Publications by authors named "Mehraneh D Jafari"

34 Publications

Misdiagnosis of appendiceal neoplasms as ovarian tumors: Impact of prior gynecologic surgery on definitive cytoreduction and HIPEC.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Colon and Rectal Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, NY, 10021, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Female patients with pelvic/adnexal masses often undergo gynecologic operations due to presumed ovarian origin. The diagnosis of an appendiceal tumor is often only made postoperatively after suboptimal cytoreduction has been performed. We hypothesized that an index gynecological procedure increases the morbidity of definitive cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) in patients with appendiceal mucinous tumors.

Methods: A single-center retrospective review was performed to identify female patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC for appendiceal tumors from 2012 to 2020.

Results: During the 8-year period, CRS/HIPEC was performed in 36 female patients with appendiceal mucinous tumors. Eighteen patients (50.0%) had received a prior pelvic operation by gynecologists (PPO Group) for presumed ovarian origin before referral for definitive CRS/HIPEC. The median peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was higher in the PPO group (21 vs. 9, p = 0.04). The median number of days from gynecologic procedure to definitive CRS/HIPEC was 169 days. Compared to patients who did not undergo a prior gynecologic operation, those in the PPO group had higher intraoperative blood loss (650 vs 100 mL, p < 0.01) during CRS/HIPEC as well as longer length of stay (12 vs 8 days, p = 0.02) and higher overall morbidity (72.3% vs 33.3%, p = 0.02). After controlling for PCI, prior gynecologic operation increased risk of 30-day morbidity after definitive CRS/HIPEC (OR 11.6, p < 0.01).

Conclusion: A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for the primary evaluation of patients with pelvic masses of undetermined origin. A gynecological resection is associated with increased morbidity during definitive cytoreduction and HIPEC for appendiceal mucinous tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2021.08.022DOI Listing
August 2021

Perfusion Assessment in Left-Sided/Low Anterior Resection (PILLAR III): A Randomized, Controlled, Parallel, Multicenter Study Assessing Perfusion Outcomes With PINPOINT Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Low Anterior Resection.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 Aug;64(8):995-1002

Department of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, California.

Background: Indocyanine green fluoroscopy has been shown to improve anastomotic leak rates in early phase trials.

Objective: We hypothesized that the use of fluoroscopy to ensure anastomotic perfusion may decrease anastomotic leak after low anterior resection.

Design: We performed a 1:1 randomized controlled parallel study. Recruitment of 450 to 1000 patients was planned over 2 years.

Settings: This was a multicenter trial.

Patients: Included patients were those undergoing resection defined as anastomosis within 10 cm of the anal verge.

Intervention: Patients underwent standard evaluation of tissue perfusion versus standard in conjunction with perfusion evaluation using indocyanine green fluoroscopy.

Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was anastomotic leak, with secondary outcomes of perfusion assessment and the rate of postoperative abscess requiring intervention.

Results: This study was concluded early because of decreasing accrual rates. A total of 25 centers recruited 347 patients, of whom 178 were randomly assigned to perfusion and 169 to standard. The groups had comparable tumor-specific and patient-specific demographics. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation was performed in 63.5% of perfusion and 65.7% of standard (p > 0.05). Mean level of anastomosis was 5.2 ± 3.1 cm in perfusion compared with 5.2 ± 3.3 cm in standard (p > 0.05). Sufficient visualization of perfusion was reported in 95.4% of patients in the perfusion group. Postoperative abscess requiring surgical management was reported in 5.7% of perfusion and 4.2% of standard (p = 0.75). Anastomotic leak was reported in 9.0% of perfusion compared with 9.6% of standard (p = 0.37). On multivariate regression analysis, there was no difference in anastomotic leak rates between perfusion and standard (OR = 0.845 (95% CI, 0.375-1.905); p = 0.34).

Limitations: The predetermined sample size to adequately reduce the risk of type II error was not achieved.

Conclusions: Successful visualization of perfusion can be achieved with indocyanine green fluoroscopy. However, no difference in anastomotic leak rates was observed between patients who underwent perfusion assessment versus standard surgical technique. In experienced hands, the addition of routine indocyanine green fluoroscopy to standard practice adds no evident clinical benefit. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B560.

Valoracin De La Irrigacin De Lado Izquierdo/reseccin Anterior Baja Pilar Iii Un Estudio Aleatorizado, Controlado, Paralelo Y Multicntrico Que Evala Los Resultados De La Irrigacin Con Pinpoint Imgenes De Fluorescencia Cercana Al Infrarrojo En La Reseccin Anterior Baja: ANTECEDENTES:Se ha demostrado que la fluoroscopia con verde de indocianina mejora las tasas de fuga anastomótica en ensayos en fases iniciales.OBJETIVO:Nuestra hipótesis es que la utilización de fluoroscopia para asegurar la irrigación anastomótica puede disminuir la fuga anastomótica luego de una resección anterior baja.DISEÑO:Realizamos un estudio paralelo, controlado, aleatorizado 1:1. Se planificó el reclutamiento de 450-1000 pacientes durante 2 años.AMBITO:Multicéntrico.PACIENTES:Pacientes sometidos a resección definida como una anastomosis dentro de los 10cm del margen anal.INTERVENCIÓN:Pacientes que se sometieron a la evaluación estándar de la irrigación tisular contra la estándar en conjunto con la valoración de la irrigación mediante fluoroscopia con verde indocianina.PRINCIPALES VARIABLES EVALUADAS:El principal resultado fue la fuga anastomótica, y los resultados secundarios fueron la evaluación de la perfusión y la tasa de absceso posoperatorio que requirió intervención.RESULTADOS:Este estudio se cerró anticipadamente debido a la disminución de las tasas de acumulación. Un total de 25 centros reclutaron a 347 pacientes, de los cuales 178 fueron, de manera aleatoria, asignados a perfusión y 169 a estándar. Los grupos tenían datos demográficos específicos del tumor y del paciente similares. Recibieron quimio-radioterapia neoadyuvante el 63,5% de la perfusión y el 65,7% del estándar (p> 0,05). La anastomosis estuvo en un nivel promedio de 5,2 + 3,1 cm en perfusión en comparación con 5,2 + 3,3 cm en estándar (p> 0,05). Se reportó una visualización suficiente de la perfusión en el 95,4% de los pacientes del grupo de perfusión. El absceso posoperatorio que requirió tratamiento quirúrgico fue de 5,7% de los perfusion y en el 4,2% del estándar (p = 0,75). Se informó fuga anastomótica en el 9,0% de la perfusión en comparación con el 9,6% del estándar (p = 0,37). En el análisis de regresión multivariante, no hubo diferencias en las tasas de fuga anastomótica entre la perfusión y el estándar (OR 0,845; IC del 95% (0,375; 1,905); p = 0,34).LIMITACIONES:No se logró el tamaño de muestra predeterminado para reducir satisfactoriamente el riesgo de error tipo II.CONCLUSIÓN:Se puede obtener una visualización adecuada de la perfusión con ICG-F. Sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias en las tasas de fuga anastomótica entre los pacientes que se sometieron a evaluación de la perfusión versus la técnica quirúrgica estándar. En manos expertas, agregar ICG-F a la rutina de la práctica estándar no agrega ningún beneficio clínico evidente. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B560. (Traducción-Dr Juan Antonio Villanueva-Herrero).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000002007DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation of Pelvic Anastomosis by Endoscopic and Contrast Studies Prior to Ileostomy Closure: Are Both Necessary? A Single Institution Review.

