Publications by authors named "Mehmet Karakus"

61 Publications

Postoperative Audiometric Results of Patients with Otosclerosis in relation with High-resolution Computed Tomography and Intraoperative Macroscopic Findings.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Aug;31(8):969-974

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To analyse postoperative audiological findings in fenestral otosclerosis patients treated with stapedotomy, focal location-extensiveness findings on temporal high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and intraoperative macroscopic stapes footplate findings. Moreover, preoperative audiological findings were compared with HRCT and intraoperative macroscopic findings.

Study Design: An observational study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Health Sciences, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey from January 2015 to January 2018.

Methodology: Patients were classified according to the temporal bone HRCT findings into three groups based on otosclerotic focus location and extensiveness. Macroscopic classification was based on the intraoperative findings of blue and white footplate. Patients with obliterative otosclerosis were not included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative audiological findings as well as surgical success were investigated. Findings were compared with HRCT and macroscopic classification groups.

Results: Postoperative air bone gap (ABG) increased as HRCT class increased from 0 to 3, meaning a more extensive otosclerotic focus (p=0.002). The comparison of the audiological outcomes, in accordance with the intraoperative findings, revealed that the postoperative air conduction pure-tone averages (AC PTA), ABG and ABG difference were higher in the white footplate group, with statistically significant differences compared to blue footplate group (p = 0.039, p = 0.001 and p=0.029, respectively).

Conclusion: Postoperative audiological findings were found to be correlated with intraoperative and HRCT findings. A white footplate seen at surgery or a more extensive otosclerotic focus on temporal HRCT indicates a suboptimal audiological outcome. HRCT findings should be taken into account when planning the surgery. Key Words: Otosclerosis, Temporal bone HRCT, Footplate color, Stapedotomy, Audiometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2021.08.969DOI Listing
August 2021

Analysis of the Effect of Weight Loss on Eustachian Tube Function by Transnasal Videoendoscopy.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Meram Medical Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya Department of General Surgery Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ministry of Health Ankara City Hospital Department of General Surgery, Liv Hospital, Ankara Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical Faculty, Ordu University, Ordu Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ministry of Health Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate the effect of weight loss after bariatric surgery on eustachian tube (ET) function with video endoscopy.

Materials And Methods: The present study was conducted as a prospective cohort and was completed with 19 patients. Three-step tympanometry (basal, Toynbee, Valsalva), dynamic slow-motion video endoscopy, and the Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire-7 (ETDA-7) were applied to the patients preoperatively before bariatric surgery and in the postoperative 6th month. Dynamic slow-motion video endoscopy was graded between 0 and 3, or classified as patulous, as indicated in the literature.

Results: The mean body mass index of 6 male and 13 female patients decreased from 47.3 ± 4.6 to 31.2 ± 5.4. Grade decline (median 2 ± 1) was experienced in all patients in DSVE, and 1 patient resulted as patulous ET. The ETDA-7 scores decreased in 11 patients, remained stable in 7 patients, and increased in 1 patient with patulous ET. The statistical analysis of the preoperative and postoperative DSVE grading and ETDA-7 scores, excluding the patulous ET patient, was found to be significant (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). There was no significant change in any of the tympanometry parameters (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Rapid weight loss with bariatric surgery results in an improvement in both the DSVE images and in the complaints of ET dysfunction in the majority of patients, but in some patients it may result in patulous ET. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the ET with DSVE and questioning the patient's complaints are important in predicting patients who may develop patulous ET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007965DOI Listing
July 2021

The molecular and serological investigation of Feline immunodeficiency virus and Feline leukemia virus in stray cats of Western Turkey.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Jun 29;78:101688. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Parasitology, Tekirdag Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tekirdag 59030, Turkey.

This study aimed to investigate the Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) / Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection prevalence among looking healthy stray cats in Western Turkey by serologic and molecular-based tests. A total of 1008 blood samples from the stray cats were used in this study. All samples were tested for FIV antibodies / proviral DNA and FeLV antibodies / antigens / proviral DNA. The genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of FeLV and FIV were carried out in this study. These cats also tested for Leishmaniasis and Toxoplasmosis previously. FIV Ab and proviral DNA detected in 25.2 % and 25.5 % of samples, respectively. FeLV Ab, Ag, proviral DNA positivity was in 45.2 %, in 3.3 %, in 69.7 %, respectively. The molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of the current FeLV pol gene and FIV gag gene performed. The molecular characterization for the pol gene of FeLV (enFeLV and exFeLV) among Turkey's cat population was reported for the first time. The exFeLV pol sequences closer to the FeLV-A genotype, and the enFeLV pol sequences overlapped with other enFeLV. The current FIV gag sequences were clustered within the subtypes A, B, and C. The findings revealed FeLV subtype A and FIV subtype-A, subtype-B, subtype-C circulate among Turkish stray cats. Single and multiple co-infection positivity was found higher compared to previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2021.101688DOI Listing
June 2021

Acoustic parameter changes after bariatric surgery.

Logoped Phoniatr Vocol 2021 Jul 2:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Health Science, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate the acoustic parameter changes after weight loss in bariatric surgery patients.

Materials And Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted with 15 patients with planned bariatric surgery, who were evaluated pre-operatively and at 6 months post-operatively. Fundamental frequency (F0), Formant frequency (F1, F2, F3, and F4), Frequency perturbation (Jitter), Amplitude perturbation (Shimmer) and Noise-to-Harmonics Ratio (NHR) parameters were evaluated for /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ vowels. Changes in the acoustic analysis parameters for each vowel were compared. The study group was separated into two groups according to whether the Mallampati score had not changed (Group 1) or had decreased (Group 2) and changes in the formant frequencies were compared between these groups.

