Publications by authors named "Mehmet Gokcu"

48 Publications

Serum markers for the early diagnosis of intestinal anastomotic leak after gynaecological operations.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jul 7:e14609. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: To analyse the serum markers for the early diagnosis of intestinal anastomotic leak (AL) after the gynaecological operations.

Methods: Between September 2017 and March 2021, patients with an intestinal anastomosis performed during the gynaecological surgeries were identified from a tertiary centre in Turkey. As the local guideline of the clinic, all these patients were followed by measuring serum samples including procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) on postoperative day (POD) 1 through the day of discharge or the day of re-operation for AL.

Results: 12.5% (5/40) of the patients suffered an AL and 4 of them were re-operated. The mean albumin values on POD 3-4 and the mean platelet values on POD 1 were lower in the AL group (P < .05). Although it was not statistically significant (P > .05), median PCT values (ng/mL) on POD 8-10 were higher in the AL group compared with no leak group. The best cut-off point for PCT on POD 9 was determined to be 0.11 ng/mL (AUC: 0.917, Sensitivity = 100.0%, specificity = 66.7%, positive predictive value = 66.7%, negative predictive value = 100.0%).

Conclusion: Serum PCT and CRP concentrations were not found to be helpful for the early diagnosis of AL in patients operated for gynaecological malignancies. Low levels of albumin and platelets in the first days after the operation may be clue for a possible AL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14609DOI Listing
July 2021

Prognostic factors and survival outcomes of women with uterine leiomyosarcoma: A Turkish Uterine Sarcoma Group Study-003.

Curr Probl Cancer 2021 Feb 9:100712. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ankara State Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

To assess the clinicopathological features, prognostic factors, and survival rates associated with uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS). Databases from 15 participating gynecological oncology centers in Turkey were searched retrospectively for women who had been treated for stage I-IV uLMS between 1996 and 2018. Of 302 consecutive women with uLMS, there were 234 patients with Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I disease and 68 with FIGO stage II-IV disease. All patients underwent total hysterectomy. Lymphadenectomy was performed in 161 (54.5%) cases. A total of 195 patients received adjuvant treatment. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 42% and 54%, respectively. Presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), higher degree of nuclear atypia, and absence of lymphadenectomy were negatively correlated with DFS, while LVSI, mitotic count, higher degree of nuclear atypia, FIGO stage II-IV disease, and suboptimal surgery significantly decreased OS. LVSI and higher degree of nuclear atypia appear to be prognostic indicators for uLMS. Lymphadenectomy seems to have a significant effect on DFS but not on OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2021.100712DOI Listing
February 2021

Is the extent of lymphadenectomy a prognostic factor in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage II endometrioid endometrial cancer?

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Mar 10;47(3):1134-1144. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of adequate lymph node dissection (LND) (≥10 pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) and ≥ 5 paraaortic LNs removed) in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC).

Methods: A multicenter department database review was performed to identify patients who had been operated and diagnosed with stage II EEC at seven centers in Turkey retrospectively. Demographic, clinicopathological, and survival data were collected and analyzed.

Results: We identified 284 women with stage II EEC. There were 170 (59.9%) patients in the adequate lymph node dissection (LND) group and 114 (40.1%) in the inadequate LND group. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of the inadequate LND group was significantly lower than that of the adequate LND group (84.1% vs. 89.1%, respectively; p = 0.028). In multivariate analysis, presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-4.63; p = 0.009), age ≥ 60 (HR: 3.30, 95% CI: 1.65-6.57; p = 0.001], and absence of adjuvant therapy (HR: 2.74, 95% CI: 1.40-5.35; p = 0.003) remained as independent risk factors for decreased 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). Inadequate LND (HR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.18-4.63; p < 0.001), age ≥ 60 (HR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.25-5.72; p = 0.011), and absence of adjuvant therapy (HR: 4.95, 95% CI: 2.28-10.73; p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for decreased 5-year OS in multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Adequate LND and adjuvant therapy were significant for the improvement of outcomes in FIGO stage II EEC patients. Furthermore, LVSI was associated with worse 5-year DFS rate in stage II EEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14648DOI Listing
March 2021

High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma versus undifferentiated uterine sarcoma: a Turkish uterine sarcoma group study-001.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Aug 3;304(2):475-483. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Saglik Bilimleri University Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: Prognostic factors associated with high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HGESS) and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma (UUS) have not been distinctly determined due to the repetitive changes in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. We aimed to compare clinicopathologic features and outcomes of patients with HGESS with those of patients with UUS.

Methods: A multi-institutional, retrospective, cohort study was conducted including 71 patients, who underwent surgery at 13 centers from 2008 to 2017. An experienced gynecopathologist from each institution re-evaluated the slides of their own cases according to the WHO classification. Factors associated with refractory/progressive disease, recurrence or death were examined using logistic regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival comparisons.

Results: The median disease-free survival (DFS) for HGESS and UUS was 12 months and 6 months, respectively. While the median overall survival was not reached in HGESS group, it was 22 months in the UUS group. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that patients with UUS had a significantly poorer DFS than those with HGESS (p = 0.016), although OS did not differ between the groups (p = 0.135). Lymphovascular-space involvement (LVSI) was the sole significant factor associated with progression, recurrence or death for HGESS (Hazard ratio: 9.353, 95% confidence interval: 2.539-34.457, p = 0.001), whereas no significant independent factor was found for UUS.

Conclusions: UUS has a more aggressive behavior than HGESS. While no significant predictor of prognosis was found for UUS, LVSI is the sole independent prognostic factor for HGESS, with patients 9.3 times more likely to experience refractory/progressive disease, recurrence or death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05915-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A Turkish uterine sarcoma group study analyzing prognostic factors and disease outcomes.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 03 27;160(3):674-680. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Saglik Bilimleri University Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate factors associated with refractory disease, recurrence, or death as well as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-grade endometrial sarcoma (LGESS).

