Publications by authors named "Mehrdad Farrokhi"

43 Publications

Evaluating the disaster preparedness of emergency medical service agencies in the world: A systematic literature review protocol.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 29;9:351. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

MD National Emergency Medical Organization, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Disasters occur almost everywhere in the world, and preparation is essential. Preparedness is an effective approach for disaster management, and it is crucial for the health systems, especially the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies. This systematic review will be conducted to assess the preparedness levels of EMS agencies in the world for the response to disasters and explore the key dimensions and strategies to enhance it.

Methodology: This systematic literature review will be conducted to search comprehensively the articles published between 2000 and 2019 to explore the disaster preparedness of EMS Agencies. To this end, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar will be thoroughly assessed. The following terms and expression will be used for searching the databases: "EMS" and other keywords "Disaster Preparedness," "Mass Casualty Incident," "Mass Gathering," "Terrorist incident," "Weapons of Mass Destruction," and CBRNE, Disaster, included: 'Emergency Preparedness, Preparedness, Readiness.

Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review study has been conducted on disaster preparedness of EMS agencies in the world. This is the first study to address this gape. It will also explore the key dimensions of disaster preparedness in EMS services and the strategies to enhance their preparedness.

Conclusion: Identifying the key dimensions of disaster preparedness is the first step in designing valid assessment tools to evaluate disaster preparedness of EMS service. This study will provide valuable guides for EMS administrators and researchers in an attempt to enhance of preparedness of EMS systems in disasters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_416_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871916PMC
December 2020

Psychological aspects of climate change risk perception: A content analysis in Iranian context.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 29;9:346. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Risk perception is an important predictor to mitigate climate change effects which can produce mental health consequences such as anxiety and depression. For developing policies of climate risk adaptation, awareness of public attitudes, beliefs, and perception is essential. At this study, researchers tried to focus on the often "unseen" psychological aspects of climate change.

Materials And Methods: A qualitative approach was done with a consistent content analysis method. The study consisted of 33 participants including ordinary people and experts in disasters and climate change. Purposeful sampling was adopted until data saturation. The data collection was performed through in-depth and semi-structured interviews. All interviews were transcribed after listening again and again and reading several times to catch an overall understanding of the interviews.

Results: The main theme of the study was "Complexity nature of climate change risk perception" and related categories including "the Mental health dimension," "the Cognitive dimension" and "Interaction of imposed components." The structure of the research community strongly reflected effects of cultural and religious factors in all aspects of community life. Participants' life experiences of extreme events were associated to their perception of climate change.

Conclusions: Risk perception is multifactorial and complicate and should clearly be understood to improve community participation to manage climate change-related risks. We propose that authorities and related managers should pay attention to it as a priority. This may assist in developing research on public mental health practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_415_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871946PMC
December 2020

Intestinal transplantation and quality of life.

Clin Nutr 2021 Feb 21;40(2):658. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Najafabad, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.11.018DOI Listing
February 2021

Disaster Preparedness among Emergency Medical Service Providers: A Systematic Review Protocol.

Emerg Med Int 2020 26;2020:6102940. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, The University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

. The emergency medical service (EMS) provides first-line medical care to people who require urgent medical care in emergency and disaster situations. Preparedness is the most effective approach for the management of disaster risks, and it is essential for the emergency medical service (EMS) providers, such as paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMT), and other EMS personnel. This systematic review will explore evidence on the preparedness of emergency medical service providers in emergency and disaster situations by reviewing peer-reviewed journal articles. . This study will be conducted on peer-reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2019 to explore the preparedness of emergency medical service providers in emergencies and disasters. Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar will be thoroughly searched to identify published studies on emergency and disaster preparedness. The following keywords will be used for searching the databases: "Medical Technician," "Paramedic," "Emergency Paramedic," "Emergency Medicine Technician," "Emergency Medical Technician," "Emergency Prehospital Provider," "Emergency Preparedness," "Disaster Preparedness," "Hospital Preparedness," "Disaster management," "Disaster Competencies," "Disaster Readiness," "Disaster," "Disaster Role," "Readiness, Preparedness, Terrorist," "Mass Casualty Incident," "Major incidents," "Mass Casualty," "Mass Gathering," "CBRNE," "Weapons of Mass Destruction," and "Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive Event." . To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive review study has been conducted on the preparedness of emergency medical service providers in disaster situations. This study is the first attempt to address this gap. It will also explore the key dimensions in disaster preparedness of EMS providers and the strategies to enhance their preparedness. Identifying the key dimensions of disaster preparedness is the first step in designing and developing valid instruments to evaluate EMS provider's disaster preparedness and as well as adopting appropriate strategies to improve the level of their preparedness (This systematic review is registred in PROSPERO with CRD42020149689).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6102940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683168PMC
October 2020

