Publications by authors named "Mehrdad Khatami"

35 Publications

Green synthesis of colloidal selenium nanoparticles in starch solutions and investigation of their photocatalytic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity effects.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

In this research, we have offered a green and new synthesizing procedure for selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) through the utilization of NaSeO, in which starch has a role of stabilizer and capping agent, as the functionality of green reducing mediums is taken by glucose and ascorbic acid. According to the observations, this method has been capable of producing Se-NPs in lab conditions. Additionally, the synthesized Se-NPs can be separated from the aqueous solution of stabilizer and reducing agents by a high-speed. Certain analyzing procedures have been used to characterize the obtained particles including TEM, XRD, UV-VIS, DLS, FESEM, EDX, FTIR, and AFM. In this paper, we have investigated the antimicrobial and photocatalytic functionality of Se-NPs on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Methylene blue (MB) and according to the results, these particles have shown satisfying activity in both cases. To be stated in exact, about 60% of MB has degraded under UV light after 150 min, which indicates the acceptable position of Se-NPs could be applied for eliminating water pollutions. Moreover, the attained data on colorectal cancer SW480 cell lines in regards to the in vitro cytotoxicity assessments have exhibited non-toxic effects, which had lasted throughout concentrations that had measured up to even 100 µg/mL within MTT assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-021-02515-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Linguatula serrata in cattle in southeastern Iran: Epidemiological, histopathological and phylogenetic profile and its zoonotic importance.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2020 12 10;22:100465. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

This study aimed to determine the prevalence, histopathological observations, and phylogenetic analysis of L. serrata in cattle and its potential zoonotic and public health implications in southeastern Iran.The cross-sectional study was performed in cattle in southeastern Iran. Lymph nodes were collected from each cattle and examined by parasitological and histopathological techniques. A binary logistic regression and chi-square tests were implemented to analyze the data. Genomic DNA was randomly extracted from the nymphal stages of Linguatula isolates. Further characterization and phylogenetic relationships were done using two primers for amplification of partial DNA fragments of 18 s rRNA and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), respectively.The results showed that 64 cattle of the total 404 were infected with L. serrata. There was no significant difference between linguatulosis infection and gender, while age was significantly different (P < 0.05). The cyst-like spaces containing the longitudinal and transverse sections of the L. serrata nymphs were surrounded by granulomatous reactions. The higher nucleotide variation in the cox1 region was supported by estimating the evolutionary divergence between L. serrata isolates and other Linguatula records of ruminants in Iran. The phylogenetic tree confirmed the close evolutionary relationships among all reported records of L. serrata in Iran.The high prevalence of linguatulosis caused by L. serrata declares the existence of a potential risk of FBPs for humans in southeastern Iran. This condition can advance more serious public health problems and requires a comprehensive control program and treatment strategies to prevent the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2020.100465DOI Listing
December 2020

CeO foam-like nanostructure: biosynthesis and their efficient removal of hazardous dye.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2021 Mar 2;44(3):517-523. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

In this study, CeO (cerium oxide) nanoparticles were synthesized using Pinus halepensis pollen and were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the ensuing CeO nanostructures, ranging in size from 5 to 25 nm, had high porosity. Synthesized CeO showed the effective catalytic activity towards the photocatalytic removal of dyes. In this work, the photocatalytic activity to removal dye (methyl violet 2B), in the absence of UV radiation, using cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO-NP) was determined. In this research, four main factors such as effect on color, concentration and pH were examined and maximum %R was obtained about was 97% in 75 min in presence of 50 mg of hydrogen peroxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-020-02464-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Green Synthesis and Characterization of Copper Nanoparticles and Their Effects on Liver Function and Hematological Parameters in Mice.

Turk J Pharm Sci 2020 Aug 28;17(4):412-416. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Objectives: The present investigation is based on the green synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) from aqueous extract of L. fruit. Their effects on liver function and hematological parameters in mice were evaluated.

Materials And Methods: The green synthesis of CuNPs by means of extract was achieved. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to identify the synthesized nanoparticles. BALB/c mice were orally administrated CuNPs at doses of 1000, 2000, and 5000 μg/kg for 2 weeks. Later, the effects of CuNPs on liver function in the treated mice were evaluated by measuring the serum levels of enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin as well as hematological parameters including hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts.

Results: A maximum peak at wavelength 414 nm confirmed the biosynthesis of CuNPs. FTIR spectrum analysis revealed that the factor groups shaped a coating extract on the surface of the nanoparticles. SEM images demonstrated a particle size between 17 and 41 nm. Although some liver enzymes and hematological parameters increased with increasing dose of extract, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between oral administrations of CuNPs at doses of 1000, 2000, and 5000 μg/kg and the control group.

Conclusion: The findings revealed that CuNPs biosynthesized from aqueous extract of fruit have no toxic effects on the liver functions and hematological parameters of mice. However, more studies are needed for evaluation of the hepatoprotective effects of CuNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjps.galenos.2019.28000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489356PMC
August 2020

Greener synthesis of Rod Shaped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles using Lilium ledebourii tuber and evaluation of their Leishmanicidal activity.

