Publications by authors named "Mehrdad Niakousari"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A computational study of N adsorption on aromatic metal MgM;(M=Be, Mg, and Ca) nanoclusters.

J Mol Graph Model 2021 Jun 5;105:107862. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Metal nanoclusters have been considered as a new class of chemical sensors due to their unique electronic structures and the particular physicochemical properties. The interaction of N molecule with neutral and ionic magnesium nanoclusters Mg(q=0,±1), as well as neutral magnesium nanoclusters with the centrality of beryllium and calcium MgM (M=Be, Mg, and Ca) have been investigated using CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(d) level of theory in the gas phase. The electronic properties of magnesium nanoclusters were significantly affected by the adsorption of N molecule. The NBO analysis revealed a charge transfer from the adsorbed N molecule to the nanocluster. Based on the adsorption energies and enthalpies, a thermodynamically favorable chemisorption process was predicted for the MgCa-N complex. The negative value of the Gibbs free energy of MgCa-N confirmed the spontaneous adsorption process. The estimated recovery time for MgCa-N complex for 8-MR (0.089 s) and 4-MRs (0.075 s) illustrated a possible desorption process for N molecule from the surface of MgCa. Our finding also revealed the MgCa has the ability to use as a sensor for detection and absorption of N molecule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmgm.2021.107862DOI Listing
June 2021

Physicochemical and structural characterization of sodium caseinate based film-forming solutions and edible films as affected by high methoxyl pectin.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 16;165(Pt B):1949-1959. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Research Group for Food Production Engineering, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, SøltoftsPlads, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address:

Present work focused on the role of high methoxyl pectin (HMP) in rheology and physical stability of sodium caseinate (CAS) film-forming solution as well as mechanical and structural characteristics of its edible film. CAS-HMP films were fabricated at different blend ratio. Incorporation of HMP into CAS solution decreased pH value of the solution, acting as a natural acidifier. Turbidity and particle size distribution measurements indicated that some level of protein-polysaccharide interactions developed in 50CAS:50HMP and 25CAS:75HMP. Analysis of steady-state shear viscosity of film solutions showed a transition from Newtonian to shear-thinning flow behaviour by addition of HMP. Dynamic viscoelasticity evaluations revealed that the elasticity of solutions decreased by increasing HMP ratio. Physical stability of solutions was assessed over time using a Turbiscanner. All solutions showed distinct mechanisms of destabilization. 50CAS:50HMP and 25CAS:75HMP samples appeared to be the most stable solutions. Increasing CAS:HMP ratio from 100:0 to 25:75 increased the water solubility and elongation at break of edible films from 27.16 to 63.70% and 2.36 to 16.53%, respectively. SEM analysis exhibited a homogenous microstructure in 50CAS:50HMP and 25CAS:75HMP. DSC thermograms displayed lower glass transition temperatures in HMP-incorporated films. Presence of the interactions among biopolymers in biocomposites was confirmed by FTIR spectra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.057DOI Listing
December 2020

Production of tapioca starch nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation-sonication treatment.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jan 2;143:136-142. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Kowsar Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study tapioca starch nanoparticles (SNPs) were prepared by nanoprecipitation with acetone and nanoprecipitation-sonication treatments. The prepared SNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results revealed that application of ultrasound not only increased the yield but also decreased the acetone consumption. Electron micrographs indicate that all SNPs were spherical in shape while having different particle size. Samples prepared using 3 g starch by sonication treatment had relatively similar particle size as those prepared using 1 g starch with no sonication. The increase in starch concentration, increased the particle size of samples and the samples with the highest concentration of starch had the largest particle size. The crystalline structure of native starch was destroyed by nanoprecipitation and sonication. The lowest sample crystallinity was realized for SNPs prepared by nanoprecipitation and sonication of 1 g starch. The DSC data showed that the thermal properties of SNPs were lower than those of native starch. The FT-IR spectroscopy exhibited slight changes between native starch and SNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.12.003DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of infrared-assisted spouted bed drying of flaxseed on the quality characteristics of its oil extracted by different methods.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Jan 8;100(1):74-80. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Infrared (IR)-assisted spouted bed drying (SBD) has emerged as a potential alternative to the traditional hot air drying for heat sensitive components. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of IR-assisted SBD and application of cold press (CP), solvent extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) on the quality of flaxseed oil. SBD and IR-assisted SBD were performed at air temperatures of 40, 60, 80 °C and their effects on the drying rate, fatty acids composition and oil peroxide and acid values were evaluated. Quality of oil extracted from the dried flaxseeds by CP, SE and UAE methods was then evaluated.