Methods: A multi-institutional, retrospective study was conducted in a total of 124 patients, who received a curative-intent surgery. The exclusion criteria were as follows: i) history of any other invasive disease; ii) neoadjuvant therapy; iii) fertility sparing surgery; iv) a different diagnosis after review of the slides.

Results: All patients underwent hysterectomy, 96% had bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and 65% had lymphadenectomy. Twelve (14.8%) of 81 patients undergoing lymphadenectomy had lymph node (LN) metastasis. Of those, 8 (9.8%) had pelvic LN metastasis whereas 4 (5.6%) had isolated paraaortic LN metastasis. Six of 8 (75%) patients with positive pelvic LNs had concurrent paraaortic LN metastasis. Among 124 patients, 3 patients (2.4%) had refractory disease following primary therapy. During a median follow-up of 45.5 months, 27 (22.3%) of 121 patients who achieved complete remission after primary therapy developed recurrence, and 10 patients (8.1%) died of disease. The 3-year DFS and OS were 76.9% and 93.8%, respectively. Stage was the sole independent prognostic factor in the whole cohort. When analyzing factors within subgroups of stage I and stage ≥II, there was no significant prognostic factor for stage I; however, lymphadenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with disease outcomes for stage ≥II. While lymphadenectomy was related with improved DFS, chemotherapy was associated with poor DFS and OS.

Conclusion: The risk of LN metastasis at pelvic as well as paraaortic lymphatic basins is not negligible to omit lymphadenectomy in stage ≥II LGESS. Moreover, lymphadenectomy provides significant DFS advantage in patients with extrauterine disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.12.017DOI Listing
March 2021

Retrospective Analysis of Pure Ovarian Immature Teratoma in Patients Aged 15-39 Years: A Turkish Multicenter Study.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women's Health Teaching and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

To evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and surgical outcomes in patients with pure ovarian immature teratomas (POITs). In this multicenter study, a retrospective review was made of the databases of six Gynecology Oncology Departments in Turkey to identify patients with POITs who had undergone surgery between 1993 and 2019. Evaluation was made of 48 patients with a median age at diagnosis of 22.5 years (range, 15-37 years). In 40 (83%) patients, stage I was determined and in eight patients, an advanced stage (IIIB, IIIC, and IVB) was determined. Tumors were found to be grade I in 17 (35.4%) cases, grade II in 12 (25%), and grade III in 19 (39.6%). Fertility-sparing surgery was applied to 42 (87.5%) patients and radical surgery to 6 (12.5%). The median follow-up was 60 months (range, 3-246 months). Recurrence was seen in seven patients, all with grade III tumors. In the final pathological examination of recurrent tumors, mature teratoma was reported in five patients, and immature teratoma in one patient. Salvage surgery was not performed in one patient as the tumor was unresectable and so a regimen of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) was administered. POITs are rare tumors seen at a young age, and benign or malignant relapse can be seen in these tumors. In this cohort, the malignant recurrence rate was 4.1%, and the benign recurrence rate was 10.4%. All the recurrences were in grade III tumors. Benign recurrences can be treated with surgery alone and the malignant group should be treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jayao.2020.0155DOI Listing
December 2020

Is the Oncological Outcome of Early Stage Uterine Carcinosarcoma Different from That of Grade 3 Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma?

Oncol Res Treat 2021 27;44(1-2):43-51. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Aim: The clinicopathologic characteristics, recurrence patterns, and survival of patients with grade 3 endometrial cancer (G3-EAC) and uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) were compared.

Materials And Methods: The medical records of patients treated for G3-EAC and UCS between January 1996 and December 2016 at 11 gynecologic oncology centers in Turkey and Germany were analyzed.

Results: Of all patients included in the study, 161 (45.1%) were diagnosed with UCS and 196 (54.9%) with G3-EAC at FIGO stage I-II (early stage) disease. The recurrence rate was higher in patients with UCS than in those with G3-EAC (17.4 vs. 9.2%, p = 0.02). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; 75.2 and 80.8%, respectively; p = 0.03) and overall survival (OS; 79.4 and 83.4%, respectively; p = 0.04) rates were significantly lower in the UCS group compared to the G3-EAC group. UCS histology was an independent prognostic factor for decreased 5-year DFS (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-3.2; p = 0.034) and OS (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-6.9; p = 0.041) rates.

Conclusions: The recurrence rate was higher in UCS patients than in G3-EAC patients, regardless of disease stage. DFS and OS were of shorter duration in UCS than in G3-EAC patients. Adequate systematic lymphadenectomy and omentectomy were an independent prognostic factor for increased 5-year DFS and OS rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511288DOI Listing
November 2020

Does ovarian preservation have an effect on recurrence of early stage low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma?

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Jul 16;41(5):797-802. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Surgical treatment of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma consists of hysterectomy. The role of oophorectomy is yet to be established. We aimed to examine the effect of preserving the ovaries on the pattern of recurrences in patients with stage I disease. Thirty-four patients with stage I low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma were retrospectively analysed. Based on ovarian preservation the whole cohort was divided into two groups. Recurrence (liver, lung, groin and bone) was detected in 4 (11.8%) cases. No significant differences in overall survival or disease-free survival (DFS) were observed between the ovarian preservation and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) groups. Subset analysis revealed no significant difference in DFS between the ovarian preservation and BSO groups in the premenopausal arm. And also, the performance of pelvic ( = 2) or para-aortic lymphadenectomy ( = 6) or adjuvant hormonal therapy did not alter DFS significantly. The 5-year DFS rate for the group which received adjuvant radiotherapy was 62.5 and 94.4% for those which did not ( = .014). Preserving the ovaries had no adverse effect on the recurrence of stage I disease.IMPACT STATEMENT Due to the rarity of the disease and the common postoperative diagnosis, only retrospective studies have been reported on low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. This disease is commonly diagnosed in premenopausal patients during the early stage. There is no consensus on preserving the ovaries, particularly in young patients, due to the tumour's hormonal characteristics and the risk of late recurrences. Ovarian preservation had no effect on the recurrence of stage I low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Lymphadenectomy and adjuvant hormonal treatment had no effect on DFS, and adjuvant radiotherapy decreased DFS in the current study. Ovarian preservation should be considered, to prevent the negative effects of surgical menopause, particularly in young patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2020.1803238DOI Listing
July 2021

Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma masquerading as cervical cancer.