Iran J Biotechnol 2020 Jan 1;18(1):e2196. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

Background: Nanoparticles (NPs) with unique chemical and physical properties can be used for therapeutic purposes because of their strong antimicrobial activates. Nanoparticles have been used as an antimicrobial agents to inhibit microbial growth.

Objectives: In view of the strong antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles, the biogenic synthesis and leishmanicidal activity of rod-shaped zinc oxide (R-ZnO) nanoparticles was explored using Lilium ledebourii tuber extract.

Materials And Methods: The ensuing nanoparticles are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and their leishmanicidal activity evaluated against the Leishmania major (L. major) by MTT assay.

Results: The R-ZnO nanoparticles displayed excellent leishmanicidal activity against the L. major as they significantly inhibited the amastigotes. The IC values of R-ZnO nanoparticles being ~ 0.001 mg.mL. R-ZnO nanoparticles can inhibit L. major growth in a dose-dependent manner under in vitro conditions.

Conclusion: A simple, low-cost feasible and eco-friendly procedure was developed for biosynthesis of R-ZnO nanoparticles using natural bioresource that can inhibit human parasite cells growth in a dose-dependent manner under in vitro conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30498/IJB.2020.119481.2196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461714PMC
January 2020

Investigating the sequential patterns of methamphetamine use initiation in Iran.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2020 07 29;15(1):52. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Larestan University of Medical Sciences, Larestan, 7431989335, Iran.

Background: Methamphetamine (MA) remains one of the most commonly used amphetamine-type stimulants, accounting for the second most widely-used substance after marijuana. Due to increased use of MA, a wide variety of research has focused on the patterns of MA use initiation among adolescents. Nevertheless, there are few data available for people who use MA. The present study set out to assess the sequential patterns of substance use initiation in patients with MA use disorders in Iran.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study described substance initiation patterns for 302 patients who used MA admitted to hospitals and psychiatric centers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The study was conducted between April 2015 and June 2016. After obtaining informed consents, participants were interviewed by trained interviewers using face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. The collecting data were analyzed using the chi square tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests to compare the relationship between qualitative and quantitative variables, respectively.

Results: Out of 302 participants enrolled in the study, 16 (5.3%) and 286 (94.7%) were female and male, respectively. The mean age of participants in the study was 37.29 years. The mean age of onset of MA use was found to be 15.9 years. 46.1% of the patients started MA use before 15 years. 77.2% of the patients who used MA had family members with a history of substance use. 93.71% of the patients who used MA started substance use with tobacco, alcohol, or opium, as the most frequent substances. Tobacco, as the first substance or starting substance, exhibited the most widely-used substance (69.53% of the cases). Tobacco-alcohol-cannabis-opium-heroin-MA sequencing was significantly related to the early onset of the substance use. Early-onset substance use was significantly higher in those with lower income, primary education, and family history of substance use. No significant relationship was found between employment status with the age of onset of substance use, and different substance use with marital status.

Conclusion: Tobacco, alcohol and opium can be considered as the main sequencing substances for initiation to MA use. Standardized measures to decrease and control access to main starting and sequencing substances, including tobacco, alcohol, and opium, can greatly help decrease the early onset of the MA use, develop suitable prevention, and establish early intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00297-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392828PMC
July 2020

In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles in Comparison to Conventional Antifungal Drugs Against Trichophyton Interdigitale, Trichophyton Rubrum and Epidermophyton Floccosum.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jul 14. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Background: Dermatophytosis is a globally distributed fungal infection. Treatment failure and relapse is common in this disease. Silver nanoparticle are known for their promising antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of these nanoparticles against common dermatophyte species.

Methods: A set of 30 molecularly identified dermatophytes including Trichophyton interdigitale (n=10), Trichophyton rubrum (n=10), and Epidermophyton floccosum (n=10) were used in this study. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles using chicory (Cichorium intybus) were tested for their antifungal activity in comparison to fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine. Interspecies differences in minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal drugs and silver nanoparticles were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test in SPSS software version 21.

Results: The highest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) among antifungal drugs were observed for fluconazole [range: 4-64 µg/mL, geometric mean (GM) =17.959 µg/mL], followed by itraconazole (range: 0.008-0.5, GM= 0.066) and terbinafine (range: 0.004- 0.25 µg/mL, GM=0.027 µg/mL). Silver nanoparticles showed potent antifungal activity against all dermatophyte isolates with MICs (range: 0.25-32 µg/mL, GM=4.812 µg/mL) higher than those of itraconazole and terbinafine, but lower than fluconazole. MIC values of silver nanoparticles demonstrated significant differences between species (P=0.044), with E. floccosum having the highest MICs (GM=9.849 µg/mL) compared to T. interdigitale (GM=3.732 µg/mL) and T. rubrum (GM=3.031 µg/mL).

Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles demonstrated promising anti-dermatophyte activity against the studied dermatophytes. Due to their widespectrum activity against other fungal and bacterial pathogens, they could be a potential choice, at least in the case of cutaneous and superficial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200715095744DOI Listing
July 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Boiss Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):22-30

Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

Background: Broad spectrums of pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activity have been attributed to Boiss (Laminaceae). The in vivo efficacy and safety of essential oil (ZM-EO) were evaluated against acute toxoplasmosis caused by (Sarcocystidae) in mice.