Results: Increasing air temperature in the presence of IR increased the drying rate. The peroxide values (PVs) of IR-SBD samples were higher than those of SBD at the same temperature. IR treatment did not notably change the composition of fatty acids in flaxseed oil, except in linoleic acid content. UAE gave higher extraction yield than CP and SE methods. UAE yielded an oil with higher percentage of saturated fatty acids, whereas the percentage of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was higher in the CP method. The oil extracted by CP exhibited lower levels of PV (0.516 meq O /kg oil) and acid value (1.36%), as compared to oils extracted by SE and UAE methods.

Conclusion: Both UAE and conventional methods did not significantly influence the composition of fatty acids in the extracted oils. Nonetheless, the CP method yielded an oil with a high percentage of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9995DOI Listing
January 2020

Bridging the Knowledge Gap for the Impact of Non-Thermal Processing on Proteins and Amino Acids.

Foods 2019 Jul 17;8(7). Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Proteins represent one of the major food components that contribute to a wide range of biophysical functions and dictate the nutritional, sensorial, and shelf-life of food products. Different non-thermal processing technologies (e.g., irradiation, ultrasound, cold plasma, pulsed electric field, and high-pressure treatments) can affect the structure of proteins, and thus their solubility as well as their functional properties. The exposure of hydrophobic groups, unfolding followed by aggregation at high non-thermal treatment intensities, and the formation of new bonds have been reported to promote the modification of structural and functional properties of proteins. Several studies reported the reduction of allergenicity of some proteins after the application of non-thermal treatments. The composition and concentration of free amino acids could be changed after non-thermal processing, depending on the processing time and intensity. The present review discusses the effects of different non-thermal treatments on protein properties in detail, and highlights the opportunities and disadvantages of these technologies in relation to protein functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8070262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678513PMC
July 2019

Efficiency of Tragacanth gum coating enriched with two different essential oils for deceleration of enzymatic browning and senescence of button mushroom ().

Food Sci Nutr 2019 Apr 25;7(4):1520-1528. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology Shiraz University Shiraz Iran.

The effect of Tragacanth gum (T) coating containing (100, 500, and 1,000 mg/L) essential oil (S), Boiss. essential oil (Z), and (1,000 mg/L) sodium metabisulfite (M) on mushroom () enzymatic browning and postharvest quality was examined throughout 16 days of cold storage. Mushroom respiration rate, soluble solids content (SSC), percentage of open caps, and sensory quality as well as factors related to browning such polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) activities were figured out. The significant decrease in respiration rate, cap opening delay, and SSC enhancement was observed after treating mushrooms with TZ and TS. Moreover, TZ- and TS-treated mushrooms prevented enzymatic browning through inhibiting PPO and POD activities and increasing activity of PAL over the storing term. Additionally, the influence of TZ5 and TS5 (containing 500 mg/L essential oil) coatings was validated by sensory evaluation through protecting the overall quality of button mushrooms over the storage. Thus, Tragacanth coating enriched with essential oils might be an encouraging nomination for improving the modality of button mushroom and expanding its shelf life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6475806PMC
April 2019

Incorporation of pomegranate rind powder extract and pomegranate juice into frozen burgers: oxidative stability, sensorial and microbiological characteristics.

J Food Sci Technol 2019 Mar 2;56(3):1174-1183. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

2Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), São Paulo, Brazil.

