Publications by authors named "Mehrnaz Rasoulinejad"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bacteria Producing Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Hospitalized Patients: Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and its Main Determinants.

Iran J Pathol 2019 27;14(1):61-67. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Dept. of Pathology, Shariati Hospital Complex, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objective: There is a growing concern regarding the lack of new antibiotics, especially for multidrug- resistant bacteria that produce Extended Spectrum -Lactamases (ESBLs). The present study aims to assess the preva- lence of bacteria producing ESBLs, their antimicrobial resistance pattern, and its main determinants among hospitalized patients.

Methods: The study population included 383 consecutive patients with a definitive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). All eligible subjects for the study had a positive culture for gram-negative microorganisms in urine specimens. ESBL producing isolates were characterized phenotypically for ESBL production using the double disc synergy test.

Results: In total, 383 specimens were assessed, among which 212 (55.4%) were related to bacteria producing ESBLs (ESBL+). Of those with ESBL + infections, 65.5% were sourced from catheters (as hospital-associated UTIs), and 35.5% were categorized as community-associated UTIs. In the group consisting of bacteria producing ESBLs, the high- est sensitivity was observed with Imipenem (72.2%), while the highest resistance was revealed with ceftriaxone (100%).

Conclusion: We have shown that our community faces a high prevalence of bacteria producing ESBLs, mostly sourced from the catheterization of hospitalized patients. The highest bacterial sensitivity was observed with Imipenem, nitrofu- rantoin, and amikacin, while the highest resistance was found with ceftriaxone and cotrimoxazole, suggesting the inef- fectiveness of using the two latter antibiotics for eradicating these bacterial infections. On the other hand, a history of urinary catheterization and previous hospitalization were two main determinants of their presence, a finding which em- phasizes the importance of avoiding catheterization and hospitalization of patients with UTIs without proper indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/IJP.14.1.61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708561PMC
December 2018

Evaluation of Echocardiographic Abnormalities in HIV Positive Patients Treated with Antiretroviral Medications.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2017 ;17(1):43-51

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Flinders University, Flinders. Australia.

Background: Echocardiography is a reliable means for the diagnosis of functional and valvular diseases of the heart in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. The current study was to evaluate echocardiographic abnormalities in HIV positive patients under an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in Tehran, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran.

Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted among 231 HIV-1 positive patients under ART. All HIV positive patients including 150 men (65%) and 81 women (35%) (mean age of 41 years) were assessed by trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) in Imam Khomeini Hospital, over the period from 2013 to 2014.

Results: The mean CD4 count was 408 cell/μl, and the average left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 59.5%. There was an inverse correlation between age and LVEF level. Nevirapine users showed a significantly higher LVEF than non-users. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) was diagnosed in 5.6% along with the increase in age, while left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) was reported in 19.5% of patients associated with age and smoking. Here, the mean systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) was only 20 mmHg and just four percent of the patients suffered pulmonary hypertension. Almost 44% had a heart valve disorder among which mitral valve prolapse is the most common problem. Pericardial effusion was not found in any patients.

Conclusion: It seems that heart disorders with no suggestive symptoms in HIV positive patients, and mainly older adults who have traditional risk factors for heart diseases, should be seriously considered by health providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526516666161205124309DOI Listing
June 2018

Therapeutic effects of minocycline on mild-to-moderate depression in HIV patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2016 Jan;31(1):20-6

aDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Imam Hospital bPsychiatric Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Patients with the HIV infection are at high risk for developing depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of antidepressant effects of minocycline on HIV patients with depression. Forty-six HIV patients, with mild-to-moderate depression and a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) up to 18, participated in a parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and underwent 6 weeks of treatment with either minocycline (100 mg twice daily) or placebo in the same manner. Patients were assessed using HDRS at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the efficacy of minocycline in improving depressive symptoms. General linear model repeated measures showed significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HDRS score during the trial course [F(2, 88)=7.50, P=0.001]. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding adverse events. No serious adverse event was reported. The administration of 100 mg minocycline twice daily seems to be safe and effective in improving depressive symptoms in HIV/AIDS patients with mild-to-moderate depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YIC.0000000000000098DOI Listing
January 2016

Is the evaluation of Entamoeba histolytica infection in HIV-positive patients of any clinical significance?