Methods: (aerial parts) was obtained from the rural districts of Kerman city (Kerman Province) Southwestern Iran, in May of 2016. Male NMRI mice were orally treated with normal saline (control group) and ZM-EO at the doses of 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg once a day for 14 d (8 mice in each group) On the 15 day, the mice were infected with 104 tachyzoites of RH strain by intraperitoneal route. The mortality rate and parasite load were determined in the infected mice. Additionally, 24 mice were applied to examine the sub-acute toxicity of ZM-EO at the above doses after treatment during 14 d.

Results: GC/MS analysis displayed that the key constituents were thymol (45.4%), carvacrol (23%) and -cymene (10.6%), respectively. Overall, 100% mortality was observed on the 8 and 9 days in treated mice with the concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg, respectively. The mean number of tachyzoites in the mice treated with 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg of ZM-EO were 189×10 and 76×10 cell/mL, respectively, meaningfully (<0.05) reduced compared with the control mice. Results also demonstrated that ZM-EO had no important toxicity on mice.

Conclusion: The results demonstrated the efficacy of ZM-EO against acute toxoplasmosis. Nevertheless, supplementary surveys are mandatory to examine its precise effects, mainly immunomodulatory effect on toxoplasmosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244848PMC
June 2020

Tragacanth-mediate synthesis of NiO nanosheets for cytotoxicity and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2020 Jul 6;43(7):1209-1218. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

In this study, NiO nanosheets have been manufactured using a co-precipitation approach that involved the usage of nickel nitrate (Ni (NO).6HO) as the raw material and tragacanth in the role of a stabilizing agent. NiO nanosheets have been fabricated through the reduction of nickel nitrate solution that had been obtained by the application of aqueous extract of tragacanth, which is capable of functioning as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In the following, the physical and chemical properties of tragacanth-stabilized NiO nanosheets have been identified via FESEM, EDS, XRD, UV-Vis, and FT-IR techniques. According to the XRD pattern, these particular nanosheets have contained a cubic structure and group space Fm3m, along with the average size of about 18 to 43 nm that had been in agreement with the FESEM measurements. In addition, we have evaluated the photocatalytic activity of tragacanth-stabilized NiO nanosheets on the degradations of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes. The performed photocatalytic assessment has displayed that the nanosheets can degrade 82% of MO within 210 min and 60% of MB in 300 min. The cytotoxicity of tragacanth-stabilized NiO nanosheets on human Glioblastoma cancer (U87MG) cell lines has been investigated via the MTT assay, while it has been detected in the obtained results that the inhibitory concentration (IC) had been 125 µg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-020-02315-7DOI Listing
July 2020

Inhibition of miR-155 in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line by gold nanoparticles functionalized with antagomir and AS1411 aptamer.

J Cell Physiol 2020 10 31;235(10):6887-6895. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Nanobioelectrochemistry Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

MicroRNAs are key factors for many biological functions. These regulatory molecules affect various gene networks and involve the subsequent signaling pathways. Therefore, disrupting the expression of these molecules is associated with multiple anomalies in the cells and body. One of the most important related abnormalities is the incidence of cancer. Thus, targeting microRNAs (miRNAs) is an effective approach for cancer gene therapy. Various factors are used for this purpose, including the antagomir nucleotide structure. There are some obstacles in the delivery of nucleotide therapeutics to the target cells, however, the use of nanoparticles could partly overcome these defeciencies. On the other hand, targeted delivery of antagomirs using aptamers, reduces nonspecific effects on nontarget cells. Considering the above, in this study, we designed and fabricated a nanocarrier composed of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), antagomir-155, and nucleolin specific aptamer for breast cancer study and therapy. Here, GNPs were synthesized using citrate reduction and were modified by polyA sequences, AS1411 aptamer, and antagomir-155. Attachment of molecules were confirmed using gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy imaging and electrochemical test. The specific entry of modified nanoparticles was investigated by fluorescence microscopy. The efficacy of modified nanoparticles was evaluated using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) for miR-155 and its target gene. Efficient and specific delivery of AuNP-Apt-anti-miR-155 to target cells was confirmed in comparison with the control cell. The q-PCR analysis showed not only a significant decrease in mir-155 levels but also an elevated TP53INP1 mRNA, direct target of miR-155. The proposed structure inhibits proliferation and stimulates apoptosis by increasing the expression of TP53INP1. Our results suggest that AuNP-Apt-anti-miR-155 could be a promising nano constructor for breast cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29584DOI Listing
October 2020

Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal helminthic infections in children from Lorestan province, Western Iran.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2020 May 9;9:e00136. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Hepatitis Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Intestinal helminthic infections are among the most important global socioeconomic and health problems. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of intestinal parasites in 366 children aged 2 to 15 years referred to the main pediatric health center of Lorestan Province, Iran.

Methods: Microscopic analysis was performed on 366 stool samples. We applied direct smear, scotch tape, and formol-ether methods. Moreover, a questionnaire was filled in by parents or guardians of the children.

