high insulin resistance index. All of which could affect insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors. The underlying mechanisms of these findings are unknown, hence further studies are needed.
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August 2019

Tinea pedis and onychomycosis frequency in diabetes mellitus patients and diabetic foot ulcers. A cross sectional - observational study.

Pak J Med Sci 2016 Jul-Aug;32(4):891-5

Prof. Dr. Tamer Tetiker, M.D. Specialist in Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Cukurova University Medical Faculty, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

Objective: Impaired cellular immunity and reduced phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitate the development of skin fungal and bacterial infections due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. In our study, we aimed to assess onychomycosis and/or tinea pedis frequency in diabetic patients, and effects on the development of chronic complications, particularly foot ulcer.

Methods: We included 227 diabetic patients in the study. Forty-three patients had diabetic foot ulcer. We screened and recorded demographic characteristics, HbA1c levels of patients, and presence of complications We examined patients dermatologically, and collected samples by scalpel from skin between toes, and from sole, toe nail, and area surrounding nails from suspected to have fungal infection.

Results: Native positivity between toes was higher in men compared to women (p<0.05). We obtained significant relation between HbA1c elevation and native positivity between toes (p<0.05). Fungal infection between toes, at sole and toe nail significantly increased in patients with diabetic foot ulcer compared to patients without diabetic foot ulcer (p<0.05). Moreover, native positivity in patients with diabetic foot ulcer correlated with presence of fungal infection examination findings (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Fungal infections were more frequently observed in the presence of poor glycemic control and peripheral vascular disease in diabetic patients in compliance with the literature, and the presence of fungal infection may also responsible for the development of foot ulcers.
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September 2016

Spontaneous calcaneal fracture in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: Four cases report and review of literature.

World J Clin Cases 2016 Jul;4(7):181-6

Mehtap Evran, Murat Sert, Tamer Tetiker, Gamze Akkuş, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Cukurova University Medical Faculty, University of Cukurova in Adana, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

Spontaneous calcaneal fractures in diabetic patients without obvious trauma may occur, sometimes accompanying diabetic foot ulcers. In the current study we report four cases who were hospitalized for diabetic foot ulcer with concomitant calcaneal fractures. There were four diabetic patients (one type 1 and three type 2) who registered with diabetic foot ulcers with coexisting calcaneal fractures, all of which were classified as Type A according to Essex Lopresti Calcaneal Fracture Classification. Two of the patients with renal failure were in a routine dialysis program, as well as vascular compromise and osteomyelitis in all of the patients. The diabetic foot ulcer of the 61 years old osteoporotic female patient healed with local debridement, vacuum assisted closure and then epidermal growth factor while the calcaneal fracture was then followed by elastic bandage. In two patients could not prevent progression of diabetic foot ulcers and calcaneal fractures to consequent below-knee amputation. The only patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus improved with antibiotic therapy and split thickness skin grafting, while the calcaneal fracture did not heal. In the current study we aimed to emphasize the spontaneous calcaneal fractures as possible co-existing pathologies in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. After all the medical treatment, amputation below knee had to be performed in 2 patients. It should be noted that other accompanying conditions such as impaired peripheral circulation, osteomyelitis, chronic renal failure, and maybe osteoporosis is a challenge of the recovery of calcaneal fractures and accelerate the progress to amputation in diabetic patients.
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July 2016

Carotid Intima-Media Thickness as the Cardiometabolic Risk Indicator in Patients with Nonfunctional Adrenal Mass and Metabolic Syndrome Screening.

Med Sci Monit 2016 Mar 26;22:991-7. Epub 2016 Mar 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Cukurova University, Medical Faculty, Adana, Turkey.

Background: Our purpose was to show the association of adrenal incidentaloma and metabolic syndrome in consideration of the studies and to detect the increase in the carotid intima-media thickness which is regarded as the precessor of atherosclerosis.

Material/methods: Eighty-one patients who were diagnosed with adrenal mass were included in the study. Hormonal evaluation, insulin rezistance measurement with the HOMA-IR and 1-mg DST were performed of all patients. The patients were classified as follows: mass size <3 cm (K1) and mass size of at least 3 cm (K2). Echocardiography and carotid intima-media thickness of the patients were measured using B-mode ultrasound. Thirty-three healthy individuals were enrolled as the control group.

Results: Mass size of 64.19% K1, while mass size of the remainder (35.81%) K2 was calculated. Five of the patients with adrenal mass were detected to have subclinical Cushing syndrome. The remaining 76 patients were accepted as nonfunctional. It was seen with regard to metabolic and biochemical parameters that plasma glucose (p=0.01), insulin (p=0.00) and triglyceride (p=0.012) values of all patients were significantly high compared to those of the control group. It was detected that measured heart rate (p=0.00), end-diastolic diameter (p=0.02), end-systolic diameter (p=0.014) and carotid intima-media thickness (p=0.00) values of the patients with adrenal mass were significantly higher than those of the healthy control group.