Acta Med Iran 2015 ;53(1):46-50

Department of Infectious Diseases, Imam Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) is one of the most problematic parasitic infections worldwide. Data regarding the effect of HIV-induced immunodeficiency on the status of E. histolytica infection are sparse in Iran. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of anti-E. histolytica IgG among Iranian HIV patients. Further, it determined whether the advancement of immunodeficiency accompanies an increased risk of amoebiasis. A total of 91 HIV-infected patients and 91 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Controls were matched to cases with respect to age, gender, and where possible socioeconomic status. Patients with a history of treatment for intestinal parasitism within last two weeks were not included in the study. Blood samples were obtained from all participants. Serum IgG against E. histolytica measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean serum anti-E. histolytica IgG was significantly higher in HIV patients than controls (9.34 ± 4.18 vs. 2.07 ± 0.60, P<0.001). HIV-infected patients showed a significantly higher positive serology for E. histolytica IgG comparing healthy controls (30.8% vs. 0% P<0.001). There was no statistical difference in the serology of E. histolytica among AIDS stage and non-AIDS HIV patients. This study demonstrated that HIV is significantly associated with higher prevalence of E. histolytica infection. Early evaluation and treatment of E. histolytica in this population is recommended to prevent and control this infection.
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July 2015

Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus among HIV positive patients moreover and its association with CD4 positive lymphocyte count.

Acta Med Iran 2014 ;52(12):916-21

Department of Pathology, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Opportunistic infections are the leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and are the most common cause of death between them. We aimed to measure IgG antibody against EBV viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA IgG) to determine the seroprevalence of this infection in HIV-positive population. A case-control study between September 2011 and October 2012 was conducted in a teaching hospital enrolling 114 HIV-positive patients as case group and 114 healthy individuals as control with similar age and sex. Enzyme-linked immunosurbant assay (ELISA) technique was used for determination of EBV-VAC IgG in obtained samples. Of 114 serum samples obtained from HIV-positive patients, 103 (90.4%) samples were found positive for EBV-VCA IgG antibody. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgG antibody between patients received antiretroviral therapy and naive patients (91.5% vs. 87.5%, P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in EBV-VCA IgG seroprevalence between three groups of CD4+ in HIV positive group. In conclusion current study showed that seroprevalence of EBV in HIV-positive patients is higher than HIV-negative healthy participants; however, administration of HAART and CD4+ lymphocyte count did not reveal a significant effect in seroprevalence of EBV. Due to the significance of this virus in mortality and morbidity and causing certain malignancies in patients with AIDS, these patients are strongly recommended to be tested for this virus.
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March 2016

Echocardiographic assessment of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure in HIV-positive patients.

Acta Med Iran 2014 ;52(11):827-30

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Flinders University, Flinders, South Australia.

Pulmonary hypertension is rare but is one of the complications that occur due to HIV infection. Symptoms of HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension are often non-specific but the main symptom of the disease is dyspnea. In this cross-sectional study, we measured systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) by echocardiographic methods among HIV-positive patients who received ART. This research is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 170 HIV-positive patients that was conducted in Imam-Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran during 2011-2013. All patients regularly received antiretroviral therapy at least for recent 2 years. There were not any cardiopulmonary symptoms (cough, dyspnea, exertional fatigue and chest discomfort) in these patients. All participants underwent echocardiography to estimate SPAP. The participants comprised 108 males (63.5%) and 62 females (46.5%). The mean age of patients was 41 years old, and the mean duration of HIV infection was 5.5 years. The mean CD4 cell count was 401 cell/µl. The principal regimen of antiretroviral therapy included two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in the hospital. The mean of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was 25 mmHg in the participants; 156 (93.4%) of them had SPAP ≤ 30 mmHg (normal), six (3.6%) had SPAP: 31-35 mmHg (borderline) and five (3%) had SPAP > 35 mmHg (pulmonary hypertension). Our results indicated a significant increase of pulmonary hypertension in asymptomatic HIV-positive patients that had no association with any other risk factor. Also, antiretroviral therapy was not a risk factor for pulmonary hypertension in this study.
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July 2015