Results: The results showed that 36 children (9.8%) were infected with at least one or more intestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were (6.8%), (1.9%), and (0.55%), in the order of their appearance. Statistical analysis showed that several risk factors were significantly associated with the prevalence intestinal helminthic parasites, including male sex (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.2-6.2; p < 0.05), residing in rural regions (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.1-10.6; p < 0.001), no handwashing habit before eating (OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.2-12.5; p < 0.001), and consuming raw or unwashed vegetables and fruits (OR = 4.8; 95% CI: 2.3-11.2; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The present study showed a high overall frequency of intestinal helminthic infections among the children in Lorestan province, Iran. The results of the risk factor analysis suggest that improving environmental hygiene and health education would be important for effective control of intestinal parasitic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976929PMC
May 2020

Preparation and Applications of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Novel Drug Delivery Systems: An Overview Article.

Curr Med Chem 2020 Jan 23. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad. Iran.

Nanocarriers as drug delivery frameworks have been intended to enhance the pharmacological and restorative properties of traditional medications. The consolidation of medication atoms into nanocarrier can ensure a drug against corruption just as offering potential outcomes of targeting and controlled discharge. In the present overview article, applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in medication conveyance are outlined. The MNPs increased incredible enthusiasm because of their biocompatibility, low poisonous quality and their capacity to be handled in a magnetic field, enabling their applications as drug-bearing vehicles. The simplicity of surface alteration of these particles provides opportunities to target the moieties in linking onto the particle surface, encouraging the focusing on. We trust that the intriguing particles will attract further attention alongside achievements in the current ones in a near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867327666200123152006DOI Listing
January 2020

Protective effects of pharmacological agents against aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity: A systematic review.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2020 Feb 15;19(2):167-186. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Student Research Committee, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

: Aminoglycosides have been long used for antibacterial treatment and are still commonly used in clinical practice. Despite their extensive application and positive effects, drug-related toxicity is considered as the main obstacle for aminoglycosides. Aminoglycosides induce nephrotoxicity through the endocytosis and accumulation of the antibiotics in the epithelial cells of proximal tubule. Most importantly, however, a number of pharmacological agents were demonstrated to have protective activities against nephrotoxicity in experimental animals.: In the present systematic review, the authors provide and discuss the mechanisms and epidemiological features of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity, and focus mainly on recent discoveries and key features of pharmacological interventions. In total, 39 articles were included in this review.: The majority of studies investigated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in animal models. Antioxidants, chemicals, synthetic drugs, hormones, vitamins, and minerals showed potential values to prevent gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Indicators used to evaluate the effectiveness of nephroprotection included antioxidative indexes, inflammatory responses, and apoptotic markers. Among the nephroprotective agents studied, herbs and natural antioxidant agents showed excellent potential to provide a protective strategy against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2020.1712357DOI Listing
February 2020

Bimetallic nickel-ferrite nanorod particles: greener synthesis using rosemary and its biomedical efficiency.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2020 Dec;48(1):242-251

NanoBioElectrochemistry Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

Nickel-ferrite (NiFeO) nanorods particles (NRP) was biosynthesised for the first time by the Rosemary Extract. The NRP was fully characterised, including the type, nanostructure and physicochemical properties of using XRD, HRTEM, FeSEM, XPS, FTIR and VSM. TEM confirmed rod-shaped nano-sized particles with average sizes ranging from 10 nm to 28 nm. The EDAX Analysis showed the presence of iron, nickel, oxygen, and carbon. XRD analysis confirmed the synthesis of NiFeO crystals. XPS curves showed photoelectron for iron, oxygen and nickel. EDS showed the atomic, weight percentages ratios of Ni(12%): Fe(24%) and: O(48) are close to the theoretical value (Ni: Fe: = 1:2:4), of bimetallic magnetic NiFeO NRP. NiFeO NRP had cytotoxicity effect on MCF-7 cells survival which suggests that NiFeO NRP can be used as a new class of anticancer agent in design novel cancer therapy research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1699830DOI Listing
December 2020

Nickel-Doped Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis Using and Protective Effect against Harmful Ultraviolet Rays.

Molecules 2019 Dec 4;24(24). Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19857-17443, Iran.

Nanoparticles of cerium oxide CeO are important nanomaterials with remarkable properties for use in both industrial and non-industrial fields. In a general way, doping of oxide nanometric with transition metals improves the properties of nanoparticles. In this study, nickel- doped cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized from extract. Both doped and non-doped nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Raman spectroscopy, and Vibrating-Sample Magnetometry analysis. According to X-ray diffraction, Raman and Energy Dispersive X-ray crystalline and single phase of CeO and Ni doped CeO nanoparticles exhibiting fluorite structure with F2g mode were synthesized. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy shows that CeO and Ni doped nanoparticles have spherical shape and sizes ranging of 8 to 10 nm. Ni doping of CeO results in an increasing of magnetic properties. The enhancement of ultraviolet protector character via Ni doping of CeO is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943421PMC
December 2019

Zinc oxide nanoparticles: Biosynthesis, characterization, antifungal and cytotoxic activity.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 Nov 16;104:109981. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran. Electronic address:

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are multifunctional oxide metal nanoparticles that have been considered by many due to their unique properties including UV filtration, semiconducting, antimicrobial, antifungal, and photocatalytic activity. In the present study, ZnO-NPs have been synthesized from Zn(SO)·7HO through the use of "green synthesis" method that utilizes Prosopis farcta aqueous extract. The characterization of synthesized ZnO-NPs have been performed by UV-Vis absorption, Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman, Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Results have illustrated that the synthesized nanoparticles contain a hexagonal shape and sheet form with sizes of 40-80 nm. The antifungal activity of ZnO-NPs against Candida albicans has shown that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were 128 and 256 μg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity activity of synthesized nanoparticles was tested on breast cancer cells (MCF7), while the IC was calculated to be 90 μg/ml.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.109981DOI Listing
November 2019

Cockroach wings-promoted safe and greener synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their insecticidal activity.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2019 Dec 26;42(12):2007-2014. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Simpler and biocompatible greener approaches for the assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) have been the focus lately which have minimum environmental damage and often entails the use of natural biomolecules to synthesize NPs. Such greener synthesis of nanoparticles has capitalized on the use of microbes, fungi, and plants using biological resources. In this study, Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) wings' extract (chitin-rich) is studied as a novel biomaterial for the first time to synthesize silver NPs (less than 50 nm); chitin is the second most abundant polymer after cellulose on earth. The physicochemical properties of these NPs were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The insecticidal effect of ensuing NPs was examined on the mortality of Aphis gossypii under laboratory conditions; 48 h after treatments of A. gossypii with silver NPs (100 μg/ml), the mortality rate in treated aphids was about 40% (an average), while an average percentage of losses in the control sample was about 10%. These results indicate the lethal effect of green-synthesized silver NPs on A. gossypii, in vitro. Greener synthesis of silver nanoparticles using American cockroach wings and their insecticidal activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-019-02193-8DOI Listing
December 2019

Prevalence and associated risk factors of and infection among Iranian patients with colorectal cancer.

J Parasit Dis 2019 Sep 19;43(3):402-405. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

4Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

From among intestinal parasites, coccidian intestinal parasites such as (previously known as ), and are well-known as opportunist parasites, particularly in patients with cancer. This study assessed the prevalence of and in patients with cancer in Lorestan Province, Southwest of Iran. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 87 patients with colorectal cancers, referred to the general hospitals of Lorestan from October 2017 to August 2018. A fresh stool specimen was collected from each subject in a sterile labeled container. The collected stool samples were concentrated through sucrose flotation method and then prepared for Ziehl-Neelsen staining for microscopic examination. Demographic and possible risk factors such as age, sex, education, residence, and unwashed vegetable/fruit consumption were collected by an applied questionnaire. Out of the 87 patients with colorectal cancer, eight (9.2%) were found positive for and infections, with five (5.74%) and three (3.44%) patients positive for and infections, respectively. Results also showed that sex and unwashed vegetable/fruit consumption were significantly associated with the prevalence of these parasites ( < 0.01). The findings revealed the considerable prevalence of and in patients with colorectal cancers. It is therefore essential for gastrointestinal specialists to pay special attention to the prevalence of coccidian parasites in patients with colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-019-01104-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667722PMC
September 2019

Efficacy and safety of Curcuma longa essential oil to inactivate hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Jul 26;19(1):187. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

NanoBioElectrochemistry Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

Background: One of the most important ways to cure hydatid cysts is surgery. Today, available chemical drugs have shown severe complications during hydatid cyst surgery. Here we investigated theefficacy and safety of Curcuma longa (C. longa) essential oil (CLEO) against hydatid cysts protoscoleces.

Methods: Here, the collected protoscoleces from fertile hydatid cysts were exposed to different concentrations of the CLEO (50-200 μl/mL) for 5-30 min in vitro and ex vivo. In addition, male NIH mice (48 mice) were applied to examine the safety of CLEO.

Results: All protoscoleces were completely killed in 5th min of treatment to the doses of 200 μl /mL of CLEO. On the other hand, in the 10th min of treatment, CLEO entirely killed 100% of protoscoleces at the dose of 100 μL/mL. Other doses of CLEO, but, revealed a postponed activity. Although CLEO at the doses of 50, and 100 μL/mL exhibited no similar effect in the ex vivo analysis; but, at the dose of 200 μL/mL and an exposure time of 5 min, approximately 100% of protoscoleces were destroyed into the cyst. We found that after intra-peritoneal injection of the CLEO for 14 days, although blood and biochemical parameters were changed; but there was no significant difference in comparison with the control group (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: This research demonstrated that C. longa revealed the promising scolicidal effects against protoscoleces in vitro and in vivo, of course, after additional tests; it might be considered as an herbal scolicidal drug in order to decrease the threat of discharge of protoscoleces through hydatid cyst surgery. Nevertheless, supplementary studies will be desired to prove the current findings by examination the essential oil in a clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2527-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660933PMC
July 2019

Potential drugs used in the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) architecture for cancer therapy.

J Cell Physiol 2020 01 18;235(1):31-64. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Larestan University of Medical Sciences, Larestan, Iran.