This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics of incorporated pomegranate juice (PJ) and pomegranate rind powder extract (PRPE) into meat burgers. The peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and metmyoglobin content for different burgers during 90 days storage at - 18 °C were evaluated. Total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content (TPC) and free radical scavenging activity (RSA or IC50) for PJ and PRPE were measured as 18.90 (mg/mL), 4380 ppm, 0.136 (mg/mL) and 0.40 (mg/mL), 5598 ppm, 0.084(mg/mL), respectively. Incorporation of PRPE with a high concentration of TPC resulted in less oxidation of lipid in comparison with other formulations. The highest and lowest scores in the sensory analysis and total acceptance at the 90th day corresponded to burgers containing PJ and control, respectively. Butylated hydroxytoluene may be substituted in whole or part with PJ and PRPE due to their desired effects on burgers' properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-03580-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423249PMC
March 2019

Application of microwave and ohmic heating for pasteurization of cantaloupe juice: microbial inactivation and chemical properties.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Jul 27;99(9):4276-4286. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important dessert fruits and is cultivated in many countries of the world. The effects of microwave (400 and 800 W for 110 s), ohmic (100 and 200 V for 110 s) and conventional heating (27-75 °C for 30 min) treatments on inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus pathogens; pH and degradation of vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds of cantaloupe juice were investigated.

Results: As time passed, all of the treatments resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in the number of pathogens and vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compound content, whereas the pH of samples did not show significant changes. The mentioned parameters were more reduced by increasing the power, voltage and temperature of ohmic, microwave and conventional heating treatments, respectively. Comparison of the results for conventional heating with those of ohmic and microwave heating revealed that the complete inactivation time of pathogens by the two latter treatments was much shorter than that of the former. After 20 s, the effect of ohmic heating at 200 V on decreasing vitamin C content was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than that of the other treatments. The amounts of β-carotene and phenolic compounds showed the most reduction under 800 W microwave treatment.

Conclusion: The results obtained for conventional, ohmic and microwave heating treatments indicated a higher degradation of β-carotene and phenolic compounds and a lower loss of vitamin C in the former. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9660DOI Listing
July 2019

Food-grade gliadin microstructures obtained by electrohydrodynamic processing.

Food Res Int 2019 02 9;116:1366-1373. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Food Quality and Preservation Department, IATA-CSIC, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain.. Electronic address:

This paper presents a comprehensive study on the electrohydrodynamic processing of gliadin to develop food-grade delivery systems with different morphologies. The effects of biopolymer concentration, applied voltage and solution flow-rate on particle morphology, molecular organisation, crystallinity and thermal properties were investigated. Gliadin concentration influenced the apparent viscosity and conductivity of the solutions, giving raise to particle morphologies at 10 wt% gliadin and beaded-free fibers above 25 wt% gliadin. In general, increasing the voltage resulted in smaller average sizes of the obtained structures, while no significant differences in morphology were observed among the tested flow rates. Interestingly, the amide I position in the FTIR reflected changes in protein conformation which could be correlated with the final morphology attained. Moreover, the acetic acid used for solution preparation disrupted the original amino acid chain packing of the gliadin fraction, being the electrospun/electrosprayed samples amorphous. These gliadin-based microparticles and microfibers obtained could serve as food-grade delivery vehicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.10.027DOI Listing
February 2019

Active Food Packaging Coatings Based on Hybrid Electrospun Gliadin Nanofibers Containing Ferulic Acid/Hydroxypropyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2018 Nov 7;8(11). Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Food Quality and Preservation Department, IATA-CSIC, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain.