Am Surg 2020 Oct;86(10):1296-1301

Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, USA.

Contrast enema is the gold standard technique for evaluating a pelvic anastomosis (PA) prior to ileostomy closure. With the increasing use of flexible endoscopic modalities, the need for contrast studies may be unnecessary. The objective of this study is to compare flexible endoscopy and contrast studies for anastomotic inspection prior to defunctioning stoma reversal. Patients with a protected PA undergoing ileostomy closure between July 2014 and June 2019 at our institution were retrospectively identified. Demographics and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing preoperative evaluation with endoscopic and/or contrast studies were analyzed. We identified 207 patients undergoing ileostomy closure. According to surgeon's preference, 91 patients underwent only flexible endoscopy (FE) and 100 patients underwent both endoscopic and contrast evaluation (FE + CE) prior to reversal. There was no significant difference in pelvic anastomotic leak (2.2% vs. 1%), anastomotic stricture (1.1% vs. 6%), pelvic abscess (2.2% vs. 3.0%), or postoperative anastomotic complications (4.4% vs. 9%) between groups FE and FE + CE ( > .05). Flexible endoscopy alone appears to be an acceptable technique for anastomotic evaluation prior to ileostomy closure. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different diagnostic modalities for pelvic anastomotic inspection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003134820964227DOI Listing
October 2020

Outcomes of colostomy takedown following Hartmann's procedure: successful restoration of continuity comes with a high risk of morbidity.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Apr 19;23(4):967-974. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Aim: Restoration of bowel continuity following a Hartmann's procedure is a major surgical undertaking associated with significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to review the authors' experience with Hartmann's reversal.

Method: This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients from institutional databases who were selected to undergo open or laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal at two tertiary academic referral centres and a public safety net hospital (2010-2019). The main outcome measure was the rate of successful stoma reversal. Secondary outcomes included 30-day postoperative outcomes and procedural details.

Results: One hundred and fifty patients underwent attempted reversal during the study period, which was successful in all but three patients (98%). Patients were 59% Hispanic and 73% male, with a mean age of 48.7 ± 14.1 years, mean American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of 2.2 ± 0.6 and mean body mass index (BMI) of 28.6 ± 5.3 kg/m , with 39% of patients having a BMI > 30 kg/m . The mean time interval between the index procedure and reversal was 14.4 months, 53% of the index cases were performed at outside institutions and the most common index diagnoses were diverticulitis (54%), abdominal trauma (16%) and colorectal malignancy (15%). In 22% of cases a laparoscopic approach was used, with 42% of these requiring conversion to open. Proximal diverting stomas were created in 32 patients (21%), of which 94% were reversed. The overall morbidity rate was 54%, comprising ileus (32%), wound infection (15%) and anastomotic leak (6%), with a major morbidity rate (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3) of 23%.

Conclusion: Hartmann's reversal remains a highly morbid procedure. Our results suggest that operative candidates can be successfully reversed, but there is significant morbidity associated with restoration of intestinal continuity, particularly in obese patients. A laparoscopic approach may decrease morbidity in selected patients but such cases have a high conversion rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.15456DOI Listing
April 2021

Improved survival with adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation regardless of pathologic response.

Surg Oncol 2020 Mar 31;32:35-40. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of postoperative chemotherapy on survival in patients with stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma who undergo neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) and surgical resection.

Methods: A retrospective review of the National Cancer Database (NCDB) from 2006 to 2013 was performed. Cases were analyzed based on pathologic complete response (pCR) status and use of adjuvant therapy. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival probabilities.

Results: 23,045 cases were identified, of which 5832 (25.31%) achieved pCR. In the pCR group, 1513 (25.9%) received adjuvant chemotherapy, and in the non-pCR group, 5966 (34.7%) received adjuvant therapy. In the pCR group, five-year survival probability was 87% (95% CI 84%-89%) with adjuvant therapy and 81% (95% CI 79%-82%) without adjuvant therapy. In the non-pCR group, five-year survival probability was 78% (95% CI 76%-79%) with adjuvant therapy and 70% (95% CI 69%-71%) without adjuvant therapy. In the non-pCR and node-negative subgroup (ypN-), five-year survival probability was 86% (95% CI 84%-88%) with adjuvant therapy and 76% (95% CI 74%-77%) without adjuvant therapy. In the non-pCR and node-positive subgroup (ypN+), five-year survival probability was 67% (95% CI 65%-70%) with adjuvant therapy and 60% (95% CI 58%-63%) without adjuvant therapy.

Conclusions: Adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma is associated with increased five-year survival probability regardless of pCR status. We observed similar survival outcomes among non-pCR ypN- treated with adjuvant chemotherapy compared with patients achieving pCR treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2019.10.021DOI Listing
March 2020

Ileocolic Resection for Crohn's Disease: A Minimally Invasive Approach Claims Its Place.

Am Surg 2018 Oct;84(10):1639-1644

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, California, USA.

Ileocolic resection is the most common operation performed for Crohn's disease patients with terminal ileum involvement. We sought to evaluate the outcomes in Crohn's disease patients who underwent open ileocolic resection (OIC) and laparoscopic ileocolic resection (LIC) by using the ACS-NSQIP database from 2006 to 2015. Of 5670 patients, 48.3 per cent (2737) patients had OIC and 51.7 per cent (2933) had LIC. The number of LIC increased from 40 per cent in 2006 to 60.7 per cent in 2015. Moreover, the annual number of LIC surgeries has exceeded the number of OIC surgeries since 2013. Patients in the LIC group had shorter hospital length of stay compared with OIC group (6 ± 5 days 8.6 ± 8 days, < 0.01). The LIC procedure also had shorter operation time compared with OIC (148 ± 58 153 ± 76 minutes, = 0.01). Overall morbidity (15.8% 25.3%, AOR: 0.54, confidence interval (CI): 0.46-0.62, < 0.01), serious morbidity (10.9% 18%, AOR: 0.55, CI: 0.46-0.65, < 0.01), and SSI (9.9% 15.5%, AOR: 0.59, CI: 0.49-0.70, < 0.01) rates were lower in the LIC group than the OIC group. We demonstrated that in Crohn's disease patients, LIC has improved outcomes for ileocolic resection compared with OIC and has been chosen as the preferential treatment approach for most patients.
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October 2018

Laparoscopic loop ileostomy reversal with intracorporeal anastomosis is associated with shorter length of stay without increased direct cost.

Surg Endosc 2019 02 25;33(2):644-650. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: Laparoscopic ileostomy closure with intracorporeal anastomosis offers potential advantages over open reversal with extracorporeal anastomosis, including earlier return of bowel function and reduced postoperative pain. In this study, we aim to compare the outcome and cost of laparoscopic ileostomy reversal (utilizing either intracorporeal or extracorporeal anastomosis) with open ileostomy reversal.

Methods: A retrospective review of sequential patients undergoing elective loop ileostomy reversal between 2013 and 2016 at a single, high-volume institution was performed. Patients were stratified on the basis of operative approach: open reversal, laparoscopic-assisted reversal with extracorporeal anastomosis (LE), and laparoscopic reversal with intracorporeal anastomosis (LI). Linear and logistic regressions were utilized to perform multivariate analysis and determine risk-adjusted outcomes.