Cytotoxic small-molecule drugs have a major influence on the fate of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). An ideal cytotoxic agent should be highly potent, remain stable while linked to ADCs, kill the targeted tumor cell upon internalization and release from the ADCs, and maintain its activity in multidrug-resistant tumor cells. Lessons learned from successful and failed experiences in ADC development resulted in remarkable progress in the discovery and development of novel highly potent small molecules. A better understanding of such small-molecule drugs is important for development of effective ADCs. The present review discusses requirements making a payload appropriate for antitumor ADCs and focuses on the main characteristics of commonly-used cytotoxic payloads that showed acceptable results in clinical trials. In addition, the present study represents emerging trends and recent advances of payloads used in ADCs currently under clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28967DOI Listing
January 2020

Experimental data on the removal of phenol by electro-HO in presence of UV with response surface methodology.

MethodsX 2019 9;6:1188-1193. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Phenol is classified as priority pollutant. Phenol and its derivatives are stable in water, environmental contamination, and health concerns that are used as raw material in many chemical industries. This study investigated the removal of phenol by electro-HO/UV system. The response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD) was used to modeling and optimization of experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of phenol, concentration of hydrogen peroxide, and current density. The obtained results demonstrated that the efficiency of the electro-HO/UV system was maximum (>99%) under the optimal conditions for the phenol removal from aqueous solutions, 2 mM of hydrogen peroxide concentration, 50 mg/L of initial phenol concentration, pH of 5, 10 mA/cm of current density, reaction time of 25 min and 2.1 kW h/m of energy consumption. Therefore, the electro-HO/UV system is an efficient method for the removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6536458PMC
May 2019

and scolicidal effects of L. to inactivate the protoscolecs during hydatid cyst surgery.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2019 Jun 24;42:7-10. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Surgery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Nowadays, surgery is considered as one of the most important treatments for hydatidosis. Due to laceration, the cyst and spread of the content within it (protoscoleces) during the surgery that can put the patient at the risk of re-infection, anaphylaxis shock and even death, surgeons use some chemical drugs as protoscolicidal agents. The study is aimed to evaluate the scolicidal effects of olive ( L.) leaf extract on hydatid cyst protoscoleces and .

Methods: After the collection of protoscoleces from sheep livers infected with fertile hydatid cysts, they were treated with various concentrations of olive leave extract (75-300 mg/mL) for 5-30 min and . Finally, the mortality of protoscoleces was assessed by the eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining).

Results: The mean of the mortality of protoscoleces was 100% after 10 min of incubation with the concentration of 300 mg/ml of leaves extract. On the other hand, the mean of the mortality of protoscoleces after 20 min of incubation with the concentration of 150 mg/ml of leaves extract was 100%. After injection of leaves extract directly into the hydatid cyst (), the mean of the mortality of protoscoleces was 100% after 12 and 25 min of incubation with the concentration of 300 and 150 mg/ml of leaves extract, respectively; indicating that the extract requiring a further time to display a potent protoscolicidal effects.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the extract of olive leaf had a significant scolicidal activity on hydatid cyst protoscoleces. However, further research, especially in human and animal subjects, are required to reach this conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2019.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6527941PMC
June 2019

Associated-risk determinants for anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate: A cohort study in Iran.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 06 12;13(6):e0007423. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 27, Czech Republic.

Background: The control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is facilitated by knowledge of factors associated with the treatment failures in endemic countries. The aim of this evaluation was to identify the potential risk determinants which might affect the significance of demographic and clinical characteristics for the patients with anthroponotic CL (ACL) and the outcome of meglumine antimoniate (MA) (Glucantime) treatment.

Methodology/principal Findings: This current was executed as a cohort spanning over a period of 5 years which centered in southeastern part of Iran. Altogether, 2,422 participants were evaluated and 1,391 eligible volunteer patients with ACL caused by Leishmania tropica were included. Overall, 1,116 (80.2%) patients received MA intraleisionally (IL), once a week for 12 weeks along with biweekly cryotherapy, while 275 (19.8%) patients received MA alone (20 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks) (intramuscular, IM). The treatment failure rate in ACL patients was 11% using IL combined with cryotherapy plus IM alone, whilst 9% and 18.5% by IL along with cryotherapy or IM alone, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression model predicted 5 major associated-risk determinants including male (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, confidence interval (CI) = 1.079-2.22, p = 0.018), lesion on face (OR = 1.574, CI = 1.075-2.303, p = 0.02), multiple lesions (OR = 1.446, CI = 1.008-2.075, p = 0.045), poor treatment adherence (OR = 2.041, CI = 1.204-3.46, p = 0.008) and disease duration > 4 months (OR = 2.739, CI = 1.906-3.936, p≤0.001).

Conclusions/significance: The present study is the original and largest cohort of ACL patients who treated with MA. A comprehensive intervention and coordinated action by the health authorities and policy-makers are crucial to make sure that patients strictly follow medical instructions. Early detection and effective therapy < 4 months following the onset of the lesion is critical for successful treatment of the patients. Since a significant number of patients are still refractory to MA, reducing man-vector exposure and development of new effective alternative drugs are essential measures against ACL due to L. tropica.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6590833PMC
June 2019

The Phosphorylation of IRS1 and Akt Molecules in Insulin-Resistant C2C12 Cells Induced with Palmitate Is Influenced by Epigallocatechin Gallate from Green Tea.