In this work, hybrid gliadin electrospun fibers containing inclusion complexes of ferulic acid (FA) with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrins (FA/HP-β-CD-IC) were prepared as a strategy to increase the stability and solubility of the antioxidant FA. Inclusion complex formation between FA and HP-β-CD was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After adjusting the electrospinning conditions, beaded-free fibers of gliadin incorporating FA/HP-β-CD-IC with average fiber diameters ranging from 269.91 ± 73.53 to 271.68 ± 72.76 nm were obtained. Control gliadin fibers containing free FA were also produced for comparison purposes. The incorporation of FA within the cyclodextrin molecules resulted in increased thermal stability of the antioxidant compound. Moreover, formation of the inclusion complexes also enhanced the FA photostability, as after exposing the electrospun fibers to UV light during 60 min, photodegradation of the compound was reduced in more than 30%. Moreover, a slower degradation rate was also observed when compared to the fibers containing the free FA. Results from the release into two food simulants (ethanol 10% and acetic acid 3%) and PBS also demonstrated that the formation of the inclusion complexes successfully resulted in improved solubility, as reflected from the faster and greater release of the compounds in the three assayed media. Moreover, in both types of hybrid fibers, the antioxidant capacity of FA was kept, thus confirming the suitability of electrospinning for the encapsulation of sensitive compounds, giving raise to nanostructures with potential as active packaging structures or delivery systems of use in pharmaceutical or biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano8110919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266051PMC
November 2018

Experimental investigation on the effect of ultrasonic waves on reducing asphaltene deposition and improving oil recovery under temperature control.

Ultrason Sonochem 2018 Jul 1;45:204-212. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

Food Science and Technology Department, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

A well-known complication in the oil reservoir during oil production is asphaltene deposition in and around the production wellbore. Deposition of asphaltene around the production wellbore may cause a significant pressure drop and in turn loss of efficiency in the production process. Various mechanical and chemical methods have been employed in order to reduce asphaltene formation or to eliminate the precipitate. A novel technique which presented a great potential for prevention or elimination of asphaltene is spreading out the high energy ultrasound wave within the oil reservoir. In this study, in a glass micro-model, asphaltene precipitation was first simulated in a transparent porous medium and its removal by application of high energy ultrasound wave was then investigated. To simulate asphaltene precipitation, the micro-model was first saturated with oil and then a normal-pentane was injected. This was followed by flooding the porous media with brine while propagating ultrasound waves (30 kHz and 100 W) to eliminate asphaltene precipitation. The experiment setup was equipped with a temperature controller. The results indicate a significant reduction in asphaltene precipitation in the oil reservoir may be achieved by application of ultrasound energy. Asphaltene particle deposition has been solved reversibly in the oil layer of porous medium and with the oil layering mechanism, the rate of oil production has been increased. In some spots, water/oil emulsion has been formed because of the ultrasonic vibration on the wall. Both the crude and synthetic oils were examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.03.023DOI Listing
July 2018

Study of two-stage ohmic hydro-extraction of essential oil from Artemisia aucheri Boiss.: Antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics.

Food Res Int 2018 05 27;107:462-469. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The effect of two-stage ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation (TSOH) on the extraction and characteristics of essential oils (EOs) from the Artemisia aucheri Boiss. was studied, and the results were compared to conventional hydrodistillation (HD). According to the results, the yield of EOs obtained through TSOH was almost 30% higher than those extracted by HD in nearly one-quarter of a time used by the HD. Scanning electron micrographs of A. aucheri leaves showed almost complete eruption of EO glands and their surrounding area in TSOH extraction method, hence achieving higher yield. The components of the EOs obtained through TSOH were only slightly different from those of HD. GC/MS analysis indicated some differences in the quantity of the main components, too. The main components of EOs were identified as Thymol, Linalool, Geraniol, Camphor, and 1, 8-Cineole, Davana ether and Cis-Davanone. Thymol (~17%) and Cis-Davanone (~23%) were the highest quantity in the EOs extracted from TSOH and HD, respectively. The variation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the EOs may be attributed to these differences in the percentage of the main components. The radical scavenging activity of the EOs obtained by TSOH was almost twice that of HD. Based on antimicrobial activity assays, the EOs were efficient against S. aureus (a Gram-positive), E. coli (a Gram-negative), and S. cerevisiae (yeast). However, the efficacy was higher in gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The results indicate TSOH has a potential to produce EOs from herbal plants at a faster rate, higher yield, being probably more efficient in terms of energy although having similar antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.059DOI Listing
May 2018

Fig extract drying: The relationship between the main operating parameters of a pilot-scale spray dryer and product specifications.