Results: A total of 15 patients with a median age of 40 ± 11 years completed the study. The median weight of the patients was 122 ± 14 kg pre-operatively and 80 ± 15 kg, post-operatively. BMI declined from 46 ± 4 to 31 ± 5 kg/m. The Mallampati score decreased by one point in six patients and remained stable in nine. Of the acoustic voice analysis parameters of vowels, in general, fundamental frequency tended to decrease, and shimmer and jitter values tended to increase. Some of the formant frequencies were specifically affected by the weight loss and this showed statistical significance between Group 1 and Group 2.

Conclusion: The present study reveals that some specific voice characteristics might be affected by successful weight loss after bariatric surgery.HighlightsObesity reduces the size of the pharyngeal lumen at different levels.The supralaryngeal vocal tract size and configuration is a determinative factor in the features of the voice.Changes in the length and shape of the vocal tract, or height and position of the tongue can result in changes especially in formant frequencies in acoustic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14015439.2021.1945676DOI Listing
July 2021

Paratransgenic manipulation of a tsetse microRNA alters the physiological homeostasis of the fly's midgut environment.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jun 9;17(6):e1009475. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Tsetse flies are vectors of parasitic African trypanosomes, the etiological agents of human and animal African trypanosomoses. Current disease control methods include fly-repelling pesticides, fly trapping, and chemotherapeutic treatment of infected people and animals. Inhibiting tsetse's ability to transmit trypanosomes by strengthening the fly's natural barriers can serve as an alternative approach to reduce disease. The peritrophic matrix (PM) is a chitinous and proteinaceous barrier that lines the insect midgut and serves as a protective barrier that inhibits infection with pathogens. African trypanosomes must cross tsetse's PM in order to establish an infection in the fly, and PM structural integrity negatively correlates with trypanosome infection outcomes. Bloodstream form trypanosomes shed variant surface glycoproteins (VSG) into tsetse's gut lumen early during the infection establishment, and free VSG molecules are internalized by the fly's PM-producing cardia. This process results in a reduction in the expression of a tsetse microRNA (miR275) and a sequential molecular cascade that compromises PM integrity. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are critical in regulating many physiological processes. In the present study, we investigated the role(s) of tsetse miR275 by developing a paratransgenic expression system that employs tsetse's facultative bacterial endosymbiont, Sodalis glossinidius, to express tandem antagomir-275 repeats (or miR275 sponges). This system induces a constitutive, 40% reduction in miR275 transcript abundance in the fly's midgut and results in obstructed blood digestion (gut weights increased by 52%), a significant increase (p-value < 0.0001) in fly survival following infection with an entomopathogenic bacteria, and a 78% increase in trypanosome infection prevalence. RNA sequencing of cardia and midgut tissues from paratransgenic tsetse confirmed that miR275 regulates processes related to the expression of PM-associated proteins and digestive enzymes as well as genes that encode abundant secretory proteins. Our study demonstrates that paratransgenesis can be employed to study microRNA regulated pathways in arthropods that house symbiotic bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216540PMC
June 2021

Investigation of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) Fauna, Seasonal Dynamics, and Natural Leishmania spp. Infection in Muğla, Southwest of Turkey.

Acta Trop 2021 Apr 9;216:105827. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Due to its geographical location, Muğla province is one of the most frequently used places by refugees. Although leishmaniasis have been previously reported in this region, there is a lack of information on the etiological agent and possible vectors. The main objectives of this study were; i) to investigate the sand fly fauna, ii) to reveal the natural Leishmania spp. infection in wild caught sand flies using molecular tools, and iii) to determine the annual seasonal dynamics of the sand flies in Muğla region. Totally, 2093 specimens belonging to 15 species [12 Phlebotomus, three Sergentomyia; 51 unidentified] were collected during the one-year (June 2016- June 2017) period. Of the collected sand flies, 1928 (92.12%) were caught by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, while 165 (7.88%) of them were caught by sticky traps. Phlebotomus major sensu lato (s.l.), the potential vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in the Mediterranean and Aegean region, was detected in all sampling locations and found as the dominant taxon (n=1035; 49.45%) of the study area and followed by Phlebotomus tobbi (n=371; 17.72%). During the sampling period, sand fly activity was started in March and peaked in August. Sand fly population size reduced dramatically between mid-September and early October. The number of collected specimens was peaked in August, while there is only one sample collected both in November and March. The majority of the sand flies (78.66%) were collected at an altitude range of 200-400 m. Seventy-two monospecific pools were screened for the presence of Leishmania DNA by real time ITS1 PCR and 24 (nine P. major s.l., eight P. tobbi, two P. papatasi, two S. minuta, one P. alexandri, one P. similis, and one Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus spp.) of them (33.8%) were found positive (L. infantum, L. tropica, and L. major). To the best of our knowledge, the presence of fifteen sand fly species and their distribution, seasonal dynamics, molecular detection of Leishmania parasites in Muğla province was reported for the first time. The presence of vector species in the study area, appropriate temperature and humidity conditions, long sand fly activity season, and presence of Leishmania parasite suggests that there is a serious risk in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Muğla.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105827DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluation of retinal vessel density and foveal avascular zone measurements in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 8;41(4):1317-1325. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To compare retinal capillary plexus vessel densities, choroidal thickness, optic disc vessel densities and foveal avascular zone measurements between normal subjects and subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using spectral-domain OCT angiography (OCTA).

Methods: Forty eyes of patients with overall OSAS, 20 eyes of patients with mild-moderate OSAS, 20 eyes of patients with severe OSAS on polysomnography and 21 controls were evaluated with the RTVue-XR Avanti OCTA (Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA). Superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus vessel densities, choroidal thickness and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters (area, diameter, acircularity index of the FAZ, foveal density-300) were measured for all subjects.