Lipids 2019 02;54(2-3):141-148

Riddet Institute Centre of Research Excellence, Massey University, Tennent Drive, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

In the current investigation, the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the phosphorylation of IRS1 and Akt molecules in insulin-resistant C2C12 muscle cells induced with palmitate was studied and compared with the effect of the antidiabetic drug, rosiglitazone. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and differentiated into myotubes using horse serum and the creatine kinase test was used to confirm their differentiation. The treatment of C2C12 myotubes was carried out with palmitate, where albumin was used as the conjugator. The Western blot technique was used to check the useful phosphorylation of IRS1 and Akt in C2C12 myotubes, in the presence or absence of palmitate. There was a significant (p < 0.00) and linear increase in the activity of creatine kinase over time (0 to 96 h after differentiation) with everyday myoblast formation. While neither EGCG nor rosiglitazone showed a significant (p > 0.05) effect on palmitate content during 96 h of incubation of IRS1 , EGCG alone or combined with rosiglitazone increased the phosphorylation of Akt , leading to the increase of glucose uptake into C2C12 cells. Thus, it can be concluded that EGCG alone or in combination with rosiglitazone may show some therapeutic effects for the prevention or treatment of Type 2 diabetes owing to its substantial effect on increasing the phosphorylation of Akt and the subsequent glucose uptake into the cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lipd.12133DOI Listing
February 2019

A Survey on the Adjuvant Role of Naloxone Alone or Combined with Alum in Vaccination Against Fasciolosis in BALB/c Mice.

Acta Parasitol 2019 Jun 20;64(2):236-245. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Fasciolosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease imposing a heavy load of livestock losses worldwide.

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate immune-stimulatory effects of naloxone (NLX), an opioid receptor antagonist, in combination with alum in mice vaccinated with excretory-secretory antigens (E/S) of Fasciola hepatica.

Methods: 8-week-old female BALB/c mice were subcutaneously vaccinated using E/S antigens of F. hepatica. Experimental groups (14 mice per group) included: vaccine (E/S antigen), alum vaccine (E/S antigen plus alum), NLX vaccine (E/S antigen plus NLX), and alum-NLX vaccine (E/S antigen plus a mixture of alum-NLX). The control group was infused with PBS. Lymphocyte proliferation and the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IgG2a, IgG1, and total IgG were measured.

Results: Mice vaccinated with NLX or alum-NLX adjuvants showed significantly higher rates of lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-γ, total IgG, and IgG2a levels. The mice that were injected with alum showed a significantly higher concentration of IL-4. Ratios of IFN-γ/Il-4 and IgG2a/IgG1 were significantly higher in the NLX and alum-NLX groups in comparison with the groups vaccinated either with alum or without any adjuvant. A significantly higher protection rate (62.5%) was seen in mice vaccinated with the alum-NLX adjuvant compared to the other groups.

Conclusion: NLX can be effective in conferring cellular immunity and protection against F. hepatica. It is recommended to consider this agent as a potential adjuvant in vaccines against fasciolosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-019-00030-2DOI Listing
June 2019

Host's immune response in unresponsive and responsive patients with anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis treated by meglumine antimoniate: A case-control study of Th1 and Th2 pathways.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Apr 14;69:321-327. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Dadbin Health Clinic, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

The objective of the present study was to compare the host's immune responses between unresponsive and responsive patients with anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) treated by meglumine antimoniate. A case-control study was carried out in an endemic focus in Iran. Blood samples were taken from patients and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. Two wells were considered for each isolate of unresponsive and responsive patients; one was exposed to L. tropica (Lt-stimulated cells) and the other remained non-exposed (non-stimulated cells). After 24 h of incubation, whole RNA was extracted from each sample. Real-time quantitative PCR was carried out to confirm the differences in expression levels of IL-12 P40, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-10 among isolates. Data were analyzed and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. In our study, Lt-stimulated cells and non-stimulated cells in unresponsive groups demonstrated significantly lower expression levels of IL-1β, IL-12 P40 and IFN-γ genes and higher expression levels of IL-4 and IL-10 genes, compared to Lt-stimulated cells and non-stimulated cells in responsive groups. There was a negative correlation between IL-12 P40 with IL-10 and IL-1β with IL-10 in ACL Lt-stimulated cells in unresponsive group, while a positive correlation between IL-12 P40 with IL-1β and IL-12 P40 with IFN-γ in ACL Lt-stimulated cells in responsive group. Probably, different immune responses caused by various factors play a major role in the pathogenesis and development of unresponsiveness in ACL patients. The profile and timing of cytokine production correlated well with the treatment outcome of Leishmania infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.02.008DOI Listing
April 2019

Biosynthesis of bimetallic and core-shell nanoparticles: their biomedical applications - a review.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2018 Oct;12(7):879-887

Research Center of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Recently, researchers succeeded in designing and manufacturing a new class of nanoparticles (NPs) called hybrid NPs. Among hybrid NPs, bimetallic and core-shell NPs were a revolutionary step in NPs science. A large number of green physiochemical and methods for nanostructures synthesis have been published. Eventually, physiochemical methods are either expensive or require the use of chemical compounds for the synthesis of bimetallic and core-shell nanostructures. The main challenges that scientists are facing are making the process cheaper, facile and eco-friendly efficient synthesis process. Green synthesis (biosynthesis) refers to the use of bio-resources (such as bacteria, fungi, plants or their derivatives) for the synthesis of nanostructures. The popularity of the green synthesis of nanostructures is due to their environmental friendliness and no usage of toxic materials, environmental friendliness for the synthesis or stability of nanostructure. Bimetallic and core-shell NPs have many biomedical applications such as removing heavy metals, parasitology, molecular and microbial sensor, gene carrier, single bacterial detection, oligonucleotide detection and so on. The purpose of this study is to discuss briefly the biosynthesised bimetallic and core-shell NPs, their biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2017.0308DOI Listing
October 2018

Biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles using and its antibacterial activity.