Results: Of 132 sequential cases of loop ileostomy reversal, 50 (38%) underwent open, 49 (37%) underwent LE, and 33 (22%) underwent LI. Demographic data and preoperative comorbidities were similar between the three cohorts. Median length of stay was significantly shorter for LI (52.1 h, p < 0.05) compared to open (69.0 h) and LE (69.6 h). After risk-adjusted analysis, length of stay was significant shorter in LI compared to LE (GM 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.93, p < 0.01) and open reversal (GM 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.93, p < 0.01). Risk-adjusted 30-day morbidity rates were similar for LI compared to LE (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.081-2.33, p = 0.33) and open reversal (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.09-3.125, p = 0.48). Median in-hospital direct cost was similar for LI ($6575.00), LE ($6722.50), and open reversal ($6181.00).

Conclusion: Laparoscopic ileostomy reversal with intracorporeal anastomosis was associated with shorter length of stay without increased overall direct cost. The technique of laparoscopic ileostomy reversal warrants continued study in a randomized clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6518-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6724549PMC
February 2019

Association of Compensation From the Surgical and Medical Device Industry to Physicians and Self-declared Conflict of Interest.

JAMA Surg 2018 11;153(11):997-1002

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Orange.

Importance: Surgical and medical device manufacturers have a cooperative relationship with clinicians. When evaluating published works, one should assess the integrity and academic credentials of the authors, who serve as putative experts. A relationship with a relevant manufacturer may increase the potential risk for bias in relevant studies.

Objective: To characterize the association of industrial payments by device manufacturers, self-declared conflict of interest (COI), and relevance of publications among physicians receiving the highest compensation.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This population-based bibliometric analysis identified 10 surgical and medical device manufacturing companies and the 10 physicians receiving the highest compensation from each company using the 2015 Open Payments Database (OPD) general payments data. For each of the 100 physicians, the total amount of general payments, number of payments, institution type, and academic rank were recorded. Royalty or license payments were excluded. A search of PubMed identified articles published by each physician from January 1 through December 31, 2016, and their associated COI declaration. Scopus was used to identify bibliometric data reported as the h index (number of papers by a researcher with at least h citations each).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Discrepancy between self-declared COI and industry payments.

Results: The 100 physicians included in the sample population (88% men) were paid a total of $12 446 969, with a median payment of $95 993. Fifty physicians (50.0%) were faculty at academic institutions. The mean (SD) h index was 18 (18; range, 0-75) for the authors. In 2016, 412 articles were published by these physicians, with a mean (SD) of 4 (6) publications (range, 0-25) and median of 1 (36 physicians had no publications). Of these articles, 225 (54.6%) were relevant to the general payments received by the authors. Only in 84 of the 225 relevant publications (37.3%) was the potential COI declared by the authors.

Conclusions And Relevance: A high level of inconsistency was found between self-declared COI and the OPD among the physicians receiving the highest industry payments. Therefore, a policy of full disclosure for all publications, regardless of relevance, is proposed. No statistically significant association was demonstrated between academic rank or productivity and industrial payments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2018.2576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6583703PMC
November 2018

The Growing Utilization of Laparoscopy in Emergent Colonic Disease.

Am Surg 2017 Oct;83(10):1068-1073

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California, USA.

Emergent colonic disease has traditionally been managed with open procedures. Evaluation of recent trends suggests a shift toward minimally invasive techniques in this disease setting. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) targeted colectomy database from 2012 to 2014 was used to examine clinical data from patients who emergently underwent open colectomy (OC) and laparoscopic colectomy (LC). Multivariate regression was utilized to analyze preoperative characteristics and determine risk-adjusted outcomes with intent-to-treat and as-treated approach. Of 10,018 patients with emergent colonic operation, 90 per cent (9023) underwent OC whereas 10 per cent (995) underwent LC. Laparoscopic utilization increased annually, with LC composing 10.9 per cent of emergent colonic operations in 2014 compared with 9.3 per cent in 2012. Compared with LC, patients treated with OC had higher rates of overall morbidity (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.74-2.34, P < 0.01) and 30-day mortality (odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.46, P < 0.01). Subset analysis of emergent patients without preoperative septic shock revealed consistent benefits with laparoscopy in overall morbidity, 30-day mortality, ileus, and surgical site infection. In select patients with hemodynamic stability, emergent LC appears to be a safe and beneficial operation. This study reflects the growing preference and utilization of minimally invasive techniques in emergent colonic operations.
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October 2017

An endoscopic mucosal grading system is predictive of leak in stapled rectal anastomoses.

Surg Endosc 2018 04 15;32(4):1769-1775. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, 333 City Blvd W. Suite 850, Orange, CA, 92868, USA.

Background: Anastomotic leak is a devastating postoperative complication following rectal anastomoses associated with significant clinical and oncological implications. As a result, there is a need for novel intraoperative methods that will help predict anastomotic leak.

Methods: From 2011 to 2014, patient undergoing rectal anastomoses by colorectal surgeons at our institution underwent prospective application of intraoperative flexible endoscopy with mucosal grading. Retrospective review of patient medical records was performed. After creation of the colorectal anastomosis, application of a three-tier endoscopic mucosal grading system occurred. Grade 1 was defined as circumferentially normal appearing peri-anastomotic mucosa. Grade 2 was defined as ischemia or congestion involving <30% of either the colon or rectal mucosa. Grade 3 was defined as ischemia or congestion involving >30% of the colon or rectal mucosa or ischemia/congestion involving both sides of the staple line.

Results: From 2011 to 2014, a total of 106 patients were reviewed. Grade 1 anastomoses were created in 92 (86.7%) patients and Grade 2 anastomoses were created in 10 (9.4%) patients. All 4 (3.8%) Grade 3 patients underwent immediate intraoperative anastomosis takedown and re-creation, with subsequent re-classification as Grade 1. Demographic and comorbidity data were similar between Grade 1 and Grade 2 patients. Anastomotic leak rate for the entire cohort was 12.2%. Grade 1 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 9.4% (9/96) and Grade 2 patients demonstrated a leak rate of 40% (4/10). Multivariate logistic regression associated Grade 2 classification with an increased risk of anastomotic leak (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.21-13.63, P = 0.023).

Conclusion: Endoscopic mucosal grading is a feasible intraoperative technique that has a role following creation of a rectal anastomosis. Identification of a Grade 2 or Grade 3 anastomosis should provoke strong consideration for immediate intraoperative revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-5860-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282754PMC
April 2018

Respiratory complications after colonic procedures in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: does laparoscopy offer a benefit?

Surg Endosc 2018 03 15;32(3):1280-1285. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine , 333 City Blvd. W. Ste. 850, Orange, CA, 92868, USA.

Background: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at a higher risk for postoperative respiratory complications. Despite the benefits of a minimally invasive approach, laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum can substantially reduce functional residual capacity and raise alveolar dead space, potentially increasing the risk of respiratory failure which may be poorly tolerated by COPD patients. This raises controversy as to whether open techniques should be preferentially employed in this population.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2011 to 2014 was used to examine the clinical data from patients with COPD who electively underwent laparoscopic and open colectomy. Patients defined as having COPD demonstrated either functional disability, chronic use of bronchodilators, prior COPD-related hospitalization, or reduced forced expiratory reserve volumes on lung testing (FEV1 <75%). Demographic data and preoperative characteristics were compared. Linear and logistic regressions were utilized to perform multivariate analysis and determine risk-adjusted outcomes.