Status of immunity against PVB19 in HIV-infected patients according to CD4(+) cell count, and antiretroviral therapy regimen groups.

Niger Med J 2014 Jan;55(1):20-3

Departments of Pathology, Infectious Diseases, Imam Hospitals Complex, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Human Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is among the aetiology of aplastic crisis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Several studies have indicated the importance of an infection agent in bringing about complications in immuno-compromised patients. The current study aims to determine the seroprevalence of IgM and IgG antibodies to PVB19 among HIV-positive patients and its association with clinical and epidemiological factors.

Materials And Methods: In a case control study, 90 HIV-positive patients were compared with 90 sex and age matched healthy controls in terms of anti-PVB19 IgG and IgM along with other primary clinical and laboratory features.

Results: The overall prevalence of positive anti-PVB19 IgG among HIV patients and controls were 81.1% and 28.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). None of the subjects showed positive results for anti-PVB19 IgM. Patients with CD4(+) cell count <200 showed higher seroprevalence of positive anti-PVB19 IgG which did not reach statistically significant. However, anti-PVB19 IgG seropositivity differed significantly between HIV patients on different regimens of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Immunity against PVB19 is more prevalent among HIV-positive patients compared to healthy controls. However, positive HIV status is not associated with acute PVB19 infection. The presence of anti-PVB19 IgG does not necessarily protect the body from further complications like anaemia. Given the results of the study, AIDS patients are recommended to undergo screening for parvovirus antibody in order to prevent complications like aplastic anaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0300-1652.128153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4071657PMC
January 2014

Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

Acta Med Iran 2013 ;51(10):711-4

Department of Ophthalmology, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.
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July 2014

Extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation pathway, fibrinogen serum level and platelet count in HIV positive patients.

Acta Med Iran 2013 Aug 7;51(7):472-6. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Division of Pathology, Imam Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a progressive condition which may cause endothelial dysfunction and liver damage leading to coagulopathy. With adventure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), life expectancy has prolonged in HIV positive patients but several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related conditions such as coagulopathies are responsible for associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation, serum level of fibrinogen and platelet count in HIV positive patients and compare it with negative healthy individuals. Through a case-control study, 114 HIV seropositive patients were compared with 114 seronegative samples in terms of hematological and other coagulation parameters. Mean age of study patients was 37.48 years. Intra venous drug abuse was the most common route of infection transmission with a prevalence of more than 50%. HIV route of transmission had a direct relationship with PTT abnormal levels (P<0.0001). However, this relationship was not significant for PT values. Stages of HIV disease and administration of HAART did not reveal any significant relationship with PT and PTT. There was also a statistically significant correlation between CD4+< 200 and PT in case group (P=0.008). On the other hands, in control group, CD4+ had a weak relationship with PTT (P=0.02) and an inverse correlation with serum fibrinogen (P=0.013). Hematological parameters and serum fibrinogen are decreased in HIV positive patients especially in direct relation with CD4+ cell count<200 cell/µl. PT and PTT abnormal values are also more prevalent in this population.
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August 2013

Prevalence survey of infection with Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in Tehran.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013 Apr;3(4):334-6

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To identify the frequency of syphilis among Iranian HIV-positive patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection among 450 patients diagnosed with HIV infection was conducted between 2004 and 2008 at Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. The lab tests including CD4 cell count, cerebrospinal fluid, veneral disease research laboratory (VDRL), fluorescent treponema antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs) and viral load were performed for all the patients. Data regarding medical history and their demographics were also collected.