Electron Physician 2018 Apr 25;10(4):6733-6740. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Ph.D. of Health, Associate Professor, Research Center of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background And Aim: In recent years, the field of nanotechnology has become the most active area of research in modern material science. While many chemical- as well as physical methods are also used, green synthesis of nanoparticles is becoming the most evolved method of synthesis. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles from the seed extract of Salicornia bigelovii.

Methods: This experimental study was conducted from December 2017 to January 2018 in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. The effects of two concentrations (1m M and 4mM) on the synthesis of nanoparticles were studied. Characterizations were done using different methods including ultraviolet (UV) visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Antibacterial activity of Ag nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied using microdilution method. The data were analyzed using Probit test in SPSS (Version 20, USA).

Results: Formation of the AgNPs was confirmed by surface plasmon spectra using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and absorbance peaks at 434 nm. The FTIR spectra showed the possible role of the functional group like carbonyl groups in reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. The XRD analysis showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. The TEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles ranging in diameter from 1 to 50 nm. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of AgNPs were determined for both S. aureus and E. coli 6.25 and 12.5 μg/mL, respectively.

Conclusion: An environmentally friendly approach is more affordable than chemical methods. Physicochemical approaches can be harmful to the environment and to human health. Thus, the green synthesis methods are simple, less expensive, and can cut consumption of energy; they can be used for synthesis of fixed nanoparticles with preferred shape and size, without the use of toxic chemical agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/6733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5984030PMC
April 2018

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pine Pollen and Evaluation of the Antifungal Efficiency.

Iran J Biotechnol 2017 19;15(2):95-101. Epub 2017 Aug 19.

Nanomedicine and Nanobiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran 5.

Nanoparticles have been applied to medicine, hygiene, pharmacy and dentistry, and will bring significant advances in the prevention, diagnosis, drug delivery and treatment of disease. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles has a very important role in nanobiotechnology, allowing production of non-toxic and eco-friendly particles. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was studied using pine pollen as a novel, cost-effective, simple and non-hazardous bioresource. The antifungal activity of the synthesized AgNPs was investigated . Biosynthesis of AgNPs was conducted using pollen of pine (as a novel bioresource) acting as both reducing and capping agents. AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. In evaluation for antifungal properties, the synthesized AgNPs represented significant in vitro inhibitory effects on cultures. Pine pollen can mediate biosynthesis of colloidal AgNPs with an average size of 12 nm. AgNPs were formed at 22 °C and observed to be highly stable up to three months without precipitation or decreased antifungal property. AgNPs showed significant inhibitory effects against . The first report for a low-cost, simple, well feasible and eco-friendly procedure for biosynthesis of AgNPs was presented. The synthesized AgNPs by pine pollen were nontoxic and eco-friendly, and can be employed for large-scale production. The nanoparticles showed strong effect on quantitative inhibition and disruption of antifungal growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijb.1436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5811059PMC
August 2017

Naltrexone; as an efficient adjuvant in induction of Th1 immunity and protection against Fasciola hepatica infection.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Jun 27;189:66-71. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. Electronic address:

Toxic effects of available therapeutics are major drawbacks for conventional management approaches in parasitic infections. Vaccines have provided a promising opportunity to obviate such unwanted complications. In present study, we examined immune augmenting capacities of an emerging adjuvant, Naltrexone, against Fasciola hepatica infection in BALB/c mice. Seventy BALB/c mice were divided into five experimental groups (14 mice per group) including 1- control (received PBS), 2- vaccine (immunized with F. hepatica E/S antigens), 3- Alum-vaccine (immunized with Alum adjuvant and E/S antigens), 4- NLT-vaccine (immunized with NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens), and 5- Alum-NLT-vaccine (immunized with mixed Alum-NLT adjuvant and E/S antigens). Lymphocyte stimulation index was assessed by MTT assay. Production of IFN-γ, IL-4, IgG2a and IgG1 was assessed by ELISA method. Results showed that NLT, either alone or in combination with alum, can induce immune response toward production of IFN-γ and IgG2a as representatives of Th1 immune response. Also, using this adjuvant in immunization experiment was associated with significantly high proliferative response of splenocytes/lymphocytes. Utilization of mixed Alum-NLT adjuvant revealed the highest protection rate (73.8%) in challenge test of mice infected with F. hepatica. These findings suggest the potential role of NLT as an effective adjuvant in induction of protective cellular and Th1 immune responses against fasciolosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.04.015DOI Listing
June 2018