Hospital Preparedness Challenges in Biological Disasters: A Qualitative Study.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 Nov 5:1-5. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Identification of hospital preparedness challenges against biological events such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is essential to improve dynamics, quality, and business continuity confidence in the health system. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the challenges of hospital preparedness in biological events.

Methods: This study used a qualitative method using content analysis in which 20 health-care managers and experts who are experienced in biological events were selected through purposeful sampling. The data collection was done through semi-structured interviews, which continued until data saturation. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis as well as the Landman and Graneheim Approach.

Results: Six main concepts (training and practice, resource management, safety and health, patient management, risk communication, and laboratory and surveillance) and 14 subconcepts were extracted on hospital preparedness challenges in biological events through analyzing interviews.

Conclusions: The present study indicated that the health system of the country faces many challenges in response to biological events and threats. Moreover, study participants indicated that Iranian hospitals were not prepared for biological events. It is recommended to design preparedness plans of hospitals based on preparedness standards for biological events. In addition, comprehensive measures are required to enhance their capacity to respond to biological emergencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900656PMC
November 2020

Associations between bone mineral density, trabecular bone score, and body mass index in postmenopausal females.

Osteoporos Sarcopenia 2020 Sep 6;6(3):111-114. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: Bone mineral density (BMD), as a gold standard determinant of osteoporosis, assesses only one of many characteristics contributing to the bone. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is applied to evaluate the microarchitecture of trabecular bone A high body mass index (BMI) has been reported to have a positive correlation with BMD. However, the relation between BMI and TBS has remained unclear Therefore, the aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between BMI, T-score, and TBS in postmenopausal women without a diagnosed underlying disease.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1054 postmenopausal women were randomly recruited from the Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Demographic characteristics and medical history of all subjects were collected from documents. TBS measurements for L1-L4 vertebrae were retrospectively performed by the TBS iNsight software using the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the same region of spine of the subjects. The analysis was done to detect the correlation between TBS and BMI.

Results: A statistically significant negative correlation was found between TBS and BMI in patients with osteoporosis and low bone mass. In patients with normal T-scores, BMI was not significantly correlated to TBS (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant positive association between T-score and BMI.

Conclusions: Although a higher BMI had a protective effect against osteoporosis, higher BMI was associated with a lower TBS in patients with an abnormal T-score. However, BMI did not have a significant effect on TBS in patients with normal T-scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afos.2020.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573495PMC
September 2020

Hospital Disaster Preparedness in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Iran J Public Health 2020 May;49(5):837-850

Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Background: Disasters are increasing all over the world. Iran, is one of the high-risk countries in this regard; so it is unavoidable to prepare hospitals as vital centers when disasters happen. This study aimed to evaluation the hospital preparedness based on previous studies in Iran.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis by browsing through all articles published since 2006 to 2017, in English and Persian both languages were designed. Databases that we searched to, include Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Medlib, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Internationally and SID, Irandoc and Magiran, domestically. Two expert researchers investigated separately. Researchers used random and fixed effect models in the meta-analysis. Moreover, random and fixed effects model and meta-regression tests were applied by using STATA ver. 11. The <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Twenty-five studies with a sample size of 181 hospitals were introduced to the process of meta-analysis. Iranian hospital preparedness is 53%, totally, that is moderate. Preparedness in different categories is as follows: emergency services 62%, communication 57%, security 54%, education 57%, logistic 65%, human resources 52%, Management and command 64%, reception 43%, transfer and evacuation 44%, traffic 47%, non-structural safety 57%, and structural safety 49%.