Results: Of all 450 HIV-positive patients, 24 (5.3%) had a positive VDRL test and only two men had a FTA-Abs positive test which means 0.45% of them had a definite co-infection of syphilis. 65.3% of the HIV-positive patients were injection drug users that the co-infection prevalence of them was 0.7%. We did not find any patient with neurosyphilis.

Conclusions: Considering the increasing prevalence of HIV and also extensive use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in developing nations, the diagnosis of syphilis should be timely established using screening tests among such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60074-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634935PMC
April 2013

Quality of Life among Persons with HIV/AIDS in Iran: Internal Reliability and Validity of an International Instrument and Associated Factors.

AIDS Res Treat 2012 12;2012:849406. Epub 2012 Jan 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Southern California, CA, USA.

The purpose of this cross-sectional study on 191 HIV/AIDS patient was to prepare the first Persian translation of complete WHOQOL-HIV instrument, evaluate its reliability and validity, and apply it to determine quality of life and its associated factors in Tehran, Iran. Student's t-test was used to compare quality of life between groups. Mean Cronbach's α of facets in all six domains of instrument were more than 0.6 indicating good reliability. Item/total corrected correlations coefficients had a lower limit of more than 0.5 in all facets except for association between energy and fatigue facet and physical domain. Compared to younger participants, patients older than 35 years had significantly lower scores in overall quality of life (P = 0.003), social relationships (P = 0.021), and spirituality/religion/personal beliefs (P = 0.024). Unemployed patients had significantly lower scores in overall quality of life (P = 0.01), level of independence (P = 0.004), and environment (P = 0.001) compared to employed participants. This study demonstrated that the standard, complete WHOQOL-HIV 120 instrument translated into Farsi and evaluated among Iranian participants provides a reliable and valid basis for future research on quality of life for HIV and other patients in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/849406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3265053PMC
August 2012

Epidemiology and transmission of hepatitis G virus infection in dialysis patients.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2010 Sep;21(5):831-4

Gastroenterintestinal and Liver Disease Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Firuzgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Hepatitis G virus (HGV) or GB-virus type C (GBV-C) is distributed globally and is present in the volunteer blood donor population. For epidemiological studies, HGV is of interest in hemodialysis patients who are at risk of parenterally transmitted infections. The role of HGV in producing illness and hepatic disease has yet to be determined. A review of literature was performed in 2009 to summarize scientific reports on epidemiology and pathogenesis of the HGV infection and its exposure through hemodialysis.
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September 2010

Brucellosis serology in HIV-infected patients.

Int J Infect Dis 2010 Oct 11;14(10):e904-6. Epub 2010 Aug 11.

Division of Pathology, Imam Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: An accelerated evolution of HIV to AIDS has been reported with brucellosis co-infection. The seroprevalence of brucellosis co-infection with HIV has not been investigated in a brucellosis endemic country like Iran.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey of brucellosis serology in HIV-infected patients attending a university hospital, as well as in healthy controls. A total of 90 HIV-positive patients and 100 healthy age-matched controls were recruited. The clinical characteristics, hemoglobin, and red blood cell, platelet, white blood cell, and CD4+ T cell counts were evaluated.

Results: Positive brucellosis serology was significantly higher in HIV-infected patients than in controls (73.3% vs. 30%, respectively, odds ratio 6.42, p<0.001). It was also higher in males than females, p=0.001. Brucellosis-infected patients had significantly lower hemoglobin and white blood cell counts compared with brucellosis-uninfected patients (p<0.001). In HIV-positive patients, white blood cell count was significantly lower in brucellosis-infected than brucellosis-uninfected patients (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Our findings show that brucellosis infection is an important infection in HIV-infected patients. The treatment of brucellosis may be of great clinical importance in the management of HIV infection in a brucellosis endemic country like Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2010.04.007DOI Listing
October 2010

Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory findings, and outcomes of disseminated tuberculosis in Tehran, Iran.