Conclusions: We found that the increased insulin resistance, increased risk of cardiovascular disease with the increase in the thickness of carotid intima-media and diastolic disfunction parameters, although the patients with adrenal incidentaloma are nonfunctional.
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March 2016

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: Correlation between nerve cross-sectional area on ultrasound and clinical features.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2016 Nov;29(4):717-722

Fizyocare Medical Center, Ankara, Turkey.

Background And Objective: To evaluate the correlations of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of peripheral nerves in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) patients based on ultrasound (US) with clinical and demographic characteristics.

Methods: A DPN patient group (n= 53) and a matched healthy control group (n= 53) underwent US imaging of the sciatic, tibial and median nerves. The CSAs of these nerves were recorded, and their associations with pain intensity according to the visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale score, diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c level and blood glucose levels were evaluated.

Results: The CSAs of the examined nerves in diabetic patients were larger than those in healthy individuals (p< 0.05). No correlations were detected between the CSAs of the examined nerves and the parameters of interest (p> 0.05), including the VAS and LANSS pain scale scores (p= 0.32 and p= 0.31, respectively).

Conclusions: US is a sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting DPN; however, it does not indicate disease severity.
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November 2016

Primary hyperparathyroidism in a patient with primary aldosteronism.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Jul 22;8:310. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cukurova University Medical Faculty, 01330, Adana, Turkey.

Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the most common causes of hypercalcemia. Inherited forms of primary hyperparathyroidism like Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1, Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a, Hyperparathyroidism-Jaw Tumor Syndrome or isolated familial tumors are not common for our population.

Results: We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism in a 38-year-old Turkish man with hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome).

Conclusion: Genetic studies could not reveal any mutation. We could not identify any inherit form of the diseases. We wanted the first-line relatives examination of the suspected gene mutation, but they refused.
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July 2015

Clinical experiences and success rates of acromegaly treatment: the single center results of 62 patients.

BMC Endocr Disord 2014 Dec 16;14:97. Epub 2014 Dec 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Balcali Hospital, Cukurova University Medical Faculty, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

Background: This study aimed to report the clinical and outcome data from a large cohort of patients diagnosed with acromegaly and treated at our institution over a 20-year period.

Methods: Sixty-two acromegaly patients (32 women and 30 men) treated and monitored at the endocrinology polyclinic between 1984 and 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical features and patients' treatment outcomes were evaluated. A level of growth hormone (GH) of <2.5 ng/ml was considered as the criterion for remission, and the normal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) range was based on gender and age.

Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 38.8 ± 1.4 years, the time to diagnosis was 4.5 ± 0.3 years, and the follow-up duration was 7.3 ± 0.8 years. Among patients' symptoms, growth in hands and feet and typical facial dysmorphism were the most prominent (92%). The number of patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperprolactinemia were 22 (35%), 13 (21%) and 13 (21%), respectively. Microadenomas and macroadenomas were found in eight and 54 patients, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the initial tumor diameters and GH levels (p = 0.002). The mean GH and IGF-1 levels were 39.18 ± 6.1 ng/ml and 993.5 ± 79 ng/ml, respectively. Visual field defect was found in 16 patients (32%). Thirty-one patients were treated by transsphenoidal surgery. Four of these were cured, 10 patients developed postoperative anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, and one patient developed diabetes insipidus. Twenty patients were treated by transcranial surgery, of which two were cured, while 17 patients developed postoperative anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. In total, five of the patients who were not cured after surgery were given conventional radiotherapy, of which two were cured. Four of 15 patients, on whom Gamma Knife radiosurgery was performed, were cured. Biochemical remission was achieved in 32 of 52 patients who received octreotide treatment, and in two of five patients who received lanreotide treatment.

Conclusions: The rate of surgical success in our patients was found to be low. This could be explained by an absence of experienced pituitary surgical centers or surgeons in our region, and the fact that most patients presented late at the macroadenoma stage.
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December 2014

A case with hypothyrodism following autologous stem cell transplantation.

Turk J Haematol 2013 Jun 5;30(2):221-2. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Çukurova University Medical Faculty, Department of Endocrinology, Adana, Turkey.

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June 2013

Systemic lupus erythematosus and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a case report.

Transfus Apher Sci 2004 Aug;31(1):17-20

Division of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Balcali, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

Background: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a multisystem disorder characterised by platelet aggregation causing microvascular occlusion. Early diagnosis and utilization of plasmapheresis can provide an improvement in prognosis.

Case Report: A 17 year old male with classical findings of TTP was later diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Plasmapheresis resulted in the significant amelioration of the course.

Conclusion: The coexistence of TTP and SLE may facilitate a better understanding of in the pathophysiology of TTP. These association may provide the role of autoimmunity in TTP. SLE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with TTP because of therapeutic implications.
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August 2004