Conclusion: Hospital preparedness is moderate in Iran. Optimal management of existing resources and the use of Update technologies in the field of hospital services be directed towards improving the preparedness of hospitals for disasters.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475629PMC
May 2020

The association between air pollution and cancers: controversial evidence of a systematic review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 7;27(31):38491-38500. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

There are inconsistent reports on the association between air pollution and cancers. This systematic review was, therefore, conducted to ascertain the relationship between air pollution and some cancers. This is a systematic review study, which all articles published in this area were extracted from January 1, 1950 to December 31, 2018 from Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Google scholar. Searching was performed independently by two search-method experts. The required data were extracted from the articles by an author-made questionnaire. Forty-eight articles were investigated. Evidence linking air pollution to some cancers is limited. Leukemia had the highest association with exposure to various air pollutants and bladder cancer had the lowest association. It is noteworthy that the specific type of pollutants in all studies was not specified. Based on the findings, the results are contradictory, and the role of air pollution in some cancers cannot be supported. Accordingly, studies are recommended to be performed at the individual level or multifactorial studies to specifically investigate the relationship between air pollution and these types of cancers. In this way, the role of air pollution in the incidence of these cancers can be determined more accurately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10377-zDOI Listing
November 2020

Migration health crisis associated with climate change: A systematic review.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 28;9:97. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

Background: The empirical assessment of the health outcomes associated with migration caused by climate change is still unclear. However, health outcomes in the early stages are expected to be similar to the health outcomes associated with refugees. The objective of the present study was a systematic review of the health effects of migration caused by climate change.

Methodology: A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) were used to identify papers published that evaluated the health effects of migration caused by climate change. The search, article selection, and data extraction were carried out by two researchers independently. All English-language articles on the health effects of migration caused by climate change were included in this study.

Results: An analysis of the complex ways in which climate change influences populations can be facilitated using a three-class classification: compulsory displacement, resettlement planning, and migration. Subsequent to climate changes, other changes, and environmental deficiencies, compulsory displacement may occur in case of inadequacy of compatibility responses. A part of migration-related health outcomes caused by climate change is from displacement from rural to urban areas, especially in developing countries. There is significant documentation on health and livelihood inequalities between migrant groups and host populations in developed countries.

Conclusion: If climate change continues in its current direction, it is likely that the number of refugees and crises will increase in the coming decades. Although the domain and the extent of health hazards caused by the displacement of the population associated with climate change cannot be clearly predicted, by reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, along with social and environmental adaptation strategies, migration caused by climate change, health risks and its relevant crises can be greatly reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_4_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271932PMC
April 2020

The simultaneous effects of thermal stress and air pollution on body temperature of Tehran traffic officers.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Jun 16;18(1):279-284. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

1Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, kodakyar Ave., daneshjo Blvd., Evin, Tehran, 1985713834 Iran.

Purpose: Global warming and air pollution are among the most important problems all over the world. Considering the key role of traffic officers who saliently deal with traffic management and are in full, constant and direct exposure to thermal stress and air pollution index, this study aims to investigate the simultaneous effects of these factors on the body temperature of traffic officers in the main squares of Tehran.

Methods: This study was conducted among 119 traffic officers who were working in 29 squares of Tehran, located near the active pollutant's stations during 2017. Samples were selected by the census method. Environmental parameters such as air temperature (dry and wet), radiation temperature, the level of air pollution in the main squares and characteristics of officers such as body temperature and the Wet-Bulb-Globe-Temperature (WBGT) index were evaluated. Data were analyzed through independent samples t-test and factorial ANOVA with a value of  ≤ 0.05 in SPSS software.

Results: There was no significant relationship between air pollution and ear temperature, but there was a statistically significant difference between the wet-bulb temperature and the ear temperature (t = 26.4,  < 0.001). The interaction effect of air pollution and wet-bulb temperature on the ear temperature was also significant (F = 3.98,  = 0.048).

