Publications by authors named "Mehrukh Zehravi"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Depression and anxiety in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a literature survey.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Some of the indications and symptoms of PCOS include amenorrhoea, hirsutism, infertility, obesity, acne vulgaris and androgenic alopecia. PCOS is a crippling condition that affects a woman's identity, mental health and overall quality of life (QOL). In persons with PCOS, anxiety and sadness are assumed to be multifactorial. According to some specialists, physical symptoms like acne, hirsutism and obesity have been linked to psychiatric morbidities. Many aspects of it remain unknown, including its cause, progression throughout life, symptom spectrum and level of morbidity. PCOS is a complex disease that has an impact on many aspects of a person's health, including their mental health. Anxiety and depression are three times as common in PCOS patients as in non-PCOS people. Anxiety and depression symptoms are also more common and more intense in those with PCOS. There isn't enough research on the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with PCOS. It's unclear what causes persons with PCOS to be more anxious and depressed. It could be the result of PCOS symptoms, hormonal changes, or a combination of factors that are currently unclear. Our review article will help to highlight the most recent research on anxiety and depression in PCOS women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2021-0092DOI Listing
August 2021

Acute neurological conditions during pregnancy and their management: a review.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Less vascular resistance, higher vascular permeability and improved cardiac output include anatomical and physiological changes related to pregnancy. These are needed to accommodate an increase in plasma volume and ensure significant organ infusion. Nevertheless, increases in oestrogen levels may lead to an increase in the risk of coagulation and thrombosis. Increased levels of progesterone increase the risk of thrombosis due to vasodilation, vascular stasis and edoema in these situations. The increased resistance in preeclampsia maternal systemic blood arteries can create high blood pressure that can interfere with blood flow in numerous organs (including liver, kidneys, brain and placenta). The risk of issues such as pulmonary edoema, placental abruption, pneumonia of aspiration, renal failure, hepatic failure and stroke in pregnant women is increased by Preeclampsia and eclampsia. Some peripheral neuropathies (carpal tunnel syndrome, peripheral facial palsy) and central neurological conditions (seizure, migraine, stroke, epilepsy) may become more common during pregnancy because of the exacerbation of the pre-existing neurologic condition or the onset of neurological disturbance caused by pregnancy physiological changes (such as headache or vascular disorders). During the three trimesters of pregnancy, neurological disorders are both peripheral and central. Therefore, an early and correct diagnosis is required to improve pregnancy care, treatment and perinatal outcomes. The aims of this paper are to identify, define and manage the most prevalent peripheral and centrally occurring neurological disorders in the pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2021-0084DOI Listing
August 2021

Green Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Fabricated Silver-Based Nanocomposite for Various Therapeutic Applications.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 11;16:5371-5393. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Purpose: The current study proposed the simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) structured silver-based nanocomposite (CMC-AgNPs) using buds extract.

Methods: The CMC-AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infra-red (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The synthesized nanocomposites were evaluated for their bactericidal kinetics, in-vivo anti-inflammatory, anti-leishmaniasis, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities using different in-vitro and in-vivo models.

Results: The spherical shape nanocomposite of CMC-AgNPs was synthesized with the mean size range of 20-30 nm, and the average pore diameter is 18.2 nm while the mean zeta potential of -31.6 ± 3.64 mV. The highly significant < 0.005) antibacterial activity was found against six bacterial strains with the ZIs of 24.6 to 27.9 mm. More drop counts were observed in Gram-negative strains after 10 min exposure with CMC-AgNPs. Significant damage in bacterial cell membrane was also observed in atomic force microscopy (AFM) after treated with CMC-AgNPs. Nanocomposite showed highly significant anti-inflammatory activity in cotton pellet induced granuloma model (Phase I) in rats with the mean inhibitions of 43.13% and 48.68% at the doses of 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively, when compared to control. Reduction in rat paw edema (Phase II) was also highly significant (0.025 mg/kg; 42.39%; 0.05 mg/kg, 47.82%). At dose of 0.05 mg/kg, CMC-AgNPs caused highly significant decrease in leukocyte counts (922 ± 83), levels of CRP (8.4 ± 0.73 mg/mL), IL-1 (177.4 ± 21.3 pg/mL), IL-2 (83.7 ± 11.5 pg/mL), IL-6 (83.7 ± 11.5 pg/mL) and TNF-α (18.3 ± 5.3 pg/mL) as compared to control group. CMC-AgNPs produced highly effective anti-leishmaniasis activity with the viable counts decreased up to 36.7% within 24 h, and the IC was found to be 28.41 μg/mL. The potent DPPH radical scavenging potential was also observed for CMC-AgNPs with the IC value of 112 μg/mL. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity was assessed using HeLa cell lines with the LC of 108.2 μg/mL.