Ginekol Pol 2020;91(9):571

Tepecık Educatıon and Research Hospıtal, Izmır, Turkey.

Genital tract lymphomas are rare entities that can be diagnosed at advanced stages. The uterine cervix is not generally infiltrated by lymphoma. Nevertheless it can be seen as a consequence of either a systemic disease or primary disease. The infrequency of primary cervical lymphoma makes the diagnosis challenging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.2020.0090DOI Listing
January 2020

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium: A very rare gynecologic malignancy.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 May 19;50(5):101897. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, prognostic factors, outcome, and treatment of the neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the endometrium.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathologic and survival data of 10 patients who underwent surgery for NEC. The patients were collected between 1999 and 2017 from four referral centers in Turkey.

Results: The median age of patients was 67 years (range: 34-75 years). The NEC of endometrium consist of 9 cases with small cell carcinoma (SC) NEC (two with mixed histotypes), and one with a large cell (LC) NEC. According to FIGO 2009 criteria, 70 % (7/10) of patients had advanced stage (III and IV) disease. All patients except one underwent surgical staging, eight patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (CTX) and of 6 those were additionally treated with radiotherapy (RT). Four patients died of disease ranging from 2 to 10 months and six were alive 12-72 months with no evidence of disease. In addition, 4 SC NEC cases raised in polypoid features had no evidence of disease from 24 to 72 months.

Discussion: NEC of the endometrium is a rare disease with poor prognosis, which frequently diagnosed in advanced stages. The main treatment modality was the administration of platinum-based CTX as an adjuvant to surgery or surgery and RT. Our result suggests that the polypoid feature of the tumor might be one of the best predictors for the prognosis of SC NEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101897DOI Listing
May 2021

Life quality of endometrioid endometrial cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 May 19;41(4):621-625. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Health Sciences Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecologic malignancy in developed countries with increasing incidence worldwide. A total of 201 patients were enrolled and a cross-sectional study was performed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI) after the approval by an institutional review board (University of Health Sciences, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Turkey, March 13, 2019, Approval no. 2019/4-27). Morbidly obese patients (body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m) had lower physical functioning scores compared to non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m;  = .008) and non-morbidly obese patients (BMI < 40 kg/m;  = .011). The overall sexual dysfunction rate was high (94.5%). No significant sexual function differences were observed among the study groups.IMPACT STATEMENT Previous efforts to assess the influence of obesity and BMI on endometrial cancer patient quality of life have indicated that obesity adversely affects physical function and the effects of obesity on sexual function remains vague. In addition, the influence of patient age, surgical approach, adjuvant therapy type and time after diagnosis on quality of life and sexual function have not been clearly defined. Increased BMI is associated with impaired physical function in endometrial cancer patients. However, BMI does not appear to affect sexual function in this population. After endometrial cancer treatment, lifestyle interventions aimed at weight loss should be implemented to improve the quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2020.1787969DOI Listing
May 2021

Does lymph node ratio have any prognostic significance in maximally cytoreduced node-positive low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma?

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020 07 14;302(1):183-190. Epub 2020 May 14.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To determine the prognostic impact of the lymph node ratio (LNR) in node-positive low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed women with LGSOC who had undergone maximal cytoreduction followed by standard chemotherapy in 11 centers from Turkey during a study period of 20 years. Sixty two women with node-positive LGSOC were identified. LNR was defined as the number of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) divided by the number of total LNs removed. We grouped patients pursuant to the LNR as LNR ≤ 0.09 and LNR > 0.09. The prognostic value of LNR was investigated by employing the univariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox-regression model.

Results: With a median follow-up of 45 months, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 61.7% for women with LNR ≤ 0.09 and 32.0% for those with LNR > 0.09 (p = 0.046) whereas, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 72.8% for LNR ≤ 0.09 and 54.7% for LNR > 0.09 (p = 0.043). On multivariate analyses, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (Hazard Ratio [HR] 4.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88-9.27; p < 0.001), omental involvement (HR 3.48, 95% CI 1.36-8.84; p = 0.009) and LNR > 0.09 (HR 3.51, 95% CI 1.54-8.03; p = 0.003) were adverse prognostic factors for PFS. Additionally, LVSI (HR 6.56, 95% CI 2.33-18.41; p < 0.001), omental involvement (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.86-21.57; p = 0.003) and LNR > 0.09 (HR 7.20, 95% CI 2.33-22.26; p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for decreased OS.

Conclusion: LNR > 0.09 seems to be an independent prognosticator for decreased survival outcomes in LGSOC patients who received maximal cytoreduction followed by standard adjuvant chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05580-9DOI Listing
July 2020

Effect of tumor size on the accuracy of frozen section in the evaluation of mucinous borderline ovarian tumors.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2020 Jun 20;49(6):101765. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

University of Health Sciences Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of frozen section (FS) in mucinous borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) and to examine the factors associated with misdiagnosis.