Results: Superficial capillary plexus vessel densities of the groups were similar. Deep capillary plexus (DCP) vessel densities of all three OSAS groups decreased in the parafoveal region (< 0.001). In the perifoveal region, DCP vessel densities were decreased in the Overall OSAS group (p = 0.023) and in the Severe OSAS group (p = 0.021), whereas it was similar in the Mild-moderate OSAS group. Choroidal thickness decreased in all three OSAS groups (p < 0.001). All FAZ measurements and foveal density-300 measurements were similar compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that in severe OSAS patients, deep parafoveal, perifoveal vascular densities decrease and the choroid layer becomes thinner. When evaluating a patient with OSAS, it should be kept in mind that there may be eye involvement due to the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-020-01690-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Conventional and Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging Findings of Parotid Gland Tumors.

Turk Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Sep 1;58(3):174-180. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Health Sciences, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of parotid gland lesions in addition to conventional MRI findings and demographic data.

Methods: A retrospective evaluation was made of the demographic data, histopathologic data, preoperative conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI of 74 patients who underwent parotidectomy. The patients were categorized according to the histopathology (pleomorphic adenoma [PA], Warthin's Tumor [WT] and malignant Tumor [MT]).

Results: Histologically, 30 patients had PA, 27 patients had WT, and the remaining 17 patients had MT. The mean age of the PA, WT and MT groups were 44±21 (20-72), 55±10 (41-71) and 62±20 (21-76) years, respectively. The WT (81%) and MT (70%) groups were male dominant, while the PA group showed female dominance (55%). The PA group showed statistically significant difference in terms of age (p<0.05) and gender (p=0.009) compared to the other two groups. The median apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for the PA, WT and MT groups were 1.99±0.94 (1.10-2.41) × 10-3 mm2/s, 0.92±0.35 (0.21-1.79) × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.20±0.34 (0.78-1.47) × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. PA was differentiated from the other two groups (p=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing PAs from WT was 97% and 85%, respectively, when the ADC cutoff value was 1.25; and for distinguishing PAs from MT was 77% and 83%, respectively, when the ADC cutoff value was 1.35.

Conclusion: ADC measurements are useful for the differentiation of PA from both WT and MT; and can be used as a complementary tool to predict the histopathology in the preoperative planning of parotid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tao.2020.5379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7580514PMC
September 2020

Impact of Nasal Trauma on Olfactory Function.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2020 Sep;30(9):912-916

Department of Ear, Nose, Throat, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.

Objective: To determine the impact of nasal trauma with and without the potential to produce nasal fracture on the olfactory function.

Study Design: A descriptive analytical study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Ear, Nose, Throat Clinic, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara from October 2018 to June 2019.

Methodology: The study included patients with nasal trauma and control subjects. The patients with nasal trauma were divided into two groups as fracture group (Group F, n=83) and non-fracture group (Group Non-F, n=30). The Group F was further divided into two subgroups according the presence as septal fracture as Group SF (patients with septal fracture) and Group Non-SF (patients with non-septal fracture). The smell functions of all participants were evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks test. The odour scores of Group F and Group Non-F were compared versus control group, using the independent sample t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test. Percentage of patients with olfactory dysfunction was compared between Group F and Group Non-F and between Group SF and Group Non-SF using the Chi-square test.

Results: There were a total of 113 participants with mean age of 35.64±10.44 years. The median TDI score of Group F was significantly lower in comparison to control group, no significant difference was found between Group Non-F and control group in terms of median TDI score. There was a significant difference between Group F and Group Non-F in terms of the percentage of patients with olfactory dysfunction. No significant difference was found between Group F and Group Non-F with respect to the percentage of patients with olfactory dysfunction.

Conclusion: Nasal trauma can lead to olfactory dysfunction only if it has the potential to produce a nasal fracture. Key Words: Smell disorders, Nasal bone, Bone fractures, Trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2020.09.912DOI Listing
September 2020

Entomological Survey for the Detection of Sand Fly Fauna and Vector Species in the Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Endemic Area in East Mediterranean Region of Turkey, Mersin Province.

J Med Entomol 2020 09;57(5):1510-1515

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey.

Cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms of leishmaniasis, transmitted by sand flies, are seen in all countries located in Mediterranean Basin including Turkey. In this study, we aimed to conduct an entomological survey for the detection of sand fly fauna and vector species in Mersin province, one of the important endemic areas for CL in Turkey. In total, 912 sand fly specimens were collected in 2010 and 2011 using CDC light traps. Nine Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae) and three Sergentomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) species were detected. Of the collected Phlebotomus sand flies, P. sergenti Parrot, 1917 (30.1%) was the most dominant followed by P. alexandri Sinton, 1928 (18.2%), P. neglectus/syriacus Tonnoir Adler (12.0%), P. tobbi Adler & Theodor, 1930 (11.7%), and P. papatasi Scopoli, 1786 (10.2%), while S. minuta Rondani, 1843 (11.3%) was the dominant species among Sergentomyia. During the field work in 2011, female specimens (n = 81) were screened for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes by midgut dissection, and all were found negative. The rest of the collected female specimens (n = 334) were pooled according to species (P. alexandri, P. neglectus/syriacus, P. papatasi, P. sergenti, P. simici, and P. tobbi) and location (Mut, Silifke, and Anamur). In total, 29 pools were generated and real-time ITS1 PCR assay was performed to detect and identify natural Leishmania Ross, 1903 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatida) infection. Two pools, both from Mut town, containing P. sergenti specimens were found positive and Leishmania tropica Ross, 1903 was identified as an infectious agent for both pools. In conclusion, the sand fly fauna was determined in an endemic area for CL. The detection of L. tropica DNA in P. sergenti specimens showed the possible vectorial role of this species in Mersin province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa089DOI Listing
September 2020

First molecular detection and identification of species in small wild rodents from Turkey.