Conclusion: The current findings demonstrate positive attributes of CMC fabricated AgNPs as a promising antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-leishmaniasis, and antioxidant agent with low cytotoxic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S321419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370115PMC
August 2021

Polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility: an update.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most well-known endocrine condition among women of this generation (PCOS). Symptoms of hyperandrogenism, irregular menstrual periods, and insulin resistance are all traits associated with PCOS. In women with PCOS, the chance of having problems including infertility, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes increases. The PCOS board hopes to reduce body weight and insulin levels, restore fertility, control excessive hair growth on the body or scalp, re-establish the regular feminine cycle, and avoid misunderstandings. Insulin sensitizers have been one of the most common metabolic modulators, but their effectiveness has been sporadic. Insulin resistance, followed by thiazolidinediones, is central to the pathophysiology of PCOS, with metformin having nearly similar efficacy. In the management of PCOS, statins and incretins are newer therapies with obvious metabolic targets. Vitamin D, acarbose, and myoinositol are just a few of the reciprocal and optional clinical treatments that have been proved to be useful in the treatment of PCOS. The number of viable methods for dealing with PCOS-related infertility has increased as well. Despite the fact that clomiphene citrate (CC) has long been the gold standard for ovulation induction in the event of ovulatory infertility, aromatase inhibitors can induce ovulation with results that are nearly identical to or better than those reported with CC, aromatase inhibitors can cause ovulation with results that are nearly identical to or better than those reported with CC. Ovarian incitement conventions that intelligently utilize gonadotropins, gonadotropin-delivering hormone rivals, the approach of ovarian boring, and assisted conceptive advancements with oocyte development indicate an expanding level of therapeutic progress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2021-0073DOI Listing
July 2021

Menstrual distress in females of reproductive age: a literature review.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Menstrual-related issues have significant public-health ramifications. Women who are having menstruation troubles should get their mental health checked by healthcare specialists. In young women, a menstrual-related condition has serious health implications. Young females who have menstrual issues miss job and school, and their behavioural and mental development suffers as a result. Depression and anxiety have an impact on women's menstrual periods in adults. Symptoms like as cramps, tiredness, backache, swelling abdomen, and painful breasts have also been described in women with menstrual misery. Menstrual distress has been shown to impair women's daily activities, as well as their reproductive and psychological health, according to research. Menstrual periods are frequently accompanied by a variety of unpleasant symptoms, such as premenstrual syndrome, which includes symptoms such as mild cramping and exhaustion. The severity of these symptoms, on the other hand, differs from woman to woman, depending on their health, food, way of life, and other factors. Women with menstrual-related issues have also reported smoking, alcohol intake, and an increase in hunger. Furthermore, young women experience emotional disturbances such as melancholy, restlessness, and despair. It is a sign of an atypical menstrual cycle if there is no cycle or if the bleeding is atypical or light. As a result, it is critical to maintain contact with a gynaecologist in order to detect any significant changes in a regular menstrual cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2021-0081DOI Listing
July 2021

Correlation between obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus, and pregnancy outcomes: an overview.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Obesity has been identified mainly as a raise in the body's adiposity leading to prolonged overshoot of caloric intake over expenditure. Obesity has significant health-altering implications which have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of other diseases through its extensive physiological assaults. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been an increasing epidemic worldwide. The number of obese births was even on the increase, with an increasing number of women of reproductive age registering as obese. Obesity is related to adverse perinatal outcomes and increased morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. The potential risk for multiple antenatal, postpartum, intrapartum, and neonatal complications is maternal obesity. Greater risk of developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), pre-eclampsia, risk of venous embolism, increased need for labor induction, and cesarean sections in the mother have been recorded in a comprehensive analysis of pregnancy complications associated with obesity. The link between obesity, gestational diabetes, and pregnancy outcomes will be briefly shown in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2021-0058DOI Listing
June 2021