Results: Of the 4397 patients with COPD, 53.8% underwent laparoscopic colectomy (LC) while 46.2% underwent open colectomy (OC). The LC and OC groups were similar with respect to demographic data and preoperative comorbidities. Equivalent frequencies of exertional dyspnea (LC 35.4 vs OC 37.7%, P = 0.11) were noted. After multivariate risk adjustment, OC demonstrated an increased rate of overall respiratory complications including pneumonia, reintubation, and prolonged ventilator dependency when compared to LC (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.30-1.98, P < 0.01). OC was associated with longer length of stay (10 ± 8 vs. 6.7 ± 7 days, P < 0.01) and higher readmission (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09-1.68, P < 0.01) compared to LC.

Conclusion: Despite the potential risks of laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum in the susceptible COPD population, a minimally invasive approach was associated with lower risk of postoperative respiratory complications, shorter length of stay, and decrease in postoperative morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-5805-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281393PMC
March 2018

Randomized Clinical Trial of Epidural Compared with Conventional Analgesia after Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery.

J Am Coll Surg 2017 Nov 3;225(5):622-630. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA. Electronic address:

Background: The effectiveness of thoracic epidural analgesia (EA) vs conventional IV analgesia (IA) after minimally invasive surgery is still unproven. We designed a randomized controlled trial comparing EA with IA after minimally invasive colorectal surgery.

Study Design: A total of 87 patients who underwent minimally invasive colorectal procedures at a single institution between 2011 and 2014 were enrolled. Eight patients were excluded and 38 were randomized to EA and 41 to IA. Pain was assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale and quality of life with the Overall Benefit of Analgesia Score daily until discharge.

Results: Mean age was 57 ± 14 years, 43% of patients were female, and mean BMI was 28.6 ± 6 kg/m. The 2 groups were similar in demographic characteristics and distribution of diagnoses and procedures. Epidural analgesia had a higher incidence of hypotensive systolic blood pressure (<90 mmHg) episodes (9 vs 2; p < 0.05) and a trend toward longer Foley catheter duration (3 ± 2 days vs 2 ± 4 days; p > 0.05). Epidural and IA had equivalent mean lengths of stay (4 ± 3 days vs 4 ± 3 days), daily Visual Analogue Scale scores (2.4 ± 2.0 vs 3.0 ± 2.0), and Overall Benefit of Analgesia Scores (3.2 ± 2.0 vs 3.2 ± 2.0), and similar time to start oral diet (2.8 ± 2 days vs 2.2 ± 1 days). Epidural analgesia patients used a higher total dose of narcotics (147.5 ± 192.0 mg vs 98.1 ± 112.0 mg; p > 0.05). Epidural and IV analgesia had equivalent total hospital charges ($144,991 ± $67,636 vs $141,339 ± $75,579; p > 0.05).

Conclusions: This study indicates that EA has no added clinical benefit in patients undergoing minimally invasive colorectal surgery. A trend toward higher total narcotics use and complications with EA was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2017.07.1063DOI Listing
November 2017

Defining the Role of Minimally Invasive Proctectomy for Locally Advanced Rectal Adenocarcinoma.

Ann Surg 2017 10;266(4):574-581

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA.

Objective: National examination of open proctectomy (OP), laparoscopic proctectomy (LP), and robotic proctectomy (RP) in pathological outcomes and overall survival (OS).

Background: Surgical management for rectal adenocarcinoma is evolving towards utilization of LP and RP. However, the oncological impacts of a minimally invasive approach to rectal cancer have yet to be defined.

Methods: Retrospective review of the National Cancer Database identified patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma from 2010 to 2014, who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation, surgical resection, and adjuvant therapy. Cases were stratified by surgical approach. Multivariate analysis was used to compare pathological outcomes. Cox proportional-hazard modeling and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate long-term OS.

Results: Of 6313 cases identified, 53.8% underwent OP, 31.8% underwent LP, and 14.3% underwent RP. Higher-volume academic/research and comprehensive community centers combined to perform 80% of laparoscopic cases and 83% of robotic cases. In an intent-to-treat model, multivariate analysis demonstrated superior circumferential margin negativity rates with LP compared with OP (odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.77, P = 0.036). Cox proportional-hazard modeling demonstrated a lower death hazard ratio for LP compared with OP (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.99, P = 0.037). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a 5-year OS of 81% in LP compared with 78% in RP and 76% in OP (P = 0.0198).

Conclusion: In the hands of experienced colorectal specialists treating selected patients, LP may be a valuable operative technique that is associated with oncological benefits. Further exploration of pathological outcomes and long-term survival by means of prospective randomized trials may offer more definitive conclusions regarding comparisons of open and minimally invasive technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002357DOI Listing
October 2017

The Role of Fluorescent Angiography in Anastomotic Leaks.

Surg Technol Int 2017 Jul;30:83-88

University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, California.

Anastomotic leaks following colorectal anastomosis has substantial implications including increased morbidity, longer hospitalization, and reduced overall survival. The etiology of leaks includes patient factors, technical factors, and anastomotic perfusion. An intact anastomotic blood supply is especially crucial in the physiology of anastomotic healing. To date, no established intraoperative methods have been developed that reliably and reproducibly identify and prevent leak occurrence. Recently, fluorescent angiography (FA) with indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as an innovative modality for intraoperative perfusion assessment. ICG-FA can be performed before or after intestinal resection or, alternatively, after creation of the anastomosis. Angiographic assessment with near-infrared camera filters allows determination of perfusion adequacy, guiding additional intestinal resection and anastomotic revision. Early clinical experiences with ICG-FA demonstrated safety and feasibility. Large, multi-center prospective trials, such as the Perfusion Assessment in Laparoscopic Left-Sided/Anterior Resection Study (PILLAR II), demonstrated ease of use with remarkably low anastomotic leak rates after ICG-FA-guided intraoperative revision. Current randomized control trials featuring utilization in ICG-FA in low anterior resection are currently underway and will further clarify the role of ICG-FA in leak identification and prevention. Apart from colorectal surgery, FA has also been successfully employed in other surgical disciplines such as plastic surgery, vascular surgery, foregut surgery, urology, and gynecology.
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July 2017

Retrorectal Tumors: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

World J Surg 2016 Aug;40(8):2001-15

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, 333 City Boulevard, West Suite 850, Orange, CA, 92868, USA.

Importance: Retrorectal tumors are rare lesions that comprise a multitude of histologic types. Reports are limited to small single-institution case series, and recommendations on the ideal surgical approaches are lacking.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, pathologic subtypes, surgical approaches, and clinical outcomes of retrorectal tumors.

Evidence Review: We conducted a review of the literature using PubMed and searched the reference lists of published studies.