Parasitology 2020 09 14;147(10):1088-1093. Epub 2020 May 14.

Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Izmir, Turkey.

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease infecting animals and humans. Two clinical forms (Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis) and four species are reported to be present in Turkey. Several studies have investigated canine and human leishmaniasis in Turkey but no study was performed to screen the infection among wild rodents, so far. The present study aims to investigate the role of small wild rodents as reservoir animals for Leishmania spp. in different regions of Turkey. Formalin-preserved tissue samples (spleen, liver, lung) of 712 rodents from 30 provinces were screened for the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA. Before DNA extraction, tissues were dried, rehydrated, and homogenated. Leishmania screening in rodent tissues and species determination was performed with a combination of real-time kDNA and ITS1 polymerase chain reaction protocols. Eight (1.12%) out of 712 animals were found to be positive for Leishmania spp. DNA and species typing revealed five L. infantum, two L. tropica and one L. major among positives. Leishmania major and L. infantum DNA were detected in Apodemus spp. from Zonguldak province located in the Western Black Sea Region, while L. tropica DNA was found in Meriones sp. and Gerbillus dasyurus from Adana and Hatay provinces located in Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. The present study is first to report natural infection of L. infantum, L. major and L. tropica in small wild rodents in Turkey, suggesting their possible roles as reservoirs. Further studies are needed for planning epidemiological studies and also for developing rodent control measures in risky endemic areas to break the transmission cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182020000803DOI Listing
September 2020

Does the Change in the Indications of Endoscopic Sinonasal Surgery Continue? Data between 1994-2018.

Turk Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Mar 1;58(1):5-9. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Health Sciences Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: Endoscopic sinonasal surgery (ESS) has changing over the years in parallel with the developments in endoscopy devices, video-imaging techniques, and surgical instruments. In the present study we investigated whether the indications of patients who underwent surgery over a period of 25 years have accommodated to these changes.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 1173 patients who underwent surgery in our clinic from 1994 through 2007, and 954 patients who underwent surgery from 2008 through 2018. The patients were divided into three groups as follows: chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps (CRSwNP), chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps (CRSsNP), and others. The changes in the indications during the first 14 years and the following 11 years were compared, and the results were statistically evaluated.

Results: A significant decrease was observed in the number of patients who underwent surgery following the diagnosis of CRSsNP (p<0.001). In addition, a statistically significant increase was found in CRSwNP (p<0.001) and other (p<0.001) indications.

Conclusion: When ESS indications identified in our clinic were reviewed, it was observed that the increasing trend in CRSwNP rate in the first 14 years continued, there was a significant increase in non-CRS indications in the last 11 years, and there has been an increase in patients with fungal sinusitis, especially in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tao.2020.4828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162596PMC
March 2020

The Effect of the Körner's Septum on Graft and Hearing Success after Type 1 Tympanoplasty.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2020 Feb;30(2):154-157

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Health Sciences, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To determine the effect of Körner's septum (KS) on graft success and hearing in patients who were treated with type 1 tympanoplasty.

Study Design: An observational study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Health Sciences, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from July 2013 to July 2018.

Methodology: Patients undergoing type 1 tympanoplasty were divided into 2 groups as patients with KS and without KS (WKS), according to the findings of high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Two different grafts (fascia and cartilage) in two groups (KS and WKS) were compared for graft success rate of different graft materials and pre- and postoperative hearing levels. The effect of the presence of KS on hearing was examined.

Results: The anatomical graft success rate of type 1 tympanoplasty was 75.9% in the KS group and 88.5% in the WKS group (p = 0.026). In the presence of KS, graft success rate decreased with the use of a fascia graft (p = 0.044). In the presence of KS, the use of cartilage graft did not affect functional hearing; whereas, poor functional outcomes were obtained in ears operated using a temporalis fascia graft in the KS group than in the WKS group (p = 0.003).

Conclusion: KS adversely affects graft success in type 1 tympanoplasty. Cartilage should be preferred as the graft material for patients with KS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2020.02.154DOI Listing
February 2020

Detection of permethrin resistance and phylogenetic clustering of turkish head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis; De Geer, 1767 populations.

Acta Trop 2020 Apr 29;204:105362. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty ofMedicine, Manisa Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey.

Head lice infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1767 is one of the most common public health problems. The relationship between humans and head lice dates back millions of years ago that differentiated into different phylogenetic clades. Treatment of head lice infestation usually based on insecticide-based products, which promotes the resistance in the head lice populations. In the present study, we aimed to screen the presence of permethrin resistance among collected P. h. capitis specimens in Turkey. Three mutation sites (T917I, L920F, and M815I) were screened using real-time PCR and resistance was identified by melt analysis. Of the studied specimens, resistance allele frequency (RAF) was found 0.98 for T917I, 0.99 for L920F, and 1.00 for M815I. The phylogenetic study revealed that Clade A and Clade B are present and overlap in Turkey. The present study is first to screen the resistance among Turkish head lice specimens. To not stimulate the pyrethroids resistance in head lice populations, early detection of resistance is crucial and will help the health professionals to choose suitable formula in the treatment. We suggest that the resistance status needs to be screened in randomly selected populations before any treatment application is given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105362DOI Listing
April 2020

Evaluation of the Relationship Between the Required Pressure Level in Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment and Voice in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

J Voice 2019 Dec 28. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Health Sciences University, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on voice, the relationship between the required pressure levels in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and voice, and the effects of CPAP therapy on voice.

Material And Methods: A total of 73 subjects consisting of 53 patients and 20 control subjects were included in the study. The patient group was further divided into low- (Group A) and high- (Group B) pressure groups according to the required pressure level. All subjects underwent acoustic sound analysis to evaluate fundamental frequency (F0), jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). Acoustic voice analysis was repeated after 3 months of regular CPAP treatment in the patient group. The mean F0, jitter, shimmer, and NHR values of the patient group and control group were compared. Intergroup comparisons were also performed between Group A and the control group, and between Group B and the control group. Finally, before and after CPAP treatment values of mean F0, jitter, shimmer, and NHR were compared in Group A and Group B.