Polycystic ovary syndrome and reproductive health of women: a curious association.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Reproductive health is a broad concept that encompasses mortality, morbidity, and quality of life associated with the reproductive system, mechanism, and incidents encountered at all ages by men and women. Orthodox Indian society finds the conversation on reproductive health to be a taboo and discourages open conversations about it. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive-age metabolic endocrine disorder found in females. Females suffering from PCOS are prone to reproductive, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders. In this paper, we will systematically review about effect of PCOS on Reproductive Health of Women. The numerous electronic databases such as: BMJ, LANCET, PUBMED, Unicef Website, WHO Website and Google Scholar have been comprehensively searched for studies linked to PCOS, its various effects and effect on women's reproductive health. For additional analyses, we have reviewed reference lists of reviews and collected papers. The effects of PCOS on women's reproductive health have been verified by several scientific reports worldwide. PCOS is a hormonal condition, as per multiple reports, with the ability to lead to different outcomes. It still appears to be a common cause among females of infertility. An integral aspect of the treatment of this disease is the early diagnosis of long-term morbidities by effective screening tests. In the future, studies must concentrate on the missing holes in our growing perception of this disease. Several studies have confirmed that reproductive morbidity, including irregular uterine bleeding, abortion, miscarriage, and other risk of pregnancy during reproductive years, is associated with PCOS. PCOS is an amalgam of physiological and psychosocial dysfunction, not just an endocrine disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2021-0031DOI Listing
April 2021

Synergistic Nanocomposites of Different Antibiotics Coupled with Green Synthesized Chitosan-Based Silver Nanoparticles: Characterization, Antibacterial, in vivo Toxicological and Biodistribution Studies.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 13;15:7841-7859. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi 75510, Pakistan.

Purpose: The present study reports chitosan functionalized green synthesized CS-AgNPs, conjugated with amoxicillin (AMX), cefixime (CEF), and levofloxacin (LVX) for safe and enhanced antibacterial activity.

Methods: The CS-AgNPs and conjugates CS-AgNPs+AMX CS-AgNPs+CEF, and CS-AgNPs+LVX were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR, SEM, TEM, EDX spectroscopy. The size distribution and zeta potential were measured using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. The interaction between CS-AgNPs and antibiotic molecules was also investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy at the concentrations of 5, 50, 500, and 5000 µM for each antibiotic. Antibacterial activity and synergism were assessed by the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index. The mechanism for synergistic activity was investigated by the detection of hydroxyl species based on the chemiluminescence of luminol. The biocompatibility index (BI) was calculated from IC using the HeLa cell line. In vivo toxicity and tissue distribution of silver ions were evaluated on Sprague Dawley rats. Physical interactions of antibiotics and significant (P<0.05) antibacterial activity were observed after loading on CS-AgNPs surfaces.

Results: The spherical shape nanocomposites of CS-AgNPs with different antibiotics were prepared with mean size ranges of 80-120 nm. IC of antibiotics-conjugated CS-AgNPs decreased compared to CS-AgNPs. The biocompatibility (BI) index showed that antibiotics-conjugated CS-AgNPs have high antibacterial potential and low toxicity. Highly significant (P<0.005) increase in the generation of hydroxyl species indicated the radical scavenging mechanism for synergistic activity of CS-AgNPs after combined with different antibiotics. Biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations confirmed low toxicity with minor hepatotoxicity at higher doses. After oral administration, extensive distribution of Ag ion was observed in spleen and liver.

Conclusion: The study demonstrates positive attributes of antibiotics-conjugated CS-AgNPs, as a promising antibacterial agent with low toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S274987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568684PMC
November 2020

Relationship of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders with Religion and Psychosocial attitude among Local Medical College Students of Karachi: An epidemiological study.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Sep;70(9):1563-1567

Department of Pharmaceutics, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To evaluate the awareness, prevalence and attitude of medical students towards obsessive compulsive disorder.

Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted at different medical institutions in Karachi from August to October 2018, and comprised medical students who were selected using random sampling. The participants were asked to fill demographic form as well as the obsessive compulsive disorder Yale-Brown scale-based questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS 23.

Results: Of the 1172 subjects, 602(51.4%) were aware of obsessive compulsive disorder, while 570(48.6%) were unaware. Washing, counting and arranging were higher among females than in males (p<0.004). Fear, shame and stigma were of major concerns (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Awareness level of medical students regarding obsessive compulsive disorder was very low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/JPMA.34245DOI Listing
September 2020
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