Methods: In this retrospective study, cases diagnosed as mucinous BOTs by FS or final pathologic (FP) results were studied. The results of FS and FP were compared, and the factors associated with misdiagnosis were analyzed.

Results: Seventy-nine cases were examined. The median tumor diameter was 16 (6-50) cm, and 89.9 % of cases had tumors ≥10 cm. The overall agreement ratio between FS and FP was 79.7 %. Over-diagnosis and under-diagnosis rates were 3.8 % and 16.5 %, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were both 88.7 %. None of the underdiagnosed patients (13 cases) had recurrence during the 100-month median follow-up (9-222). Misdiagnosis was more common in tumors <10 cm (p = 0.025). The under-diagnosis rate for tumors <10 cm was 30.8 %. Tumor size <10 cm was significantly associated with misdiagnosis in univariate and multivariate analyses (Odds ratio {OR} 4.92, 95 % Confidence Interval {CI} (1.08-22.45) p = 0.040; OR 5.17, 95 % CI (1.07-25.05) p = 0.041, respectively). Laterality and preoperative CA 125 levels were not associated with misdiagnosis.

Conclusion: Tumor size <10 cm is associated with misdiagnosis in mucinous BOTs. Laterality and CA 125 levels do not affect diagnostic accuracy. The evaluation of FS by gynecologic pathologists can help to increase the accuracy of FS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101765DOI Listing
June 2020

The effect of lymph node metastasis on overall survival and disease-free survival in vulvar cancer patients.

Ginekol Pol 2020 ;91(2):62-67

Department of Gynecologic Oncology,University of Health Sciences Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Objectives: To examine the effect of lymphadenectomy on survival in patients with squamous cell vulvar carcinoma.

Material And Methods: Patients with squamous cell vulvar cancer who underwent surgery were retrospectively analyzed. All procedures were performed according to current recommendations/standard of treatment. The clinical and pathological features were examined. Sixty-eight patients were studied. The mean age was 64.7 ± 10.9 years. Twenty-three (33.8%) patients had nodal metastasis. Most patients (60.3%) were in stage IB. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemo-radiotherapy were administered to 33.8% and 25% of the patients, respectively. The median follow-up time was 28.5 (4-183) months. Recurrence occurred in 18 (26.5%) cases.

Results: There was no significant difference between node-positive and node-negative patients in terms of age, number of dissected lymph nodes and recurrence. Tumor diameter was significantly higher in the metastatic group. Age and surgical margin positivity were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Surgical margin positivity and lymph node metastasis had no effect on disease-free survival (DFS).

Conclusions: Our results showed that age and surgical margin positivity were independent prognostic factors for OS. Although surgical margin positivity increased the risk of recurrence in univariate analysis, it was not a significant factor affecting DFS. OS was significantly lower in patients with lymph node metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.2020.0018DOI Listing
April 2021

The role of changes in systemic inflammatory response markers during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in predicting suboptimal surgery in ovarian cancer.

Curr Probl Cancer 2020 08 15;44(4):100536. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Muğla Sitki Koçman University Education and Research Hospital, Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Muğla, Turkey.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet count and their dynamic changes during chemotherapy to predict suboptimal interval debulking surgery (IDS) in stage IIIC-IVA serous ovarian cancer (OC).

Method: Patients who underwent IDS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for stage IIIC-IVA serous OC at 3 centers between January 2008 and March 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. All women with complete blood counts both at diagnosis (T0) and after the completion of NAC but prior to IDS (T1) were included. An average of 3 weeks passed between IDS and the last cycle of NAC.

Results: A total of 214 patients were found suitable for the study. Suboptimal surgery was performed in 25.2% of the patients and optimal surgery was performed in 74.8%. The rate of change in NLR was calculated as [(NLR T0 - NLR T1)/NLR T0] × 100. A higher rate of change in NLR was found in the optimal surgery group. Recovery of thrombocytosis (When platelet count before NAC was >400,000/mm, recovery of thrombocytosis was defined as ≤400,000/mm after NAC.) was found to have 85.7% sensitivity and 64.8% specificity in predicting suboptimal surgery (P < 0.001). According to both multivariate and univariate regression analysis, a large change in NLR (>17%) and recovery of thrombocytosis significantly predicted suboptimal surgery.

Conclusion: To identify the likelihood of suboptimal surgery in advanced stage OC patients who undergo IDS after NAC, the dynamic change in NLR values can be examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2020.100536DOI Listing
August 2020

Preoperative predictors of pelvic and para-aortic lymph node metastases in cervical cancer.

J Cancer Res Ther 2019 Oct-Dec;15(6):1231-1234

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Education and Research Hospital, Mugla, Turkey.

Aim: This study investigated potential preoperative predictors of pelvic lymph node (PLN) and para-aortic LN (PaLN) involvement in cervical cancer (CC).

Materials And Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 283 patients diagnosed with early (stage IA1-IIA) CC who underwent retroperitoneal LN dissection between January 1992 and February 2015. Several risk factors that are believed to influence PLN and PaLN involvement in CC were analyzed as follows: age >50 years, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), tumor size ≥2 cm, hemoglobin <12 g/dL, and nonsquamous cell histologic type.

Results: LVSI (odds ratio [OR] = 11.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.2-24.3) and tumor size (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.2) were independent predictors of PLN involvement. None of the factors predicted PaLN involvement in a regression analysis. However, all nine patients who had PaLN involvement also had PLN involvement.

Conclusion: LVSI and tumor size independently increase the risk of PLN involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_467_17DOI Listing
May 2020

Cervical carcinosarcoma presented in advanced stage after high grade cervical displasia.