Conclusion: Exposure to heat and air pollution affects body temperature, with its greatest impact on the temperature of the ear. More studies are recommended to be conducted in these field and other factors such as demographic and environmental factors at different times of the year should be investigated. Accordingly, some interventions should be implemented to reduce the vulnerability of officers based on the findings of the research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00463-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203383PMC
June 2020

Early warning system-related challenges in health sector: A qualitative content analysis study in Iran.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 28;9:38. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Trauma Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Context: Iran's health system has always faced many challenges in the field of disaster risk management. The establishment of early warning systems in countries has been identified as an important component of preparedness and risk reduction.

Aims: This study aims to extract the experiences of those involved in the field of risk management in relation to the challenges and problems of early warning system establishment in the Iran's health system.

Subjects And Methods: This was a qualitative study, which has been conducted using a content analysis method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 16 individuals who had at least one disaster management experience at the emergency operation centers. Sampling was done purposefully. The data were then analyzed using the Grenheim method.

Results: Nine subcategories of data were analyzed that included legal vacancies, challenges related to protocols and guidelines, weaknesses in the prediction infrastructure, weaknesses in the communication infrastructure, poor coordination, scarcity of resources, inadequate education, information management challenge, and evaluation challenge, and three main categories were extracted that included policy challenges, infrastructure challenges, and management challenges that represented the issues experienced in establishing an early warning system in the Iranian health system.

Conclusion: Policy-makers and managers of health system need to pay special attention to improve the legal framework and standard protocol, strengthening infrastructures, increasing management performance in the field of coordination, education, allocation of resources, flow of information, and evaluation system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_510_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161681PMC
February 2020

The Principles of Triage in Emergencies and Disasters: A Systematic Review.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2020 Jun 6;35(3):305-313. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The use of triage systems is one of the most important measures in response to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) caused by emergencies and disasters. In these systems, certain principles and criteria must be considered that can be achieved with a lack of resources. Accordingly, the present study was conducted as a systematic review to explore the principles of triage systems in emergencies and disasters world-wide.

Methods: The present study was conducted as a systematic review of the principles of triage in emergencies and disasters. All papers published from 2000 through 2019 were extracted from the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases. The search for the articles was conducted by two trained researchers independently.

Results: The classification and prioritization of the injured people, the speed, and the accuracy of the performance were considered as the main principles of triage. In certain circumstances, including chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, certain principles must be considered in addition to the principles of the triage based on traumatic events. Usually in triage systems, the classification of the injured people is done using color labeling. The short duration of the triage and its accuracy are important for the survival of the injured individuals. The optimal use of available resources to protect the lives of more casualties is one of the important principles of triage systems and does not conflict with equity in health.

Conclusion: The design of the principles of triage in triage systems is based on scientific studies and theories in which attempts have been made to correctly classify the injured people with the maximum correctness and in the least amount of time to maintain the survival of the injured people and to achieve the most desirable level of health. It is suggested that all countries adopt a suitable and context-bond model of triage in accordance with all these principles, or to propose a new model for the triage of injured patients, particularly for hospitals in emergencies and disasters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X20000291DOI Listing
June 2020

Hospital management preparedness tools in biological events: A scoping review.

J Educ Health Promot 2019 29;8:234. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The objective of the present study was to systematically review the current research knowledge on hospital preparedness tools used in biological events and factors affecting hospital preparedness in such incidents in using a scoping review methodology.

Materials And Methods: The review process was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guideline. Online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) were used to identify papers published that evaluated instruments or tools for hospital preparedness in biological disasters (such as influenza, Ebola, and bioterrorism events). The search, article selection, and data extraction were carried out by two researchers independently.

Results: A total of 3440 articles were screened, with 20 articles identified for final analysis. The majority of research studies identified were conducted in the United States (45%) and were focused on CBRN incident (20%), Ebola, infectious disease and bioterrorism events (15%), mass casualty incidents and influenza pandemic (10%), public health emergency, SARS, and biological events (5%). Factors that were identified in the study to hospitals preparedness in biological events classified in seven areas including planning, surge capacity, communication, training and education, medical management, surveillance and standard operation process.