Food Sci Nutr 2018 03 6;6(2):325-333. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Food Science and Technology School of Agriculture Tarbiat Modares University Tehran Iran.

This study aims to optimize extraction and drying conditions of fig syrup. Drying was done in a pilot scale two-fluid nozzle spray dryer. A total of 27 experiments were conducted with varying inlet air temperatures, air flow rates, and also a maltodextrin (MD)- low methoxyl pectin (LMP) ratios. While feed rate, feed temperature, and compressed air flow rate of the atomizer were kept constant. The results of revealed that high levels of glucose and fructose in the extract resulted in a low glass transition temperature of fig syrup. By an increase in the inlet air temperature, the powder bulk density decreased. However, the MD:LMP ratio and the air flow rate were not significantly effective (0/05) in changing the bulk density. SEM micrographs of spray-dried particles and particle size distribution analysis showed that particles were largely in a range of 5 to 50 μm. The best powders were obtained at an inlet air temperature of 170°C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5849892PMC
March 2018

Physical and mechanical properties of gelatin-CMC composite films under the influence of electrostatic interactions.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Jul 17;114:1-9. Epub 2018 Mar 17.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, 71441-65186 Shiraz, Iran.

The objective of current study was to examine the electrostatic interactions between gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a function of pH and mixing ratio (MR) and to observe how the physical and mechanical properties of gelatin-CMC composite films are affected by these interactions. The interaction between biopolymers was studied using turbidometric analysis at different gelatin: CMC MRs and pH values. A reduction in pH and MR enhanced the electrostatic interactions; while, decreased the relative viscosity of mixed system. Physical and mechanical properties of resultant composite films were examined and compared with those of control gelatin films. Changes in the intensity of interactions between the two biopolymers resulted in films with different properties. Polymer complexation led to formation of resistant film networks of less solubility and swellability. Water vapor permeability (WVP) was not significantly (P≤0.05) influenced by incorporating CMC into continuous gelatin films. Composite films prepared at MR of 9:1 and pH (corresponding to the maximum amount of interaction) revealed different characteristics such as maximum amounts of WVP and swelling and minimum amounts of tensile strength and solubility. FTIR spectra of composite films confirmed that gelatin and CMC were not covalently bonded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.079DOI Listing
July 2018

Flaxseed mucilage: A natural stabilizer in stirred yogurt.

Carbohydr Polym 2018 May 31;187:59-65. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Today, there is much interest in the use of natural ingredients in the food industry. Flaxseed mucilage (FSM) stands out for its health benefits and functional characteristics. The effect of FSM and its combination with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on quality properties of stirred yogurt were investigated. The addition of FSM and FSM + CMC to stirred yogurt increased the viscosity and decreased syneresis. Addition of FSM decreased the cohesiveness and increased the adhesiveness of the stirred yogurt, while its combination with CMC leads to decreased adhesiveness, increased cohesiveness and springiness. The gumminess and hardness of yogurt were reduced when supplemented with FSM and FSM + CMC. Sensory attributes were influenced by FSM and FSM + CMC; however, these were not deteriorated significantly during 21 days storage at 4 °C. FSM has the potential as a natural stabilizer to improve the texture of stirred yogurt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.01.049DOI Listing
May 2018

Impact of Ohmic-Assisted Decoction on Bioactive Components Extracted from Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp.) Leaves: Comparison with Conventional Decoction.

Molecules 2017 Nov 23;22(12). Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Department of Agronomy, Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 23, Stuttgart 70599, Germany.