Results: A total of 341 studies comprising 1708 patients were included. Overall, 68 % of patients were female. The mean age was 44.6 ± 13.7 years. Of all patients, 1194 (70 %) had benign lesions, and 514 patients (30 %) had malignant tumors. Congenital tumors (60.5 %) were the most frequent histologic type. Other pathologic types were neurogenic tumors (14.8 %), osseous tumors (3.1 %), inflammatory tumors (2.6 %), and miscellaneous tumors (19.1 %). Biopsy was performed in 27 % of the patients. Of these patients, incorrect diagnoses occurred in 44 %. An anterior surgical approach (AA) was performed in 299 patients (35 %); a posterior approach (PA) was performed in 443 (52 %), and a combined approach (CA) was performed in 119 patients (14 %). The mean length of stay (LOS) of PA was 7 ± 5 days compared to 8 ± 7 days for AA and 11 ± 7 days for CA (p < 0.05). The overall morbidity rate was 13.2 %: 19.3 % associated with anterior approach, 7.2 % associated with posterior approach, and 24.7 % after a combined approach (p < 0.05). Overall postoperative recurrence rate was 21.6 %; 6.7 % after an anterior approach, 26.6 % after a posterior approach, and 28.6 % after a combined approach (p < 0.05). A minimally invasive approach (MIS) was employed in 83 patients. MIS provided shorter hospital stays than open surgery (4 ± 2 vs. 9 ± 7 days; p < 0.05). Differences in complication rate were 19.8 % in MIS and 12.2 % in open surgery and not statistically significant.

Conclusions And Relevance: Retrorectal tumors are most commonly benign in etiology, of a congenital nature, and have a female predominance. Complete surgical resection is the cornerstone of retrorectal tumor management. A minimal access surgery approach, when feasible, appears to be a safe option for the management of retrorectal tumors, with shorter operative time and length of stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-016-3501-6DOI Listing
August 2016

Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction in the United States: Has Laparoscopy Made an Impact?

Am Surg 2015 Oct;81(10):1028-33

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, California, USA.

Adhesions account for 74 per cent of admissions for small bowel obstruction (SBO). There is a lack of data regarding the usage and outcomes of laparoscopy (LS) for SBO. A retrospective review of urgent admissions for SBO using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2001 to 2011 was conducted. Among the estimated 3,948,987 SBO admissions, 36.7 per cent underwent operative management and LS was performed in 26.5 per cent with a 22.5 per cent conversion rate. Admissions increased by 3.1 per cent annually, whereas nonoperative management increased by 3.8 per cent annually. Operative management increased by 1.8 per cent annually, whereas LS increased by 8.9 per cent annually and open surgery decreased by 0.6 per cent annually. LS small bowel resection increased by a mean of 25 per cent annually. LS was associated with a 24.4 per cent in-hospital morbidity with intra-abdominal abscess/enteric fistulas (8.3%) and ileus (8.9%) as the most common complications. In-hospital mortality was 0.9 per cent with length of stay of 13 ± 9 days and a hospital charge of $80,080 ± 6,634. The majority of patients were operated on hospital day (HD) 1 (43.0%). Patients who underwent LS on HD >7 had a higher risk-adjusted mortality compared with earlier HD (odds ratio = 2.63; 95% confidence interval: 2.40-2.89; P < 0.01). There has been an increase in admissions for SBO and an increase in LS over the past 11 years. There seems to be an increase in mortality and morbidity with a later HD operation.
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October 2015

Laparoscopic Versus Open Loop Ileostomy Reversal: Is there an Advantage to a Minimally Invasive Approach?

World J Surg 2015 Nov;39(11):2805-11

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, 333 City Blvd West, Suite 850, Orange, CA, 92868, USA.

Background: Ileostomy reversals are commonly performed procedures after colon and rectal operations. Laparoscopic ileostomy reversal (LIR) with lysis of adhesions has potential benefits over conventional open surgery. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of laparoscopic and open ileostomy reversal.

Methods: 133 consecutive patients undergoing ileostomy reversal at our institution between June 2009 and August 2013 were analyzed using a retrospective database. The group comprised 53 laparoscopic cases and 80 open cases, performed by four surgeons at a single center. The data were analyzed for patient demographics, operative characteristics, postoperative outcomes, and 30-day morbidity and mortality.

Results: The two groups had comparable mean age, gender distribution, ASA scores, and BMI. The laparoscopic group had a significantly longer duration of surgery compared to the open reversal group (109 versus 93 min, p < 0.05). However, this group underwent more lysis of adhesions (60.4 % versus 26.3 %, p < 0.01) as well as concurrent stoma site mesh reinforcement (32.1 % versus 6.3 %, p < 0.01). In the laparoscopy group, 20.7 % of patients underwent intra-corporeal ileo-ileal anastomosis. There were no significant differences between the laparoscopic and open groups with regard to estimated blood loss (31 versus 40 ml, respectively) or mean length of stay (5.3 vs. 5.7 days, respectively). The rates of overall 30-day morbidity (16.9 % for laparoscopic vs. 21.3 % for open) as well as rates of specific complications were equivalent between groups. 30-day mortalities were not noted in either group.

Conclusion: LIR is safe and effective with low perioperative morbidity and mortality. The use of laparoscopy as an option in terms of concomitant hernia repair and lysis of adhesions may be considered in selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-015-3186-2DOI Listing
November 2015

Perfusion assessment in laparoscopic left-sided/anterior resection (PILLAR II): a multi-institutional study.

J Am Coll Surg 2015 Jan 28;220(1):82-92.e1. Epub 2014 Sep 28.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Our primary objective was to demonstrate the utility and feasibility of the intraoperative assessment of colon and rectal perfusion using fluorescence angiography (FA) during left-sided colectomy and anterior resection. Anastomotic leak (AL) after colorectal resection increases morbidity, mortality, and, in cancer cases, recurrence rates. Inadequate perfusion may contribute to AL. The PINPOINT Endoscopic Fluorescence Imaging System allows for intraoperative assessment of anastomotic perfusion.

Study Design: This is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, clinical trial that assessed the feasibility and utility of FA for intraoperative perfusion assessment during left-sided colectomy and anterior resection at 11 centers in the United States.

Results: A total of 147 patients were enrolled, of whom 139 were eligible for analysis. Diverticulitis (44%), rectal cancer (25%), and colon cancer (21%) were the most prevalent indications for surgery. The mean level of anastomosis was 10 ± 4 cm from the anal verge. Splenic-flexure mobilization was performed in 81% and high ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery in 61.9% of patients. There was a 99% success rate for FA, and FA changed surgical plans in 11 (8%) patients, with the majority of changes occurring at the time of transection of the proximal margin (7%). Overall morbidity rates were 17%. The anastomotic leak rate was 1.4% (n = 2). There were no anastomotic leaks in the 11 patients who had a change in surgical plan based on intraoperative perfusion assessment with FA.

Conclusions: PINPOINT is a safe and feasible tool for intraoperative assessment of tissue perfusion during colorectal resection. There were no anastomotic leaks in patients in whom the anastomosis was revised based on inadequate perfusion with FA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.09.015DOI Listing
January 2015

A decade analysis of trends and outcomes of bariatric surgery in Medicare beneficiaries.

J Am Coll Surg 2014 Sep 23;219(3):480-8. Epub 2014 May 23.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA. Electronic address:

Background: In 2006, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued a National Coverage Determination (NCD), which mandates that bariatric procedures be performed only at accredited centers. The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent bariatric surgery before (2001 through 2005) vs after (2006 through 2010) implementation of the NCD.