Results: The mean shimmer and NHR values of the patient group were significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.023, respectively). The mean shimmer and NHR values of Group B were statistically higher than the control group (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). The mean jitter, shimmer, and NHR values after CPAP treatment were significantly lower than those measured before CPAP treatment in Group B (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: Voice is negatively affected in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients who require high pressure in CPAP treatment. CPAP treatment leads to improved voice in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2019.12.007DOI Listing
December 2019

Evaluation of olfactory function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Sleep Breath 2020 Sep 16;24(3):1137-1142. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital ENT & HNS Clinic, Talatpaşa Bulvarı No: 44, 06230, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on olfactory functions.

Methods: Study subjects consisted of patients with newly diagnosed OSAS divided by polysomnography into subgroups of mild, moderate, and severe disease. Subjects identified as not having OSAS served as controls. All subjects were subjected to the Sniffin' Sticks test to evaluate olfactory functions. Control subjects and subgroups with OSAS were compared for sleep characteristics and olfactory scores. In the patient group, correlations were investigated between olfactory scores and polysomnographic parameters.

Results: Of 99 subjects (64 men), there were 20 controls, 23 with mild OSAS, 25 moderate, and 31 severe. There was a decreasing trend from the control group towards the severe subgroup in mean odor threshold, odor discrimination, odor identification, and threshold-discriminationidentification (TDI) scores. In the patient group, there was a strong inverse correlation between AHI and TDI scores (r = - 0.62, p < 0.001). Arousal index and TDI scores had a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.81, p < 0.001). There was a weak positive correlation between the minimum SPO2% and TDI scores (r = 0.34, p = 0.002) and a weak negative correlation between TST <90% and TDI scores (r = - 0.24, p = 0.027).

Conclusion: The finding that arousal index showed a stronger correlation with odor scores than with hypoxemia-related parameters suggests that sleep fragmentation may be a more prominent mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of olfactory malfunction in patients with OSAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-019-01996-zDOI Listing
September 2020

The Predictive Value of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio for Hodgkin's Lymphoma Diagnosis in Patients with Asymptomatic Cervical Lymphadenopathy.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019 Oct 5;71(Suppl 1):986-991. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Health Sciences University, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Talatpaşa Blv. No: 44, 06230 Ankara, Turkey.

In patients with asymptomatic cervical lymphadenopathy, the physician often has to choose between evaluation via follow-up or open biopsy. Follow-up evaluation may lead to a delayed diagnosis of lymphoma, while an open biopsy is associated with surgical risks and costs. This dilemma can be avoided using predictive parameters. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a parameter which can be assessed quickly with ease and at low cost, has predictive value for Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosis in patients with asymptomatic cervical lymphadenopathy. A total of 46 patients with asymptomatic cervical lymphadenopathy who underwent open biopsy were included in the study. Based on the biopsy results, the patients were divided into two groups, Hodgkin lymphoma (26 patients) and reactive lymphadenopathy (20 patients). The mean NLR in the groups was calculated and compared based on the results of complete blood count performed before biopsy. We found that mean NLR ( = 0.022) and mean neutrophil count ( = 0.046) were higher and mean lymphocyte count was lower ( = 0.054) in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma compared to those in patients with reactive lymphadenopathy. Our results indicate that a high NLR may have predictive value for Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosis in patients with asymptomatic cervical lymphadenopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12070-019-01676-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848596PMC
October 2019

Revision of the species composition and distribution of Turkish sand flies using DNA barcodes.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Aug 22;12(1):410. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Biology, Ecology Section, Faculty of Science, VERG Laboratories, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Currently, knowledge regarding the phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna of Turkey is restricted to regions with endemic leishmaniasis. However, rapidly changing environmental and social conditions highlight concerns on the possible future expansion of sand fly-borne diseases in Turkey, promoting risk assessment through biosurveillance activities in non-endemic regions. Traditional morphological approaches are complicated by extensive cryptic speciation in sand flies, thus integrated studies utilizing DNA markers are becoming increasingly important for correct sand fly identification. This study contributes to the knowledge of the sand fly fauna in understudied regions of Turkey, and provides an extensive DNA barcode reference library of expertly identified Turkish sand fly species for the first time.

Methods: Fly sampling was conducted at 101 locations from 29 provinces, covering all three biogeographical regions of Turkey. Specimens were morphologically identified using available keys. Cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) barcode sequences were analyzed both for morphologically distinct species and those specimens with cryptic identity. A taxon identity tree was obtained using Neighbor Joining (NJ) analysis. Species boundaries among closely related taxa evaluated using ABGD, Maximum Likelihood (ML) and haplotype network analyses. Sand fly richness of all three biogeographical regions were compared using nonparametric species richness estimators.

Results: A total of 729 barcode sequences (including representatives of all previously reported subgenera) were obtained from a total of 9642 sand fly specimens collected in Turkey. Specimens belonging to the same species or species complex clustered together in the NJ tree, regardless of their geographical origin. The species delimitation methods revealed the existence of 33 MOTUs, increasing the previously reported 28 recorded sand fly species by 17.8%. The richest sand fly diversity was determined in Anatolia, followed by the Mediterranean, and then the Black Sea regions of the country.

Conclusions: A comprehensive cox1 reference library is provided for the sand fly species of Turkey, including the proposed novel taxa discovered herein. Our results have epidemiological significance exposing extensive distributions of proven and suspected sand fly vectors in Turkey, including those areas currently regarded as non-endemic for sand fly-borne disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3669-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6704649PMC
August 2019

The impact of refugees on leishmaniasis in Turkey: a new Syrian/Turkish Leishmania tropica population structure described by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT).