Conclusions: Published evidences of hospital preparedness on biological events as well as the overall quality of the psychometric properties of most studies were limited. The results of the current scoping review could be used as a basis for designing and developing a standard assessment tool for hospital preparedness in biological events, and it can also be used as a clear vision for the healthcare managers and policymakers in their future plans to confront the challenges identified by healthcare institutes in biologic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_473_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905292PMC
November 2019

Developing a Hospital Disaster Risk Management Evaluation Model.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2019 10;12:287-296. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Disasters are increasing worldwide and hospitals should be prepared to respond well to such disasters. An effective hospital disaster risk management program saves peoples' lives, reduces damage to the hospital properties and assures hospital service continuity. This article aimed to develop and verify a Hospital Disaster Risk Management Evaluation model (HDRME).

Methods: A mixed-method explanatory sequential approach was used to develop and verify the HDRME model. The first draft of the HDRME model was introduced through a comprehensive literature review of major databases (i.e., PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct), using appropriate keywords. Furthermore, 18 in-depth individual interviews were conducted with well-known experts in DRM to identify more HDRME constructs, sub-constructs, and standards. Then, three rounds of Delphi were conducted with 22 experts in hospital disaster risk management to verify the proposed model.

Results: The proposed HDRME consists of eight constructs, including seven enablers (management and leadership; risk assessment; planning; prevention and mitigation; preparedness; response, and recovery) and one result (key performance results). These constructs were further broken into 27 sub-constructs. The enablers and results scored 85% and 15% of the model's total scores.

Conclusion: A comprehensive conceptual framework for the evaluation of hospital disaster risk management was introduced and verified. Standards and measurable elements can be embedded in this conceptual model to measure a hospital's preparedness in disasters and accordingly, corrective actions can be taken to strengthen the hospitals' responses to the disasters. However, the proposed model should be validated in a hospital setting through implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S215444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6911334PMC
December 2019

Early warning system models and components in emergency and disaster: a systematic literature review protocol.

Syst Rev 2019 12 6;8(1):315. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Emergency and disaster are on the rise in the world. One of the most important components of disaster risk management is the early warning system. Studies have shown divergent models of warning systems with different structures. However, since no systematic review of early warning systems in disasters has been conducted so far, a systematic review of the models, components, and structures of these systems is essential. This protocol is a systematic review study, which aims to evaluate the existing warning systems and their structure.

Methodology: This study attempts to comprehensively search the previous studies with terms and expressions including disaster, emergency model, early warning system, and their synonyms at MESH. To this end, English articles, which have been published from 1980 to 2019, will be assessed. Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases as well as relevant specialized websites will be searched. Studies will be evaluated by two individuals independently.

Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review of models, structures, and components of the early warning system has been conducted so far. This study is the first attempt to comprehensively evaluate the models and components of early warning systems. Accordingly, this study will provide evidence of models, structures and elements of the early warning systems.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42018116111.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1211-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896508PMC
December 2019

A comprehensive evaluation of the association between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes of major organ systems: a systematic review with a worldwide approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 May 22;26(13):12648-12661. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Ambient air pollution is nowadays one of the most crucial contributors to deteriorating health status worldwide. The components of air pollution include PM and PM, NO, SO, CO, O, and organic compounds. They are attributed to several health outcomes, for instance, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), respiratory diseases, birth outcomes, neurologic diseases, and psychiatric diseases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between different ambient air pollutants and the above-mentioned health outcomes. In this systematic review, a total of 76 articles was ultimately selected from 2653 articles, through multiple screening steps by the aid of a set of exclusion criteria as non-English articles, indoor air pollution assessment, work-related, occupational and home-attributed pollution, animal studies, tobacco smoking effects, letters to editors, commentaries, animal experiments, reviews, case reports and case series, out of 19,862 published articles through a systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Then, the associations between air pollution and different health outcomes were measured as relative risks and odds ratios. The association between air pollutants, PM and PM, NO, SO, CO, O, and VOC with major organ systems health was investigated through the gathered studies. Relative risks and/or odds ratios attributed to each air pollutant/outcome were ultimately reported. In this study, a thorough and comprehensive discussion of all aspects of the contribution of ambient air pollutants in health outcomes was proposed. To our knowledge up to now, there is no such comprehensive outlook on this issue. Growing concerns in concert with air pollution-induced health risks impose a great danger on the life of billions of people worldwide. Should we propose ideas and schemes to reduce ambient air pollutant, there will be dramatic reductions in the prevalence and occurrence of health-threatening conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04874-zDOI Listing
May 2019