J Exp Ther Oncol 2019 Dec;13(2):165-167

University of Health Sciences Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Objective: Cervical carcinosarcomas (Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumour [MMMT] ) are very rare neoplasms. Fewer than 100 cases were documented until recently. Because of the rarity, etiologic factors, prognosis and treatment modalities are unclear. A 53 year-old woman presented with postmenauposal vaginal bleeding and abnormal cervical cytology. Cervical biopsy followed by loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and cold knife conisation (CKC) was documented as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III (CIN III). Without follow-up, two years later, the patient was referred with a cervical 6,5 cm mass invading vagina, parametriums and rectum. Biopsy was reported as cervical carcinosarcoma with squmous carcinoma and homologous sarcoma component. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy provided partial response. Subsequently external beam whole pelvis radiotherapy with chemotherapy and brachytherapy was applied. In despite of the treatment, the patient developed sistemic recurrence and died of disease within 10 months. In previous reports most of the patients were in early stage and had better prognosis than uterine carcinosarcomas. Here in we present a case who had a history of high-grade cervical displasia and presented at advanced stage, managed with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy.
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December 2019

Evaluation of the optimal laparoscopic method for benign ovarian mass extraction: a transumbilical route using a bag made from a surgical glove versus a lateral transabdominal route employing a standard endobag.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2020 Apr 4;40(3):378-381. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

We compared two transumbilical (TU) routes of surgical specimen retrieval in women with ovarian masses treated via laparoscopy: a bag made from a surgical glove and lateral transabdominal (LTA) retrieval employing a standard endobag. A total of 109 women undergoing laparoscopic surgery to treat benign adnexal masses were retrospectively evaluated between 2014 and 2017. In total, 57 masses were removed via the TU route and 52 via the LTA route. We recorded the ovarian mass size; additional postoperative analgesic drug requirements. Postoperative incisional pain scores were assessed using a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), time to discharge and procedure type. The mean VAS scores at 1 h (5.0 ± 1.7 vs. 6.3 ± 1.3;  < .001); 12 h (0.7 ± 0.8 vs. 1.2 ± 1.1;  = .004); and 24 h (0.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.7 ± 0.6;  < .001) were lower in the TU-removal group. Furthermore, additional postoperative analgesic drug requirements were significantly higher in the LTA-removal group (10 (19.2%) vs. 3 (5.3%);  = .03). During laparoscopic surgery, removal of an ovarian mass via an umbilical port (compared to a lateral port) causes less postoperative pain and does not increase the risk of wound complications such as infection or hernia.Impact statement Laparoscopy has been used for the last 30 years. Constant improvement in the technique and equipment has allowed extensive, laparoscopic pelvic and abdominal surgery affording better outcomes than open surgery, an improved recovery, less pain, and fewer postoperative complications. However, mass removal remains a concern. Most laparoscopic specimens are larger than the initial trocar incision. Minimally invasive, adnexal mass surgery usually requires a trocar at least 10 mm wide to remove the mass. Alternatively, adnexal mass extraction from the abdominal cavity can proceed via a suprapubic, umbilical, or vaginal route. During laparoscopic surgery, ovarian mass removal through an umbilical port using an endobag made from a surgical glove is useful due to the method requiring little funds, is easy to do, and results in a lower amount of postoperative pain than a removal via a lateral port using a standard endobag. A transumbilical route using a bag made from a surgical glove is easy, economical, and causes less postoperative pain to the patient than removal via a lateral port employing a standard endobag.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2019.1623765DOI Listing
April 2020

Does lymphadenectomy effect postoperative surgical morbidity and survival in patients with adult granulosa cell tumor of ovary?

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2019 May 13;45(5):1019-1025. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Medical Sciences Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of lymphadenectomy on surgical morbidity and survival in adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) of the ovary.

Methods: Patients who underwent surgical treatment for AGCT between January 1993 and January 2016 were identified. Data were collected for patient age, menopausal status, surgical staging, lymphadenectomy, postoperative complications (anemia, wound infection, incisional hernia), length of hospital stay, follow-up duration, site and time for recurrence, management of recurrence and vital status. Histopathological records were also evaluated for number of cellular mitosis.

Results: Lymphadenectomy (pelvic-paraaortic) was performed in 53 (53%) of 98 patients. Decrease in postoperative hemoglobin level and increased wound infection and longer hospital stay were significantly higher in lymphadenectomy group (P = 0.003, 0.043 and <0.001, respectively). Tumor stage (HR 95% CI 14.9 [2.43-92.8]) and number of mitoses >5 (HR 95% CI 14.9 [2.43-92.8]) were significantly associated with recurrence (P = <0.001 and 0.02, respectively). Tumor stage was the only prognostic factor for predicting overall survival (HR 95% CI 8.47 [2.17-33.2]). Lymphadenectomy showed no effect on disease-free survival and overall survival both in multivariate Cox regression analyses (P = 0.46 and 0.69, respectively). Disease-free survival and overall survival were similar in lymphadenectomy and no lymphadenectomy groups (Log Rank P = 0.382, 0.741, respectively).

Conclusion: Lymphadenectomy had no improved effect on survival and had negative effect on surgical morbidity in patients with AGCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.13928DOI Listing
May 2019

Stage IB1 cervical cancer treated with modified radical or radical hysterectomy: does size determine risk factors?

Ginekol Pol 2018 ;89(12):667-671

Mersin State Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mersin, Turkey.

Objectives: This study was performed to investigate prognostic factors status at smaller tumors in patients with stageIB1 cervical cancer (CC) who underwent modified radical or radical hysterectomy.

Matherial And Metods: Data from patients diagnosed with CC between January 1995 and January 2017 at the GynecologicalOncology Department, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital and Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital,Istanbul, Turkey, were investigated. A total of 182 stage IB1 CC cases were evaluated retrospectively.

Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to tumor size (< 2 cm and ≥ 2 cm). There were no complicationsassociated with the operation in patients with a tumor size < 2 cm. Among patients with a tumor size ≥ 2 cm, however, 0.9% (n = 1) developed bladder laceration, 0.9% (n = 1) rectum laceration, and 0.9% (n = 1) pulmonary emboli (P = 0.583). The rates of intermediate risk factors (depth of stromal invasion and lymphovascular space invasion) were significantly higher and lymph node involvement significantly more frequent in patients with a tumor size ≥ 2 cm. However, there were no significant differences in parametrial invasion or vaginal margin involvement between the two groups.

Conclusions: Intermediate risk factors and lymph node metastasis were significantly less frequent in patients with small tumors measuring < 2 cm. However, although parametrial involvement and vaginal margin involvement were less common in patients with small tumors compared with large tumors (≥ 2 cm), the differences were not significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2018.0112DOI Listing
August 2019

Isolated pulmonary metastases in patients with cervical cancer and the factors affecting survival after recurrence.

Ginekol Pol 2018;89(11):593-598

Mersin State Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mersin, Turkey.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the treatment options and survival of uterine cervical cancer (UCC) patients who develop isolated pulmonary metastases (IPM) and to establish risk factors for IPM.

Material And Methods: Data from patients diagnosed with UCC between June 1991 and January 2017 at the Gynecological Oncology Department, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, were investigated. In total, 43 cases with IPM were evaluated retrospectively. Additionally, 172 control patients diagnosed with UCC without recurrence were matched according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 stage when the tumor was diagnosed. They wereselected using a dependent random sampling method.

Results: Of the 890 patients with UCC, 43 (4.8%) had IPM. The presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) and a mid-corpuscular volume (MCV) < 80 fL were statistically significant prognostic factors for IPM development in UCC patientsaccording to univariate regression analyses, and the presence of LVSI, a hemoglobin level < 12 g/dL, and an MCV < 80 fLwere statistically significant according to the multivariate regression analyses. We were unable to assess the role of lymph node status (involvement or reactive) as a prognostic factor in the development of IPM, because only seven patients (16.2%) in the case group underwent lymph node dissection.

Conclusions: IPM typically develops within the first 3 years after the diagnosis of UCC, and survival is generally poor. An MCV < 80 fL and the presence of LVSI are significant risk factors for IPM development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2018.0102DOI Listing
February 2019

Rectosigmoidectomy and Douglas Peritonectomy in the Management of Serosal Implants in Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer Surgery: Survival and Surgical Outcomes.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2018 11;28(9):1699-1705

Departments of Gynecological Oncology.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of rectosigmoid resection (RR) and Douglas peritonectomy (DP) on postoperative complications and survival in advanced-stage ovarian cancer surgery.

Methods/materials: Patients who underwent optimal cytoreductive surgery including RR and DP between January 2007 and January 2013 were included. Patients with deeper invasion into the muscularis and mucosal layer reported in pathology results and colon wall injury necessitating suturing or resection suggesting invasion of implants into the colon wall were excluded. The decision for RR or DP was made according to the surgical team and patients' preference. Resections were performed with the suspicion of colon wall invasion. The collected data were age, previous operations, preoperative cancer antigen 125 and albumin levels, surgical procedures, duration of surgery, tumor histology, recurrence, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and length of hospital stay. Kaplan-Meir survival estimates were calculated and compared between the groups using the log-rank test. Cox proportional models were built to evaluate factors that affected disease-free and overall survival.

Results: Age, body mass index, preoperative cancer antigen 125 levels, albumin levels, and amount of ascites were similar between the groups. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery was performed in 15% of both groups. End colostomy was performed in 23.7% of the RR group, and only 5.08% of the patients underwent diverting ileostomy procedures. There was no significant difference in terms of surgical complications between the groups. Recurrence occurred in the RR and DP groups at rates of 42% and 47%, respectively. Only primary debulking surgery had an effect on overall survival (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.88). Overall survival and disease-free survival were similar in the RR and DP groups.

Conclusions: Douglas peritonectomy showed similar survival and surgical outcomes to RR and provided shorter hospital stay and earlier admission to chemotherapy in the management of serosal implants during advanced-stage ovarian cancer surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000001368DOI Listing
November 2018

A novel preoperative scoring system based on 18-FDG PET-CT for predicting lymph node metastases in patients with high-risk endometrial cancer.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2019 Jan 6;39(1):105-109. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

d Department of Gynecologic Oncology , Tepecik Education and Research Hospital , Izmir , Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to develop a model predicting the probability of pelvic-paraaortic node metastases in high-risk endometrial cancer patients. This trial included 41 high-risk endometrial cancer patients. All of the patients underwent an 18-FDG PET-CT followed by surgical staging, including a pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. We developed a useful scoring system combining weighted risk factors derived from a regression model: (3 × presence PET-CT involvement) + (3 × PET-CT maximum standardised uptake value ≥20) + (2 × diabetes comorbidity) + (1 × age ≥60 years) + (1 × body mass index ≥30). The area under the curve of the resulting score was 0.848. There was 75% sensitivity, 89% specificity and a 75% positive predictive value and 89% negative predictive value when a score of 6 was used as the cut-off. Our novel preoperative scoring system is an accurate method for the preoperative evaluation of lymph node metastases, and thus will aid gynaecological oncologists in selecting EC patients who may benefit from a lymphadenectomy. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Endometrial cancer (EC) is a common gynaecological malignancy. Surgical staging is currently the standard treatment and the gold standard for evaluating lymph node metastases (LNm) is a surgical assessment (Chan et al. 2006 ). Three previous randomised clinical studies failed to find a clear therapeutic role for the lymphadenectomy; thus, the utility of this surgical procedure in high-risk early-stage EC remains under debate (Benedetti Panici et al. 2008 ; Kitchener et al. 2009 ; Signorelli et al. 2015 ). Non-invasive techniques that accurately identify lymph node metastases would reduce costs and complications. What do the results of this study add? Our developed novel scoring system that is based on positron emission tomography-computer tomography (PET-CT) with 2-deoxy-2-(18F) flouro-2-D-glucose (FDG) may facilitate the identification of patients at an increased risk of LNm. What are the implications of these finding for clinical practice and/or further research? This study shows that our novel preoperative scoring system provides an accurate method for the preoperative evaluation of LNm, and thus could guide gynaecologic oncologists in selecting the high-risk endometrial cancer patients who may benefit from a systematic lymphadenectomy. Further larger, prospective studies are needed to confirm the accuracy and the feasibility of our scoring system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2018.1467884DOI Listing
January 2019