Study Design: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze data on patients who underwent bariatric surgery between 2001 and 2010. Main outcomes measures were demographics, length of stay, risk-adjusted inpatient morbidity and mortality, and cost.

Results: There were 775,040 patients who underwent bariatric surgery, with 16% of the patients Medicare beneficiaries. There was an overall trend for improved in-hospital mortality during the decade (0.35% in 2001 to 0.10% in 2010). Medicare patients who underwent bariatric surgery had higher rates of comorbidities and a higher rate of in-hospital mortality than non-Medicare patients. After the NCD, there was a significant reduction of the in-hospital mortality (0.56% vs 0.23%; p < 0.01) and serious morbidity (9.92% vs 6.98%; p < 0.01) for Medicare patients and a similar reduction of the in-hospital mortality (0.18% vs 0.08%; p < 0.01) and serious morbidity (6.84% vs 5.08%; p < 0.01) for non-Medicare patients. Compared with patients who underwent stapling bariatric procedures at accredited centers, patients at nonaccredited centers had higher risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (odds ratio = 3.53; 95% CI, 1.01-6.52) and serious morbidity (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.07-1.30). After the NCD, use of bariatric surgery within Medicare beneficiaries increased by 71%.

Conclusions: Outcomes of bariatric surgery in Medicare beneficiaries have improved substantially since the 2006 NCD. Facility accreditation appears to be a contributing factor to the observed improvement in outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.04.010DOI Listing
September 2014

Surgical treatments for rectal prolapse: how does a perineal approach compare in the laparoscopic era?

Surg Endosc 2015 Mar 23;29(3):607-13. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, 333 City Blvd. West Suite 850, Orange, CA, 92868, USA,

Background: Patients with rectal prolapse often have significant comorbidities that lead surgeons to select a perineal resection for treatment despite a reported higher recurrence rate over abdominal approaches. There is a lack of data to support this practice in the laparoscopic era. The objective of this study was to evaluate if risk-adjusted morbidity of perineal surgery for rectal prolapse is actually lower than laparoscopic surgery.

Design: A retrospective review of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database as performed for patients undergoing surgical treatment of rectal prolapse between 2005 and 2011. Outcomes were analyzed according to procedure-type: laparoscopic rectopexy (LR), laparoscopic resection/rectopexy (LRR), open rectopexy (OR), open resection/rectopexy (ORR), and perineal resection (PR). A multivariate logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted morbidity and mortality between each procedure. Main outcome measures were 30-day morbidity and mortality.

Results: Among 3,254 cases sampled, a laparoscopic approach was used in 22 %, an open abdominal approach in 30 %, and PR in 48 %. Patients undergoing PR were older (76) and had a higher ASA (3) compared to laparoscopic (58, 2) and open abdominal procedures (58, 2). Risk-adjusted mortality could not be assessed due to a low overall incidence of mortality (0.01 %). Overall morbidity was 9.3 %. ORR was associated with a higher risk-adjusted morbidity compared to PR (OR: 1.89 CI (1.19-2.99), p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in risk-adjusted morbidity found between LR and LRR compared to PR (OR 0.44 CI (0.19-1.03), p = 0.18; OR 1.55 CI (0.86-2.77), p = 0.18). Laparoscopic cases averaged 27 min longer than open cases (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Laparoscopic rectal prolapse surgery has comparable morbidity and mortality to perineal surgery. A randomized trial is indicated to validate these findings and to assess recurrence rates and functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-014-3707-3DOI Listing
March 2015

Colorectal Cancer Resections in the Aging US Population: A Trend Toward Decreasing Rates and Improved Outcomes.

JAMA Surg 2014 Jun;149(6):557-64

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Orange.

Importance: The incidence of colorectal cancer in elderly patients is likely to increase, but there is a lack of large nationwide data regarding the mortality and morbidity of colorectal cancer resections in the aging population.

Objective: To examine the surgical trends and outcomes of colorectal cancer treatment in the elderly.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A review of operative outcomes for colorectal cancer in the United States was conducted in a Nationwide Inpatient Sample from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010. Patients were stratified within age groups of 45 to 64, 65 to 69, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and 85 years and older. Postoperative complications and yearly trends were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital mortality and morbidity between individual groups of patients 65 years and older and those aged 45 to 64 years while controlling for sex, comorbidities, procedure type, diagnosis, and hospital status.

Main Outcomes And Measures: In-hospital mortality and morbidity.

Results: Among the estimated 1,043,108 patients with colorectal cancer sampled, 63.8% of the operations were performed on those 65 years and older and 22.6% on patients 80 years and older. Patients 80 years and older were 1.7 times more likely to undergo urgent admission than those younger than 65 years. Patients younger than 65 years accounted for 46.0% of the laparoscopies performed in the elective setting compared with 14.1% for patients 80 years and older. Mortality during the 10 years decreased by a mean of 6.6%, with the most considerable decrease observed in the population 85 years and older (9.1%). Patients 80 years and older had an associated $9492 higher hospital charge and an increased 2½-day length of stay vs patients younger than 65 years. Compared with patients aged 45 to 64 years, higher risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was observed in patients with advancing age: 65 to 69 years (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18-1.49), 70 to 74 years (2.02; 1.82-2.24), 75 to 79 years (2.51; 2.28-2.76), 80 to 84 years (3.15; 2.86-3.46), and 85 years and older (4.72; 4.30-5.18) (P < .01). Compared with patients aged 45 to 64 years, higher risk-adjusted morbidity was noted in those with advancing age: 65 to 69 years (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.21-1.29), 70 to 74 years (1.40; 1.36-1.45), 75 to 79 years (1.54; 1.49-1.58), 80 to 84 years (1.68; 1.63-1.74), and 85 years and older (1.96; 1.89-2.03) (P < .01).

Conclusions And Relevance: Most operations for colorectal cancer are performed on the aging population, with an overall decrease in the number of cases performed. Despite the overall improved mortality seen during the past 10 years, the risk-adjusted mortality and morbidity of the elderly continue to be substantially higher than that for the younger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2013.4930DOI Listing
June 2014

Ureteral injuries in colorectal surgery: an analysis of trends, outcomes, and risk factors over a 10-year period in the United States.

Dis Colon Rectum 2014 Feb;57(2):179-86

1Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, California 2Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California.

Background: Iatrogenic ureteral injuries during colorectal surgical procedures are rare. Little is known about their incidence, associated outcomes, and predisposing factors.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the trends of iatrogenic ureteral injuries in the United States over a decade, as well as their outcomes and risk factors.

Design: This was a retrospective study.

Settings: The nationwide inpatient sample from 2001 to 2010 was analyzed.

Patients: Included were patients with colorectal cancer, benign polyps, diverticular disease, or inflammatory bowel disease undergoing colorectal surgery.

Main Outcome Measures: Trends of iatrogenic ureteral injuries occurring in colon and rectal surgical procedures were examined over a 10-year period. Mortality, morbidity, length of stay and total charge associated with ureteral injuries were analyzed on multivariate analysis. Finally, a predictive model for ureteral injuries was built using patient, hospital, and operative variables.