Parasitol Res 2019 Sep 9;118(9):2679-2687. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Bakırköy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.

Turkey is one of the leishmaniasis endemic countries, and according to the recent reports, more than 45% of the cases were reported from the Southeastern part of Turkey. The disease is endemic in Syria with annually 25,000 cases, and it is emphasized by WHO that the actual number was estimated to be 2-5-fold higher than the reported numbers. Due to the civil war in Syria, more than seven million people were displaced and migrate to neighboring countries. The population structure of Leishmania tropica was investigated in the present study using clinical samples, which were obtained from Syrian patients residing in Turkey. Previously reported database was used to compare the results obtained in the present study. According to the multilocus microsatellite typing profiles, three populations (Şanlıurfa, Mediterranean, and Syrian/Turkish) were identified. Syrian/Turkish population, which is a new structure and identified for the first time in the present study, was comprised of clinical samples obtained from Syrian patients. The newly described population structure was homogeneous and solid comparing to previously identified population structures in Turkey. Further analyses revealed two sub-populations under the main Syrian/Turkish population structure. The findings of the present study revealed that the epidemiological status of leishmaniasis is more complicated than it is estimated. We believe that the data presented here will provide valuable information on the leishmaniasis epidemiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06392-wDOI Listing
September 2019

Detection of Leishmania RNA virus 2 in Leishmania species from Turkey.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2019 07;113(7):410-417

Ege University, Medical Faculty, Department of Parasitology, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey.

Background: Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting some Leishmania strains and triggering a destructive hyperinflammatory response in mammalian hosts in the New World. There is limited knowledge of the presence of this virus in Old World Leishmania species and its role in the outcome of the disease. We aimed to investigate the presence of LRV in Leishmania species/strains from Turkey.

Methods: Twenty-nine previously identified Leishmania isolates (24 L. tropica, 2 L. infantum, 3 L. major) were examined for LRV positivity using dsRNA visualization in agarose gel after total nucleic acid extraction and RQ-deoxyribonuclease treatment and amplification of a 526 bp fragment of the LRV2-specific RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Ten (7 L. tropica [24.13%], 3 L. major [10.34%]) of the 29 Leishmania strains gave positive results for LRV. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis showed that all these viruses are LRV2-1. LRV2 was detected for the first time in L. tropica strains in the present study.

Conclusions: The clinical manifestation and resistance status of the disease can be different depending on the host and parasite species/strains. The presence of LRV2 may be one of the factors contributing the course of disease. Further studies are needed to elucidate the specific role of LRV2, as it may be a potential target for effective treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trz023DOI Listing
July 2019

Leishmaniasis in Istanbul; A new epidemiological data about refugee leishmaniasis.

Acta Trop 2019 Jul 15;195:23-27. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Bakırköy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.

Leishmania is an intracellular parasite, which is transmitted by the bite of infected female Phlebotominae sand flies. Turkey is a crossroad between Europe and Asia that makes it important in terms of epidemiology. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate Leishmania infection among non-autochthonous patients admitted to Health Sciences University, Dr. Sadi Konuk Research and Training hospital between 2014-2018. Slides were prepared by sampling the edge of the lesions for each patient. Microscopical examination was performed after staining procedures. After microscopical examination slides were washed and DNA extraction was performed. ITS-1 real-time PCR was performed to identify the species of the causative agents. Demographic data were recorded for each patient. Also number, type and location of the lesions were recorded. Totally 13 patients were included in this. Majority (12/13) of them were found to be infected with L. tropica, while one patient was infected with L. infantum. Two of the lesions were wet type and 11 of them were dry type lesions. Several papers were published recently about leishmaniasis in Turkey but to best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting refugee leishmaniasis in İstanbul.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.04.008DOI Listing
July 2019

Vector and reservoir surveillance study in a canine and human leishmaniasis endemic area in most western part of Turkey, Karaburun.

Acta Trop 2019 Feb 19;190:177-182. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey.

Leishmaniasis is an arthropod borne disease that is endemic in 102 countries and one and half million new cases are reported each year. Sand flies are the one and only proven vectors of the disease and dogs are the main reservoirs in urban areas. Karaburun peninsula is located in most western part of Turkey and is reported to be an endemic area for human and canine leishmaniasis. The most recent study was undertaken more than 15 years ago in The peninsula and no clear data available for vectors or reservoirs. Thus, we aimed to update the information regarding sand fly diversity, infection status of reservoirs and vectors in the study area. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps at 13 different sites of Karaburun and species identification was made using previously published keys. Monospecific pools were generated using midguts with blood retention and were screened for the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA by molecular techniques. A non-invasive conjunctival swab sampling was performed to identify the infection status among reservoirs and species typing of the causative agent was also undertaken using ITS1 PCR. Three out of 30 pools were found positive for Leishmania infantum that were generated using guts of Phlebotomus tobbi (n:36). Among all sampled dogs (44) and cats (19), 11 and one of them were found positive for L. infantum, respectively. There was a decrease in the number of P. papatasi during the study period, while increase was observed in the number of P. tobbi. The presence of proven vectors and reservoirs as well as Leishmania DNA in cats was shown in the present study. Sand fly fauna is updated and Leishmania DNA presence in cats was reported in the study area for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.11.020DOI Listing
February 2019

The current clinical and geographical situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis based on species identification in Turkey.