Yacon ( Poepp.) leaves are a potentially rich source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. In this study, the effect of the extraction method (ohmic-assisted decoction (OH-DE) and decoction (DE)), yacon cultivar (red and white), and leaf age (young and old) on the quality/quantity of extracted phytochemicals were investigated. Extraction yield, energy consumption, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were determined. Additionally, HPLC-DAD was used to identify the major individual phenolic and flavonoid compounds of yacon leaves. The results showed that a three-way interaction of process-variables (extraction method×yacon cultivar×age of leaves) influenced the extraction yield, TPC, TFC, ABTS, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP, significantly ( < 0.05). However, energy consumption of the extraction process was only affected by method of extraction ( < 0.05) and was halved when OH-DE was applied as compared to DE alone. Additionally, the phytochemical quality of extracts was either improved or comparable when OH-DE was used for extraction. Also, it was shown that yacon leaves contained considerable amounts of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferrulic acid, myricetin, -coumaric acid, and rutin, while leaves of the red cultivar had higher contents of each compound compared to leaves of the white cultivar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6149736PMC
November 2017

Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cell viability and enzymatic inhibitory of antioxidant polymers as biological macromolecules.

Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Nov 6;104(Pt A):606-617. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Polymeric antioxidants such as Catechinaldehyde Polycondensates, Catechin-acelaldehydepolycondensates, Flavonoid-grafted chitosan fibers, Ferulate hydrogel, Dextran ferulate hydrogel, Starch-quercetin conjugate, Gallic acid- and Caffeic acid-functionalized chitosan, Gallic acid - chitosan conjugate, Poly(rutin), Gallic acid grafted chitosan, Dextran-Catechin Conjugate belong to biological macromolecules. These kinds of compounds have stronger antioxidant potential and pharmacokinetic activities, as compared to similar low molecular weight preservatives. Most of these compounds sources are either antioxidants with low molecules polymerization, or polymers conjugation such as synthetic or natural preservatives. Additives are well known as being an important ingredient of food products due to their strong preservative potential. Many researchers and industries attempt to find synthesize materials with the same antioxidant potential and higher stability than the similar compounds with low molecular weight. Recently, macromolecular antioxidants have received wide attention as food additives and dietary supplements in functional foods. It seems that the main usage of these compounds is in the food packaging industry. Most of these compounds have strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, cell viability and enzymatic inhibitory properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.06.021DOI Listing
November 2017

Sensory evaluation of selected formulated milk barberry drinks using the fuzzy approach.

Food Sci Nutr 2017 05 13;5(3):739-749. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Department of Food Science and Technology School of Agriculture Shiraz University Shiraz Iran.

Amid rigid competition in marketing to accomplish customers' needs, the cost of disappointment is too high. In an effort to escape market disappointment, one of the options to be considered is probing for customer satisfaction through sensory evaluation. This study aims to rank the six selected milk-barberry drink formulae out of 24 (code numbers S3, S4, S15, S16, S17 and S18) each having different milk:barberry:pectin amount (7: 3: 0.2; 6: 4: 0.2; 7: 3: 0.4, 6: 4: 0.4, 5: 5: 0.4 and 6: 4: 0.4), respectively, and to determine the best of quality attribute through sensory evaluation, using the fuzzy decision-making model. The selection was based on pH, total solid content, and degree of serum separation and rheological properties of the drinks. The results showed that the S4 had the highest acceptability, rated under the "very good" category, whereas the lowest acceptability was reported for the S3 which was classified under the "satisfactory" category. In summary, the ranking of the milk-barberry drinks was S4 >  S17 >  S16 >  S15 >  S18 >  S3. Furthermore, quality attributes were ranked as taste > mouth feel > aroma > color. Results suggest that the fuzzy approach could be appropriately used to evaluate this type of sensory data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5448392PMC
May 2017