Results: An estimated 2,165,848 colorectal surgical procedures were performed in the United States over the study period, and 6027 ureteral injuries were identified (0.28%). The rate of ureteral injuries was higher in the second half of the decade (2006-2010) compared with the first half (2001-2005; 3.1/1000 vs 2.5/1000; p < 0.001). Ureteral injuries were independently associated with higher mortality (OR, 1.45; p < 0.05), morbidity (OR, 1.66; p < 0.001), longer length of stay (mean difference, 3.65 days; p < 0.001), and higher hospital charges by $31,497 (p< 0.001). Risk factors for ureteral injuries included rectal cancer (OR, 1.85), adhesions (OR, 1.83), metastatic cancer (OR, 1.76), weight loss/malnutrition (OR, 1.08), and teaching hospitals (OR, 1.05). Protective factors included the use of laparoscopy (OR, 0.91), transverse colectomy (OR, 0.90), and right colectomy (OR, 0.43).

Limitations: This was a retrospective study from an administrative database.

Conclusions: Iatrogenic ureteral injuries are rare complications in colorectal surgery; however, their incidence appears to be rising. Ureteral injuries are associated with higher mortality, morbidity, hospital charge, and length of stay, and their incidence can be predicted by several factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000000033DOI Listing
February 2014

Surgical outcomes of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: analysis of the american college of surgeons national surgical quality improvement program.

JAMA Surg 2014 Feb;149(2):170-5

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Orange.

Importance: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and cytoreductive surgery have been shown to benefit selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. However, these procedures are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Available data investigating the outcomes of HIPEC are mostly limited to single-center studies. To date, there have been few large-scale studies investigating the postoperative outcomes of HIPEC.

Objective: To determine the associated 30-day morbidity and mortality of cytoreductive surgery-HIPEC in the treatment of metastatic and primary peritoneal cancer in American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program centers.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective review of HIPEC cases performed for primary and metastatic peritoneal cancer diagnoses was conducted. The cytoreductive surgical procedures were sampled, and disease processes were identified. Patient demographics, intraoperative occurrences, and postoperative complications were reviewed from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2005-2011.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Thirty-day mortality and morbidity.

Results: Of the cancers identified among the 694 sampled cases, 14% of patients had appendiceal cancer, 11% had primary peritoneal cancer, and 8% had colorectal cancer. The American Society of Anesthesiologists classification was 3 for 70% of patients. The average operative time was 7.6 hours, with 15% of patients requiring intraoperative transfusions. Postoperative bleeding (17%), septic shock (16%), pulmonary complications (15%), and organ-space infections (9%) were the most prevalent postoperative complications. The average length of stay was 13 days, with a 30-day readmission rate of 11%. The rate of reoperation was 10%, with an overall mortality rate of 2%.

Conclusions And Relevance: American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program hospitals performing HIPEC have acceptable rates of morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3640DOI Listing
February 2014

Blood transfusions in colorectal cancer surgery: incidence, outcomes, and predictive factors: an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program analysis.

Am J Surg 2013 Dec 18;206(6):1024-32; discussion 1032-3. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, 333 City Blvd West, Suite 700, Orange, CA 92868, USA.

Background: Data analyzing the short-term outcomes and predictors of blood transfusions (BTs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are limited.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2005 to 2010) was retrospectively reviewed for CRC cases performed with or without BT. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and operative variables were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was performed examining the effect of BT on outcomes. The LASSO algorithm for logistic regression was used to build a predictive model for BT taking into account preoperative and operative variables.

Results: A total of 27,120 patients underwent CRC, and 3,815 (14.07%) had BTs. Transfusions were associated with increased mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.78), morbidity (OR, 2.38), length of stay (mean difference, 3.52 days), pneumonia (OR, 2.70), and surgical-site infection (OR, 1.45). This effect was "dose dependent," as patients receiving ≥3 U of blood had increased morbidity (OR, 1.53), lengths of stay (mean difference, 1.82 days), pneumonia (OR, 2.52), and surgical-site infections (OR, 1.60) compared with those receiving 1 to 2 U. Predictors of BT were hematocrit <38%, open surgery, proctectomy, low platelet count, American Society of Anesthesiologists class IV or V, total colectomy, metastatic cancer, emergency, ascites, and infection. All P values were < .05.

Conclusions: BTs are associated with worse short-term outcomes after CRC surgery. Knowledge of predictive factors will help in risk stratification and counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2013.10.001DOI Listing
December 2013

Morbidity of diverting ileostomy for rectal cancer: analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

Am Surg 2013 Oct;79(10):1034-9

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, California, USA.

There is controversy regarding the potential benefits of diverting ileostomy after low anterior resection (LAR). This study aims to examine the morbidity associated with diverting ileostomy in rectal cancer. A retrospective review of LAR cases was performed using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2005 to 2011). Patients who underwent LAR with and without diversion were selected. Demographics, intraoperative events, and postoperative complications were reviewed. Among the 6337 cases sampled, 991 (16%) received a diverting ileostomy. Patients who were diverted were younger (60 vs 63 years), predominantly male (64 vs 53%), and more likely to have received pre-operative radiation (39 vs 12%). There was no significant difference in steroid use, weight loss, or intraoperative transfusion. Postoperatively, there was no significant difference in length of stay, rate of septic complications, wound infections, and mortality. The rate of reoperation was lower in the diverted group (4.5 vs 6.9%). Diversion was associated with a higher risk-adjusted rate of acute renal failure (OR 2.4; 95% CI (1.2, 4.6); P < 0.05). The use of diverting ileostomy reduces the rate of reoperation but is associated with an increased risk of acute renal insufficiency. These findings emphasize the need for refinement of patient selection and close follow-up to limit morbidity.
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October 2013

Colorectal surgery in kidney transplant recipients: a decade of trends and outcomes in the United States.

Am Surg 2013 Oct;79(10):1026-33

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California, USA.

There is paucity of data evaluating the trends and outcomes of colorectal surgery (CRS) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2001 to 2010, a retrospective review of CRS performed in KTRs was performed. Trends, demographics, indications, and outcomes were examined for elective and emergent cases and compared with the general population (GP) on multivariate logistic regression. A total of 2616 KTRs underwent CRS, 50 per cent of which were done emergently. KTRs developed colon and rectal cancer at a younger age and had significantly higher incidence of comorbidities compared with the GP. Diverticular disease was the most common indication for surgery (48%) followed by cancer (30.6%). Compared with the GP, KTRs had higher rates of mortality (6.29 vs 3.64%), wound complications (8.02 vs 5.37%), and acute renal failure (ARF) (17.14 vs 7.10%) (all P < 0.05). No difference was seen in the incidence of anastomotic leak. On multivariate analysis, KTRs had higher associated odds of ARF (odds ratio, 2.02; P < 0.001), whereas the odds of mortality, wound, and anastomotic complications were similar to the GP. Emergency surgery in KTRs was associated with worse outcomes compared with the elective setting. KTRs undergoing CRS have unique characteristics that are different than the GP. They are at an increased risk of complications, especially acute renal failure.
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October 2013

A decade analysis of trends and outcomes of partial versus total esophagectomy in the United States.

Ann Surg 2013 Sep;258(3):450-8

*Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange; and †Department of Statistics, University of California Irvine, Irvine.

Objective: To examine the trends and outcomes of partial esophagectomy with an intrathoracic anastomosis compared with total esophagectomy with a cervical anastomosis.

Background: Controversy exists regarding the optimal surgical approach in the management of esophageal cancer.

Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, yearly trends of patients with esophageal cancer who underwent partial and total esophagectomy were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze serious morbidity and in-hospital mortality between partial and total esophagectomy. In addition, outcomes were analyzed according to hospital volume, with low-volume centers defined as those with fewer than 10 cases per year and high-volume centers as those with 10 or more cases per year.

Results: Between 2001 and 2010, 15,190 esophagectomies were performed for cancer. There was an overall increase in the number of esophagectomy procedures performed (1402 to 1975), with a concomitant reduction in the mortality rate (8.3% to 4.2%), particularly for partial esophagectomy. Partial esophagectomy was the predominant operation (76%). Most operations were performed at low-volume centers (62%), with a recent shift of cases to high-volume center. Compared with total esophagectomy, partial esophagectomy was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (16 ± 6 vs 19 ± 9 days; P < 0.05), a lower in-hospital mortality rate (5.8% vs 8.3%; P < 0.05), and a lower hospital charge ($119,339 vs $138,496; P < 0.05). On multivariate regression analysis, total esophagectomy was associated with higher serious morbidity (odds ratio, 1.39; P < 0.01) and in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.67; P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in risk-adjusted outcomes between low-volume centers and high-volume center.

Conclusions: The number of esophagectomies performed for esophageal cancer has increased over the past decade accompanied by an overall reduction in mortality, particularly for the partial esophagectomy approach. The predominant operation in the United States continues to be partial esophagectomy with an intrathoracic anastomosis, which was associated with lower morbidity and in-hospital mortality than total esophagectomy. Hospital volume at a threshold of 10 cases per year was not a predictor of outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a1b11dDOI Listing
September 2013

Volume and outcome relationship in bariatric surgery in the laparoscopic era.

Surg Endosc 2013 Dec 13;27(12):4539-46. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, 333 City Blvd. West Suite 850, Orange, CA, 92868, USA.

Background: The relationship between volume and outcomes in bariatric surgery is well established in the literature. However, the analyses were performed primarily in the open surgery era and in the absence of national accreditation. The recent Metabolic Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program proposed an annual threshold volume of 50 stapling cases. This study aimed to examine the effect of volume and accreditation on surgical outcomes for bariatric surgery in this laparoscopic era.

Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used for analysis of the outcomes experienced by morbidly obese patients who underwent an elective laparoscopic stapling bariatric surgical procedure between 2006 and 2010. In this analysis, low-volume centers (LVC < 50 stapling cases/year) were compared with high-volume centers (HVC ≥ 50 stapling cases/year). Multivariate analysis was performed to examine risk-adjusted serious morbidity and in-hospital mortality between the LVCs and HVCs. Additionally, within the HVC group, risk-adjusted outcomes of accredited versus nonaccredited centers were examined.

Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 277,760 laparoscopic stapling bariatric procedures were performed, with 85% of the cases managed at HVCs. The mean number of laparoscopic stapling cases managed per year was 17 ± 14 at LVCs and 144 ± 117 at HVCs. The in-hospital mortality was higher at LVCs (0.17%) than at HVCs (0.07%). Multivariate analysis showed that laparoscopic stapling procedures performed at LVCs had higher rates of mortality than those performed at HVCs [odds ratio (OR) 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-4.8; p < 0.01] as well as higher rates of serious morbidity (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4; p < 0.01). The in-hospital mortality rate at nonaccredited HVCs was 0.22% compared with 0.06% at accredited HVCs. Multivariate analysis showed that nonaccredited centers had higher rates of mortality than accredited centers (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.5-8.3; p < 0.01) but lower rates of serious morbidity (OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.7-0.9; p < 0.01).

Conclusion: In this era of laparoscopy, hospitals managing more than 50 laparoscopic stapling cases per year have improved outcomes. However, nonaccredited HVCs have outcomes similar to those of LVCs. Therefore, the impact of accreditation on outcomes may be greater than that of volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-013-3112-3DOI Listing
December 2013

Laparoscopic versus open repair of parastomal hernias: an ACS-NSQIP analysis of short-term outcomes.

Surg Endosc 2013 Nov 9;27(11):4067-72. Epub 2013 Jul 9.

Department of Surgery, University of California- Irvine, 333 City Blvd West Suite 850, Orange, CA, 92868, USA,

Background: Parastomal hernia (PSH) is a frequent complication following the creation of a stoma. While a significant number of cases require operative management, data comparing short-term outcomes of laparoscopic versus open repair of parastomal hernias are limited.

Methods: The ACS-NSQIP was retrospectively reviewed from 2005 to 2011 for all PSH cases that underwent open or laparoscopic repair. Patients characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were listed for both procedure types. Selected end points were compared on multivariate regression analysis.

Results: Among the 2,167 identified parastomal hernia cases, only 222 (10.24 %) were treated laparoscopically. The open and laparoscopic groups were similar with respect to mean patient age (63 vs. 63 years; p = 1) and gender distribution as the majority of patients were females (56.8 %). However, open repair was more likely to be performed in patients with a higher ASA class (III and IV) (p < 0.001). Also, the open approach was more likely to be used emergently (8.64 vs. 3.60 %; p = 0.01) and for recurrent hernias (6.99 vs. 3.15 %; p < 0.05). After adjusting for all potential confounders including age, gender, ASA, emergency designation of the operation, hernia type, and wound class, laparoscopy was associated with shorter operative time (137.5 vs. 153.4 min; p < 0.05), shorter length of hospital stay by 3.32 days (p < 0.001), lower risk of overall morbidity (OR = 0.42; p < 0.001), and a lower risk of surgical site infections (OR = 0.35; p < 0.01) compared to open repair. Mortality rates were similar in the laparoscopic and open groups (0.45 vs. 1.59 %, respectively; p = 0.29).

Conclusions: Laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair is safe and appears to be associated with better short-term outcomes compared to open repair in selected cases. Large prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm those results and to assess long-term recurrence rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-013-3062-9DOI Listing
November 2013

A nationwide analysis of the use and outcomes of epidural analgesia in open colorectal surgery.

J Gastrointest Surg 2013 Jun 18;17(6):1130-7. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, CA, USA.

Introduction: Epidural analgesia has demonstrated superiority over conventional analgesia in controlling pain following open colorectal resections. Controversy exists regarding cost-effectiveness and postoperative outcomes.

Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2010) was retrospectively reviewed for elective open colorectal surgeries performed for benign and malignant conditions with or without the use of epidural analgesia. Multivariate regression analysis was used to compare outcomes between epidural and conventional analgesia.

Results: A total 888,135 patients underwent open colorectal resections. Epidural analgesia was only used in 39,345 (4.4 %) cases. Epidurals were more likely to be used in teaching hospitals and rectal cancer cases. On multivariate analysis, in colonic cases, epidural analgesia lowered hospital charges by US$4,450 (p < 0.001) but was associated with longer length of stay by 0.16 day (p < 0.05) and a higher incidence of ileus (OR = 1.17; p < 0.01). In rectal cases, epidural analgesia was again associated with lower hospital charges by US$4,340 (p < 0.001) but had no effect on ileus and length of stay. The remaining outcomes such as mortality, respiratory failure, pneumonia, anastomotic leak, urinary tract infection, and retention were unaffected by the use of epidurals.

Conclusion: Epidural analgesia in open colorectal surgery is safe but does not add major clinical benefits over conventional analgesia. It appears however to lower hospital charges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-013-2195-4DOI Listing
June 2013
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