South Med J 2008 Sep;101(9):910-3

Amir-Alam Hospital, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Disseminated tuberculosis (TB) accounts for 1 to 3% of all TB cases. This retrospective study reviews the clinical, radiological, laboratory findings and outcome in patients with disseminated tuberculosis in an endemic area.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed for patients with disseminated TB admitted to two tertiary centers in Tehran, Iran between 1999 and 2006.

Results: Fifty patients were found to have disseminated TB. A miliary pattern was documented in the chest x-ray of 34 patients. Hematologic abnormalities including anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were frequently observed. Death occurred in nine of the cases. The mortality rate was significantly higher in diabetic patients, injection drug users, and patients with hematologic abnormalities; however, steroid usage and human immunodeficiency virus infection were not significantly associated with a higher mortality rate. Clinical improvement occurred in 41 patients following treatment.

Conclusion: Disseminated TB could have different manifestations. Hematologic abnormalities are common and are considered poor prognostic signs in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318180bcfdDOI Listing
September 2008

Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Gram-negative bacilli of nosocomial origin at 2 university hospitals in Iran.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2008 Mar 26;60(3):301-5. Epub 2007 Nov 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sina Hospital, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran 11367-46911, Iran.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance pattern among common Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with nosocomial infection. A total of 200 samples of common Gram-negative bacilli (Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Escherichia coli) were collected from 2 university hospitals in Iran during a 1.5-year period from June 2004 to December 2005. All samples were examined for the antimicrobial activity of imipenem, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime using E-test methods. The most frequent pathogens were Klebsiella spp. (38.5%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.5%), Acinetobacter spp. (20.5%), and E. coli (12.5%). The most active antibiotic was imipenem (84%). The susceptibility of the studied microorganisms was 25% for cefepime, 24% for ciprofloxacin, 20.5% for ceftazidime, and 11.8% for ceftriaxone. The susceptibility rates of Klebsiella to imipenem, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone were 90.9%, 20.8%, 18.2%, 10.4%, and 5.2%, respectively. Likewise, these rates were 88%, 19%, 17%, 21%, and 21% for E. coli. Among Acinetobacter spp., the susceptibility rates were 77% for imipenem and 21% for ciprofloxacin. Among Pseudomonas, the rates were 75% for imipenem and 39% for ciprofloxacin. The antibiotics resistance among Gram-negative bacilli was widespread, so an antibiotic policy is urgently needed to delay the resistance development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2007.10.010DOI Listing
March 2008

Renal disorders in HIV-infected patients.

Arch Iran Med 2007 Jul;10(3):335-8

Department of Infectious Disease, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: HIV infection affects all body organs including kidney. Since the frequency of HIV-related renal disorders is unknown in Iran and the number of HIV-infected patients is increasing, this study was conducted for the first time in Iran to assess the frequency of electrolyte imbalance, renal failure, and proteinuria among HIV-infected patients.

Methods: Between April and December 2005, 65 HIV-infected patients who were receiving care at an outpatient counseling center in Tehran, participated in this study. Blood samples were collected to measure serum levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. Urine samples were analyzed to detect protein, red blood cells, white blood cells, and cast.

Results: Of the 65 HIV-infected patients, 86.2% were males. The mean age of the patients was 37+/-8.7 years, and 58.5% of the patients had a history of injecting illicit drugs. Urinalysis was normal in all patients, and serum levels of electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were all in normal range.

Conclusion: We found no electrolyte imbalance, proteinuria, or renal failure in HIV-infected patients. It seems that renal disorder is infrequent in Iranian HIV-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/07103/AIM.0010DOI Listing
July 2007