Natural herbicide activity of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil nanoemulsion on the seed germination and morphophysiological features of two important weed species.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2017 Aug 28;142:423-430. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The aim of the present study was to obtain an oil/water (O/W) nanoemulsion (NE) containing garden savory (Satureja hortensis) essential oil (EO) and evaluating its herbicidal activity against Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the EO. Carvacrol (55.6%) and γ-terpinene (31.9%) were the major EO components. Low energy method was applied, allowing achievement of EO nanodroplets. The NE also presented low polydispersity, and the mean droplet was below 130nm even after storage for 30d. Laboratory tests showed that the NE at different concentrations (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1000μL.L) significantly (P≤0.05) reduced the germination indices and the seedling's growth in dose-response. The inhibitory effect was the greatest at 800μL.L NE. Overall, root length was more inhibited as compared to shoot length. Post-emergence application of NE at different concentrations (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000μL.L of EO) on 2-4 true leaves' stage of the weeds caused significant (P≤0.05) decrease in the growth factors in dose-dependent manner. Complete lethality was observed by 4000μL.L NE sprayed on the weeds. Spraying of NE significantly (P≤0.05) reduced chlorophyll content in the tested weeds. Increasing in relative electrolyte leakage (REL) 1 and 5d after treatment represented significant cell membrane disruption and increased cell membrane permeability. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) pictures confirmed NE droplet size and demonstrated membrane destruction. The study approved that the NE of S. hortensis EO has herbicidal properties as it has high phytotoxic effect, and interferes with the germination, growth and physiological processes of the weeds. The production of NE from S. hortensis EO is a low energy method that offers a promising practical natural herbicide for weed control in organic agricultural systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.04.041DOI Listing
August 2017

Influence of extraction methods on antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oil from Thymua danesis subsp. Lancifolius.

Food Sci Nutr 2016 03 31;4(2):156-62. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Department of Food Science and Technology School of Agriculture Tarbiat Modares University Tehran Iran.

The essential oil (EO) from dried ground powder leaves and stems of Thymua danesis was extracted using hydrodistillation (HD), ohmic extraction (OE), ultrasound-assisted HD and ultrasound-assisted OE methods. Then, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and sensory properties of the EO were investigated both in vitro and in food systems. Thyme EO extracted by ultrasound-assisted HD method had promising antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and had the best antioxidant properties when tested in vitro. In food systems, higher concentrations of the EO were needed to exert similar antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Furthermore, thyme EO added yogurt and drink yogurt revealed better sensory properties than the control and fresh samples. Essential oil from Thymua danesis has a good potential to be used as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and flavoring agent in food systems and the extraction method effects on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the thyme extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4779490PMC
March 2016

Preservation of anthocyanins in solid lipid nanoparticles: Optimization of a microemulsion dilution method using the Placket-Burman and Box-Behnken designs.

Food Chem 2016 May 14;199:573-80. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Anthocyanins are the main polyphenol components from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Capitata f. Rubra) extracts that have inherent antioxidant activities. Anthocyanins are effectively stable in acidic gastric digestion conditions, with nearly 100% phenol content recovery. However, the total phenol content recovery after simulated pancreatic digestion was approximately 25%. To protect anthocyanins against harsh environmental conditions (e.g., pH and temperature), solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by the dilution of water in oil (w/o) microemulsions containing anthocyanins in aqueous media. The formulations were characterized for particle size and encapsulation efficiency. The formulation parameters (e.g., volume of the internal aqueous phase, homogenization time and the percentages of total lipid, total surfactant or stabilizer) were optimized using the Placket-Burman and Box-Behnken experimental designs. Entrapment efficiency (89.2 ± 0.3%) was calculated when the mean particle size was 455 ± 2 nm. A scanning electron microscopy study revealed the spherical morphology of the particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.12.061DOI Listing
May 2016

Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage using Taguchi design method.

J Food Sci Technol 2015 Dec 7;52(12):8140-7. Epub 2015 Jun 7.