The prognostic significance of pdl1 and foxp3 expressions in tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment of ovarian epithelial tumors.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2018 1;11(8):3884-3890. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Pathology, Izmir Tepecik Education and Research Hospital Turkey.

Background: The aim of this study is to determine the prognostic values of PDL1 expression in ovarian epithelial tumors and to detect the presence of FOXP3-positive T reg cells in the tumor microenvironment.

Methods: This study included patients with benign, borderline or malignant ovarian serous tumors (n=82), mucinous cancer (n=17) and endometrioid cancer (n=36). FOXP3 and PDL1 were immunohistochemically evaluated and compared with histopathological and clinical prognostic parameters.

Results: There was no expression of PDL1 in any tumor cell. However, PDL1-positive inflammatory cells were seen in 10 cases (7.3%) with mucinous carcinoma (n=6), endometrioid carcinoma (n=2), borderline (n=1), and benign (n=1) serous tumors. It was also determined that there was a significant positive correlation between PD-L1 expression in tumor infiltrating cells and survival (P<0.01). In 47 (34.3%) cases, there were FOXP3-positive cells. The number of FOXP3-positive cells was significantly higher in ovarian cancer, especially in serous and endometrioid carcinomas, rather than benign and borderline tumors (P=0.007). But there was no statistically significant association between the survival times and the presence of T regs (P=0.241).

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the presence of FOXP3 and PDL1-positive regulatory T cells in TILs was associated with mainly malignant tumors. We also found that the presence of PD-L1-positive inflammatory cells has a positive effect on survival.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6962806PMC
August 2018

Outcomes of patients with advanced stage ovarian cancer with intestinal metastasis.

Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(10):537-542

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of advanced stage (stage IIIB-IVB) ovarian cancer (OC) patients with intestinal metastasis, and to investigate the factors that affect survival.

Material And Methods: Patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery (CS) for FIGO stage IIIB-IVB OC with metastasis in the intestinal system, at Tepecik Research and Treatment Hospital between 2008-2014, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with borderline ovarian tumor; those who had previously undergone radiation therapy and/or hysterectomy and patients having secondary or tertiary cytoreduction were excluded and 49 patients were included and analyzed in this study. Hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node sampling, resection of bulky lymph nodes and omentectomy were performed. Optimal cytoreduction was accepted as that which left residual tumor ≤ one cm maximum size.

Results: The risk factors affecting OS interval were investigated according to Cox' regression analysis. Optimality of the primary CS (P = 0.008 and HR = 5.202) and cancer stage (P = 0.016 and HR = 6.083) were found to be statistically significant factors.

Conclusions: Achieving optimal CS is the most important aim for the general surgeon carrying out an intestinal resection procedure. Although resection procedures are superior in providing the desired optimal results when compared to excision surgery, their higher complication rates and subsequent lower quality of life must be taken into consideration when choosing either resection or excision methods; surgical intervention should always be kept to the minimum possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2017.0098DOI Listing
July 2018

The Effect of Adenomyosis in Myometrial Invasion and Overall Survival in Endometrial Cancer.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2018 01;28(1):145-151

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether adenomyosis had an effect on myometrial tumor invasion, stage of the disease, and survival in endometrial cancer.

Methods: Endometrial cancer patients encountered between 2007 and 2016 were identified from pathology records. Patients who underwent suboptimal surgical or medical treatment or with insufficient clinical or surgical data were excluded. Patients diagnosed as having concurrent adenomyosis constituted the study group. Control group patients were randomly selected in a paired design according to the tumor grades in the study group, and for each tumor grade, 4 times as many as patients were included. Tumor stage, histologic type and grade, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion, presence and location of the adenomyosis in myometrial wall, distance from endometrial line, tumor in adenomyosis, adjuvant treatment, and relapse were primary outcomes.Age, body mass index, medical comorbidities, and type of operation were also recorded. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed for overall survival.

Results: Of those 1242 endometrial cancer patients, 80 with concurrent adenomyosis were identified and compared with 320 patients without adenomyosis following a paired selection based on tumor grade. Higher rates of myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion, tumor diameter, and adjuvant treatments were found in the nonadenomyosis group compared with adenomyosis group (P ≤ 0.001). In patients with adenomyosis, rates of early-stage disease and overall survival were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively).

Conclusions: Our results showed that adenomyosis is significantly associated with lower stage in endometrial cancer that may suggest a possible limiting effect on endometrial cancer spread. In addition, despite similar rates in disease-free survival and endometrial cancer-related death, overall survival rate was significantly higher in the presence of adenomyosis and might be considered as a good prognostic factor for endometrial cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000001137DOI Listing
January 2018

Does BLOODCARE Powder Prevent Postoperative Chylous Ascites After Lymphadenectomy for Gynecological Malignancies?