Acta Trop 2019 Feb 6;190:59-67. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Parasitology, İzmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases caused by the members of Leishmania genus, and there are three main clinical forms of the infection as visceral, cutaneous, and mucocutaneous. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a growing public health problem in Turkey due to increasing detection of autochthonous cases caused by L. major and L. donovani in some regions in addition to Syrian imported cases. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate the current epidemiological situation of CL in the view of causative agents and their geographical distribution throughout Turkey. The samples were collected from 356 CL patients admitted to different centers in 18 provinces between January 2013 and December 2016. Direct microscopy, culture (regular and enriched NNN) and molecular techniques (real-time ITS1 PCR and hsp70 PCR/sequencing) were performed. By molecular techniques, 299, 28, 19 and 10 isolates/clinical samples were identified as L. tropica, L. major, L. infantum and L. donovani, respectively. Most of the patients (65.73%) had one lesion usually on their face/head. Dry-nodular type lesions (n = 291) were mainly associated with L. tropica while L. major was mainly found related to wet-ulcerative ones. Leishmaniasis recidivans was also detected in 2.52% among 356 patients. L. tropica was detected as most widespread species causing CL in Turkey. L. infantum and L. major was also found in one third of the provinces. Enriched NNN culture was worked well for isolating the parasite and 346 isolates were successfully grown and stored in liquid nitrogen. The comparison of all diagnostic techniques showed that the parasitological positivity rate could increase if the combination of direct microscopy and real-time ITS1 PCR is used. Besides well-known anthroponotic L. tropica cases, the increasing detection of CL cases caused by zoonotic species, L. infantum and L. major, is one of the most important findings in the present study. In our opinion to ensure timely and accurate diagnosis, proper treatment and countrywide effective control of CL in Turkey a systematic approach is needed on the base of information about characteristics of lesions and patients and epidemiological features of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.11.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Population genetics analysis of Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies from Egypt and Jordan based on mitochondrial cytochrome b haplotypes.

Parasit Vectors 2018 03 27;11(1):214. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Eck Institute for Global Health, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA.

Background: Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies are major vectors of Leishmania major and phlebovirus infection in North Africa and across the Middle East to the Indian subcontinent. Population genetics is a valuable tool in understanding the level of genetic variability present in vector populations, vector competence, and the development of novel control strategies. This study investigated the genetic differentiation between P. papatasi populations in Egypt and Jordan that inhabit distinct ecotopes and compared this structure to P. papatasi populations from a broader geographical range.

Methods: A 461 base pair (bp) fragment from the mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was PCR amplified and sequenced from 116 individual female sand flies from Aswan and North Sinai, Egypt, as well as Swaimeh and Malka, Jordan. Haplotypes were identified and used to generate a median-joining network, F values and isolation-by-distance were also evaluated. Additional sand fly individuals from Afghanistan, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Libya, Tunisia and Turkey were included as well as previously published haplotypes to provide a geographically broad genetic variation analysis.

Results: Thirteen haplotypes displaying nine variant sites were identified from P. papatasi collected in Egypt and Jordan. No private haplotypes were identified from samples in North Sinai, Egypt, two were observed in Aswan, Egypt, four from Swaimeh, Jordan and two in Malka, Jordan. The Jordan populations clustered separately from the Egypt populations and produced more private haplotypes than those from Egypt. Pairwise F values fall in the range 0.024-0.648.

Conclusion: The clustering patterns and pairwise F values indicate a strong differentiation between Egyptian and Jordanian populations, although this population structure is not due to isolation-by-distance. Other factors, such as environmental influences and the genetic variability in the circulating Le. major parasites, could possibly contribute to this heterogeneity. The present study aligns with previous reports in that pockets of genetic differentiation exists between populations of this widely dispersed species but, overall, the species remains relatively homogeneous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2785-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5872541PMC
March 2018

Development of polymorphic EST microsatellite markers for the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

Parasit Vectors 2018 03 9;11(1):160. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Eck Institute for Global Health, Galvin Life Science, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46656, USA.

Background: Phlebotomus papatasi is a widely distributed sand fly species in different tropical and sub-tropical regions including the Middle East and North Africa. It is considered an important vector that transmits Leishmania major parasites, the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The development of microsatellite markers for this sand fly vector is of high interest to understand its population structure and to monitor its geographic dispersal.

Results: Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed with simple di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats. The F statistics calculated for the 14 markers revealed high genetic diversity; expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.407 to 0.767, while observed heterozygosity (Ho) was lower and ranged from 0.083 to 0.514. The number of alleles sampled fall in the range of 9-29. Three out of 14 markers deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, no significant linkage disequilibrium was detected and high values for inbreeding coefficient (F) were likely due to inbreeding.

Conclusions: The development of these functional microsatellites enable a high resolution of P. papatasi populations. It opens a path for researchers to perform multi locus-based population genetic structure analyses, and comparative mapping, a part of the efforts to uncover the population dynamics of this vector, which is an important global strategy for understanding the epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2770-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5845265PMC
March 2018

Midgut Bacterial Diversity of Wild Populations of Phlebotomus (P.) papatasi, the Vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Turkey.

Sci Rep 2017 11 1;7(1):14812. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey.

Phlebotomine sand flies are hematophagous insects that harbor bacterial, viral and parasitic agents like Bartonella sp., Phleboviruses and Leishmania spp., respectively. There are few reports on bacterial microbiota of Phlebotomus (P.) papatasi but no data available for natural populations of Turkey, where leishmaniasis is endemic. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the midgut bacterial flora of different populations of P. papatasi. Sand flies were collected from different towns (Karaburun, Urla, Ayvacik and Başçayır) located in the western part of Turkey. Laboratory reared P. papatasi were included in the study as an insectarium population. After sterile washing steps, sand flies were dissected and guts were separated. Three pools, (males, unfed females and blood-fed females) were generated for each population. Prokaryotic 16 S rRNA gene was amplified and DGGE was performed. Fourteen different organisms belonging to two Phylum (Proteobactericea and Furmicutes) were identified according to sequence results in the studied pools. The presence of Wolbachia sp. was shown for the first time in the wild-caught sand fly populations of Turkey. This is the first report of gut bacterial flora of wild-caught P. papatasi collected in an endemic area for leishmaniasis in Turkey. Microbiome profiling of wild-caught sand flies will be of great help in the investigating of possible vector control candidates for paratransgenic control approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13948-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5665960PMC
November 2017

Eustigmaeus johnstoni Zhang - Gerson (Acari: Stigmaeidae) a Parasitic Mite Species Detected in Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) Specimens Collected from Aydın, Turkey.