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran ; Faculty of Advanced Technologies, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

There is a growing demand for developing suitable and more efficient extraction of active compounds from the plants and ultrasound is one of these novel methodologies. Moreover, the experimental set up to reach an appropriate condition for an optimum yield is demanding and time consuming. In the present study, Taguchi L9 orthogonal design was applied to optimize the process parameters (output power, time, temperature and pulse mode) for ultrasound assisted extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage and the concluding yield of anthocyanin was measured by pH differential method. The statistical analysis revealed that the most important factors contributing to the extraction efficiency were time, temperature and power, respectively and the optimum condition was at 30 min, 15 °C and 100 W which could result the maximum anthocyanin yield of about 20.9 mg/L. The theoretical result was confirmed experimentally by carrying out the trials at the optimum condition and evaluating the actual yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1880-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4648877PMC
December 2015

Postharvest sour cherry quality and safety maintenance by exposure to Hot- water or treatment with fresh Aloe vera gel.

J Food Sci Technol 2014 Oct 25;51(10):2872-6. Epub 2012 Aug 25.

Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Centre of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Fars Province, Shiraz, Iran.

Iranian sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were coated with fresh Aloe vera gel or treated with hot water (40 ± 2 °C) for 2 min and stored for 17 days at 4 ± 1 °C. The physicochemical characteristics of gel coated and hot water treated samples were compared with untreated fruit during the cold storage period. Untreated fruit showed increased respiration rate, rapid weight loss and colour change, accelerated aging and ripening. On the contrary, sour cherries, particularly those coated with gel significantly delayed the above mentioned parameters allowing a fruit storability extension. The sensory analysis in both treatments revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying dehydration, maintenance of fruit visual aspect without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma or flavours. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating and immersion in hot water maintained the properties during postharvest storage of sour cherries and could be introduced as two valuable, simple and non-contaminating treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0767-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4190233PMC
October 2014

Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil.

J Food Sci Technol 2014 Jan 8;51(1):142-7. Epub 2011 Sep 8.

Food Science and Technology Department, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effect in comparison to BHA and BHT. Samples added with EO at 0.075% were the most stable during storage at both temperatures (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Totox value, antioxidant activity (AA), stabilization factor (F) and antioxidant power (AOP) determination confirmed efficacy of this EO as antioxidant in sunflower oil. EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 20.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0484-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857403PMC
January 2014

Effect of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil on oxidative stability of sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

Nat Prod Res 2012 8;26(15):1458-63. Epub 2011 Aug 8.

Food Science and Technology Department, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study, the application of various concentrations (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08%) of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (EO) was examined on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil and compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) during storage at 60°C. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses of the oils revealed that carvacrol (87.7%) was the major component of EO. Peroxide value and anisidine value measurements in sunflower oil showed that all concentrations of EO had antioxidant effects in comparison to BHA. Oil samples supplemented with EO concentration of 0.08% were the most stable during storage (p < 0.05). EO also was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of 31.5 ± 0.6 µg mL⁻¹. Therefore, the results indicate that EO could be used as a natural antioxidant in food lipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.606220DOI Listing
November 2012

Fumigation characteristics of ozone in postharvest treatment of Kabkab dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) against selected insect infestation.

J Food Prot 2010 Apr;73(4):763-8

Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Methyl bromide fumigation, the most accepted quarantine treatment for dates and many other dried commodities, will be phased out by 2015 worldwide. As a result, there is a critical need to develop durable alternatives for methyl bromide as postharvest treatments of agricultural commodities. This article presents a new method for postharvest treatment of Kabkab dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by application of gaseous ozone to reduce or eliminate all life stages (adults, larvae, and eggs) of Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and sawtooth grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis). The effect of the ozonation process on the sugar content of dates was also evaluated. Infested dates were exposed to ozone concentrations of 600, 1,200, 2,000, and 4,000 ppm for 1 and 2 h. As insect eggs are known to be most tolerant to many chemical or physical treatments, they were additionally exposed to an atmosphere of pure carbon dioxide prior to ozonation. Exposing samples to ozone concentrations of >2,000 ppm for 2 h resulted in complete mortality of larvae and adults. Exposure to 4,000 ppm of ozone for 2 h resulted in 80% mortality of eggs, and exposure to CO(2) prior to ozonation did not improve the effect of ozonation on eggs. Ozone did not have any influence on the sugar content of Kabkab dates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028x-73.4.763DOI Listing
April 2010