Triage Systems in Mass Casualty Incidents and Disasters: A Review Study with A Worldwide Approach.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Feb 12;7(3):482-494. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Injuries caused by emergencies and accidents are increasing in the world. To prioritise patients to provide them with proper services and to optimally use the resources and facilities of the medical centres during accidents, the use of triage systems, which are one of the key principles of accident management, seems essential.

Aim: This study is an attempt to identify available triage systems and compare the differences and similarities of the standards of these systems during emergencies and disasters through a review study.

Methods: This study was conducted through a review of the triage systems used in emergencies and disasters throughout the world. Accordingly, all articles published between 1990 and 2018 in both English and Persian journals were searched based on several keywords including Triage, Disaster, Mass Casualty Incidents, in the Medlib, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google scholar, Irandoc, Magiran, Iranmedex, and SID databases in isolation and in combination using both and/ or conjunctions.

Results: Based on the search done in these databases, twenty different systems were identified in the primary adult triage field including START, Homebush triage Standard, Sieve, CareFlight, STM, Military, CESIRA Protocol, MASS, Revers, CBRN Triage, Burn Triage, META Triage, Mass Gathering Triage, SwiFT Triage, MPTT, TEWS Triage, Medical Triage, SALT, mSTART and ASAV. There were two primary triage systems including Jump START and PTT for children, and also two secondary triage systems encompassing SAVE and Sort identified in this respect. ESI and CRAMS were two other cases distinguished for hospital triage systems.

Conclusion: There are divergent triage systems in the world, but there is no general and universal agreement on how patients and injured people should be triaged. Accordingly, these systems may be designed based on such criteria as vital signs, patient's major problems, or the resources and facilities needed to respond to patients' needs. To date, no triage system has been known as superior, specifically about the patients' clinical outcomes, improvement of the scene management or allocation of the resources compared to other systems. Thus, it is recommended that different countries such as Iran design their triage model for emergencies and disasters by their native conditions, resources and relief forces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390156PMC
February 2019

Assessment of bioelectrical activity of pelvic floor muscles.

Authors:
Mehrdad Farrokhi

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Aug 20;54(4):645. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S1973-9087.18.05179-1DOI Listing
August 2018

Statistical comments on "Does player time-in-game affect tackle technique in elite level rugby union?"

Authors:
Mehrdad Farrokhi

J Sci Med Sport 2018 09 8;21(9):872. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Medical Student, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.01.016DOI Listing
September 2018

Statistical comments on "no seasonal variation in physical activity of Han Chinese living in Beijing".

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2017 11 3;14(1):151. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Student's Research Committee, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0604-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5670710PMC
November 2017

Statistical Comments on "Assessment of Musculoskeletal Strength and Levels of Fatigue During Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle in Young Adults".

J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jul 1;11(7):CL01. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Medical Student, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/29359.10319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5583919PMC
July 2017

Statistical Comments on "Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder".

Neuroimmunomodulation 2017 31;24(2):120. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000479431DOI Listing
January 2019

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-loaded Bioresorbable Delivery System for Pulp Regeneration.

J Endod 2017 Sep;43(9):1414

School of Dentistry, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2017.05.003DOI Listing
September 2017

Statistical Comments on "Salivary Iron (Fe) Ion Levels, Serum Markers of Anemia and Caries Activity in Pregnant Women".

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2017 10 7;39(10):583. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Dentistry Student, School of Dentistry, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1605374DOI Listing
October 2017

Reply to: Statistical support for Sema3A and multiple sclerosis.

Authors:
Mehrdad Farrokhi

Gene 2017 10 12;631:52. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Medical Student, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2017.07.033DOI Listing
October 2017

Interleukin 17 and 10 in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2017 07 26;378:63. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Dentistry Student, School of Dentistry, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.04.044DOI Listing
July 2017