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2017 Sep;41(3):139-142

Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi, Parazitoloji Anabilim Dalı, Aydın, Türkiye.

Objective: We aimed to report the presence of the parasitic mite Eustigmaeus johnstoni Zhang - Gerson (E. johnstoni) on the sand fly species Phlebotomus papatasi (P. papatasi) collected in Aydın province, Turkey.

Methods: Sand flies were collected from nature by CDC light traps in Nazilli town in Aydın province and were separated according to collection localities. Head and genital areas were cut and mounted for species identification, and midgut contents were checked for the possible presence of Leishmania parasites under a light microscope. Mites detected in sand flies were diagnosed on the species level based on the literature.

Results: A total of 360 female and 378 male sand flies were caught. During dissection and preparation, two female E. johnstoni parasitic mite specimens belonging to the genus Eustigmaeus were detected on the abdominal pleura of P. papatasi specimens.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the presence E. johnstoni on P. papatasi in Turkey. Previous studies showing the relationship between parasitic mites and sand flies have indicated that this relationship is not accidental. More studies are needed to understand this relationship for obtaining more detailed information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tpd.2017.5248DOI Listing
September 2017

Diagnosis of Trichomoniasis in Male Patients on Performing Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2017 Sep;41(3):130-134

Department of Parasitology, Turgut Özal Medical Center, İnönü University Faculty of Medicine Malatya, Turkey. mutluyaraycan.

Objective: Trichomoniasis is a parasitic infection that occurs with the settlement of Trichomonas vaginalis in female and male urinary and reproductive tracts. This infection is generally asymptomatic in males, and males are thought to be a carrier for the transmission of infection. In this study, our aim was to detect trichomoniasis using nested polymerase chain reaction among males who were referred to a hospital with suspected urinary tract infection.

Methods: Urine samples were collected from 138 male patients between 18 and 50 years of age who were referred with suspected urinary system infection to the Urology Outpatient Clinic at Malatya University Medical Center Malatya between December 2013 and May 2014. Direct microscopy, two different culture methods, and nested Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed for the investigation of T. vaginalis in urine samples.

Results: Urinary tract infection was diagnosed in 47 of the 138 patients according to white and red blood cell counts in the urine samples. T. vaginalis infection was detected in 6.5% (9/138) of the suspected patients by nested PCR, while none of the samples tested positive by direct microscopy and culture examinations. Statistical significance was found between infection of the urinary tract and nested PCR positivity for T. vaginalis.

Conclusions: According to our results, nested PCR is the most sensitive method for the detection of trichomoniasis in male patients. We strongly recommend using nested PCR for the differential diagnosis of urinary infections in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tpd.2017.5016DOI Listing
September 2017

Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Wild-Caught Sand Fly Populations Collected from Two Leishmaniasis Endemic Areas in Western Turkey.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Mar 14;11(1):86-94. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Parasitology, Medical School, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: In Turkey, vector control programs are mainly based on indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids against mosquitoes. No special control program is available for sand flies. Most insecticide susceptibility tests were done for mosquitoes but not for sand flies. We therefore aimed to determine the insecticide susceptibility against two commonly used insecticides; deltamethrin and permethrin, on wild-caught sand fly populations collected in two geographically separated leishmaniasis endemic areas.

Methods: Insecticide susceptibility of wild-caught sand flies to deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%) using ready-to use impregnated insecticide papers of WHO was investigated in 2010 based on knockdown time using standard WHO tube-test kit and procedures. Sand flies used in this study were collected from villages of Aydin (Bascayır) and Mugla (Tepecik).

Results: The resistance and early resistance were detected on the sand fly population from Mugla province against deltamethrin and permethrin, respectively. However, populations from Aydin Province were sensitive to both insecticides.

Conclusion: The resistance against deltamethrin and permethrin was detected on sand fly population in Mugla Province where both insecticides have been applied for long time while no resistance was found in the insecticide free area, Aydin Province. These findings can be an indicator for showing the ability for developing the insecticide resistance in sand flies. Because of the presence and dominancy of vector sand fly species of (, ) in both study areas, the systematic monitoring for resistance of sand fly populations and more attention are needed by the authorities involved in control programs for sand fly-borne diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5629309PMC
March 2017

Detection and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates by culture, Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analyses in Syrian and Central Anatolia patients.

Saudi Med J 2017 Sep;38(9):968-971

Department of Medical Parasitology, aculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van,Turkey. E-mail.

Objectives: To characterize the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) isolates of Syrian and Central Anatolia patients at species levels. Methods: Skin scrapings of 3 patients (2 Syrian, 1 Turkish) were taken and examined by direct examination, culture in Novy-MacNeal-Nicole (NNN) medium, internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis (PCR). Results:According to microscopic examination, culture and PCR methods, 3 samples were detected positive. The sequencing results of all isolates in the study were identified as Leishmania tropica. The same genotypes were detected in the 3 isolates and nucleotide sequence submitted into GenBank with the accession number: KP689599. Conclusion: This finding could give information about the transmission of CL between Turkey and Syria. Because of the Syrian civil war, most of the Syrian citizens circulating in Turkey and different part of Europe, this can be increase the risk of spreading the disease. So, prevention measurements must be taken urgently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2017.9.21025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5654034PMC
September 2017
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