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2017 11;27(9):1979-1982

Departments of *Gynecologic Oncology and †Obstetrics and Gynecology, Muğla Education and Research Hospital, Muğla, ‡Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Bakirköy Dr. Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, İstanbul; and §Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intraoperative hemostatic cellulose agent (BLOODCARE powder [Life Line, Brno, Czech Republic]) on reducing the incidence of postoperative chylous ascites (PCA) after complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PPALN) in patients with gynecological cancers treated with laparotomy.

Methods: This case control study reviewed 150 patients with gynecological cancer who underwent PPALN. In the study group (n = 75), BLOODCARE powder was applied below the left renal vein and bilateral obturator fossa. In the control group (n = 75), no sealant agent was used after the procedure, such as fibrin glue or a hemostatic cellulose agent.

Results: The demographic and surgical characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. Chylous ascites occurred in 9 cases (6%). The incidence of PCA was lower in the study group (1 [1.3%] vs 8 [10.7%]; P = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis indicated that using BLOODCARE powder during the surgery independently protected against the development of PCA.

Conclusions: Using BLOODCARE powder during retroperitoneal surgery may prevent PCA. This simple, effective agent should be used after PPALN for gynecological cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000001093DOI Listing
November 2017

Analysis of endometrial carcinoma in young women at a high-volume cancer center.

Int J Surg 2017 Aug 30;44:185-190. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Health Sciences, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment, survival, and prognosis of endometrial cancer in women aged ≤40 years.

Methods: Women who underwent surgery for endometrial cancer at a single high-volume cancer center between January 1995 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Women aged >40, patients with missing data, and those who did not undergo surgical staging were excluded. Univariate and multivariate regression models were used to identify the risk factors for overall survival and progression-free survival.

Results: A total of 40 patients with endometrial cancer were assessed. The median age at diagnosis was 38 (range, 21-40) years, and most of the uterine tumors found were early-stage (85%), low-grade (67.5%), and endometrioid carcinomas (97.5%). The median serum cancer antigen 125 level was 10.9 IU/mL (range, 3-1284 IU/mL). Optimal cytoreductive surgery was achieved in 35 patients (87.5%). All patients underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, and 97.5% of the patients underwent hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Among the total group of 40 patients, 21 (52.5%) underwent pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, and 15 (37.5%) underwent only pelvic lymph node dissection. Multivariate analysis confirmed that a cancer antigen 125 level ≥35 was the only independent prognostic factor for both progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 22.997; 95% confidence interval, 1.783-296.536; p = 0.016) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 22.541; 95% confidence interval, 1.75-290.364; p = 0,017).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that a cancer antigen 125 level ≥ 35 is the only independent prognostic factor for both progression-free survival and overall survival in patients aged ≤40 years with endometrial cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2017.06.083DOI Listing
August 2017

Prognostic factors and treatment outcomes in surgically-staged non-invasive uterine clear cell carcinoma: a Turkish Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

J Gynecol Oncol 2017 Jul;28(4):e49

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To assess the prognosis of surgically-staged non-invasive uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCCC), and to determine the role of adjuvant therapy.

Methods: A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with UCCC who underwent surgical treatment between 1997 and 2016 at 8 Gynecologic Oncology Centers. Demographic, clinicopathological, and survival data were collected.

Results: A total of 232 women with UCCC were identified. Of these, 53 (22.8%) had surgically-staged non-invasive UCCC. Twelve patients (22.6%) were upstaged at surgical assessment, including a 5.6% rate of lymphatic dissemination (3/53). Of those, 1 had stage IIIA, 1 had stage IIIC1, 1 had stage IIIC2, and 9 had stage IVB disease. Of the 9 women with stage IVB disease, 5 had isolated omental involvement indicating omentum as the most common metastatic site. UCCC limited only to the endometrium with no extra-uterine disease was confirmed in 41 women (73.3%) after surgical staging. Of those, 13 women (32%) were observed without adjuvant treatment whereas 28 patients (68%) underwent adjuvant therapy. The 5-year disease-free survival rates for patients with and without adjuvant treatment were 100.0% vs. 74.1%, respectively (p=0.060).

Conclusion: Extra-uterine disease may occur in the absence of myometrial invasion (MMI), therefore comprehensive surgical staging including omentectomy should be the standard of care for women with UCCC regardless of the depth of MMI. Larger cohorts are needed in order to clarify the necessity of adjuvant treatment for women with UCCC truly confined to the endometrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2017.28.e49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447148PMC
July 2017

Comparison Of Early-Stage High-Grade Serous Primary Fallopian Tube Cancers and Epithelial Ovarian Cancers: A Multicenter Study.

Oncol Res Treat 2017 21;40(4):203-206. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Introduction: We compared the disease free-survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of patients with high-grade serous primary fallopian tube cancer (HG-sPFTC) and high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HG-sEOC).

Methods: 22 early-stage cancer patients (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages I-II) with HG-sPFTC were retrospectively evaluated. In addition, 44 control patients diagnosed with HG-sEOC were matched to these patients with respect to tumor stage at diagnosis. All patients underwent complete surgical staging, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to generate survival data.

Results: The mean age of HG-sPFTC patients was 59.4 ± 6.2 years, and that of HG-sEOC patients 55.2 ± 11.0 years (p = 0.002). All patients underwent 6 cycles of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. All operations were optimal. The 5-year DFSs were 77.3% for HG-sPFTC patients and 75% for HG-sEOC patients (p = 1.00).The 5-year OS rates were 81.8% in women with HG-sPFTC and 77.3% in those with HG-sEOC (p = 0.75).

Conclusion: The DFS and OS rates of patients with early-stage (FIGO stages I and II) HG-sPFTC and HG-sEOC were similar. The surgical and adjuvant therapy management of these malignancies should be similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000458440DOI Listing
November 2017