Publications by authors named "Mehmet Ayvaz"

40 Publications

Posterior Instrumentation and Fusion in Multiple-segment Adolescent Congenital Scoliosis: When are Posterior Column and Concave Rib Osteotomies Needed?

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: No clear guidelines exist for appropriate surgical treatment of congenital scoliosis. The spectrum varies from isolated posterior instrumentation and fusion (PIF-only) to vertebral column resections. Multiple posterior column osteotomies (PCOs) with and without concave rib osteotomies have previously been suggested as an alternative to invasive 3-column osteotomies. The aim of the study is to analyze outcomes of spinal surgery in congenital scoliosis patients for a new treatment algorithm based on a traction radiograph under general anesthesia (TruGA).

Methods: Surgical intervention was determined according to flexibility with TruGA: patients with >40% correction underwent PIF-only; patients with <40% of correction underwent PCO. Patients, who had <30% of correction in TruGA and/or more than 5 vertebral levels with failure of segmentation, underwent additional concave rib osteotomies. The radiologic and clinical results were compared.

Results: Forty-three patients met inclusion criteria (14M). The mean age was 13.8 (10 to 17) years, average follow-up 67 (24 to 107) months. Fourteen patients were in the PIF-only group, 29 in the PCO group. PCO patients were significantly older (14.5 vs. 12.3, P=0.001). Mean operative time and blood loss of PCO group were significantly greater than those of PIF-only group. Nine patients required concave rib osteotomies. While the curve magnitude of patients in the PIF-only and PCO groups did not differ significantly (54.6 vs. 63 degrees, P=0.067), curve rigidity was significantly higher in the patients of PCO group (51.2% vs. 32%, P=0.001). Despite this, postoperative correction rates for 2 groups were similar (51.1% vs. 47.8%, P=0.545).

Conclusions: The number of anomalous segments and the curve flexibility on TruGA play important roles in the decision-making process in congenital scoliosis and <40% flexibility of the major curve could be an important indicator of the need for PCO. Curves with more than 5 anomalous vertebral segments might be more likely to need additional concave rib osteotomies for adequate correction.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001841DOI Listing
April 2021

The efficacy of two-hole tension band plates in the treatment of lower extremity limb length discrepancy.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

The main purpose of our study was to investigate the efficacy of dual two-hole tension band plates in the treatment of lower extremity limb length discrepancy (LLD). We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent epiphysiodesis utilizing dual two-hole tension band plates due to lower extremity LLD between January 2012 and June 2018. The efficacy of epiphysiodesis was defined as the inhibited percentage of the expected growth of the physis between two time intervals and was calculated between 0-6 months and 6-18 months as the primary outcome. The relationship of efficacy of epiphysiodesis with time intervals, bone segments, physeal coverage percentage by the screws, age and interscrew angle and physeal health was also assessed. A total of 11 patients' 17 bone segments (9 femurs and 8 tibias) with a mean age of 8.7 ± 2.3 were included. The mean efficacy of the epiphysiodesis in the first 6 months for femurs was 23 ± 20 % (range, 0-53%) and for tibias was 21 ± 19 % (range, 0-53%); between 6 and 18 months it was 27 ± 19 % (range, 0-56%) for femurs and 15 ± 19 % (range, 0-50%) for tibias. In the first 6 months, physeal coverage percentage by the screws (r = 0.503, P = 0.04) and age (r = -0.534, P = 0.027) had a strong correlation with the epiphysiodesis efficacy. Dual two-hole tension band plating has variable efficacy in the treatment of LLD. Age and physeal coverage percentage by the screws could be related to epiphysiodesis efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPB.0000000000000861DOI Listing
March 2021

Proximal Humerus Tumors: Higher-than-Expected Risk of Revision With Constrained Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 Nov;478(11):2585-2595

M. Ayvaz, R. M. Cetik, S. Bakircioglu, A. M. Tokgozoglu, Hacettepe University Hospitals by the Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology Musculoskeletal Oncology Group, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: The treatment of proximal humerus tumors with endoprostheses is associated with a high risk of implant-related surgical complications. Because of extensive soft-tissue resection and muscular detachment during surgery, instability is the most common serious complication. A reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with a highly constrained design is one option to mitigate instability, but few studies have reported the results of this prosthesis for proximal humerus tumor resections.

Questions/purposes: (1) What are the short-term functional results of the constrained reverse total shoulder prosthesis in terms of Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS), DASH, and Constant-Murley scores and ROM values? (2) What is the frequency of revision, using a competing-risks estimator to assess implant survival, and what were the causes of the revisions that occurred? (3) What proportion of patients experienced dislocations at short-term follow-up?

Methods: Between January 2014 and June 2017, we treated 55 patients with proximal humeral resections and reconstructions for malignant tumors. Of those, 33% (18) of patients were treated with the constrained, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty implant under study here. During that period, no other constrained reverse total shoulder implant was used; however, 13% (seven) of patients were treated with conventional (unconstrained) reverse total shoulder implants, 27% (15) had hemiarthroplasties, 15% (eight) of patients had biologic reconstructions with auto- or allografts and 13% (seven) underwent amputation. During the period in question, our general indications for use of the constrained device under study here were resection of the deltoid muscle/axillary nerve or the deltoid insertion on the humerus due to tumor invasion, or extensive rotator cuff and surrounding soft tissue resection that might result in shoulder instability. During this period, these indications were adhered to consistently. Four of 18 patients treated with the study implant died (three died with the implant intact) and none were lost to follow-up before 2 years, leaving 14 patients (seven women and seven men) for study at a median (range) follow-up of 35 months (25 to 65). Two authors evaluated the clinical and functional status of each patient with ROM (flexion, extension, internal and external rotation, abduction, and adduction) and MSTS, (range 0% to 100%), Constant-Murley (range 0% to 100%), and DASH (range 0 points to 100 points) scores. For the MSTS and Constant-Murley scores, higher percentage scores mean better functional outcome; and for the DASH score, a higher score means more severe disability. Radiographs were obtained at each visit and were used to look for signs of loosening, which we defined as progressive radiolucencies between visits, prosthetic component migration, and fragmentation/fracture of the cement. The Sirveaux classification was used to determine scapular notching. A competing risks analysis with 95% confidence intervals was performed to estimate the cumulative incidence of revision surgery, which we defined as any reoperation in which the implant was removed or changed for any reason, with patient mortality as a competing event.

Results: At the most recent follow-up, the median (range) MSTS score was 78% (50 to 90), the DASH score was 20 (8 to 65), and the Constant-Murley score was 53% (26 to 83). The median ROM was 75° in forward flexion (40 to 160), 78° in abduction (30 to 150), 35° in internal rotation (10 to 80), and 33° in external rotation (0 to 55). Postoperatively, two of 14 patients underwent or were supposed to undergo revision surgery, and the cumulative incidence of revision surgery was 18% for both 30 and 48 months (95% CI 2 to 45). During the study period, no patients reported instability, and no dislocations occurred.

Conclusions: Our findings are concerning because the revision risk with this constrained reverse total shoulder implant was higher than has been reported by others for other proximal humerus prostheses. The highly constrained design that helps prevent instability might also transmit increased stresses to the humeral component-bone interface, therefore making it susceptible to loosening. We believe that any other implant with a similar degree of constraint will have the same problem, and changing the indications for patient selection may not solve this issue. These theories need to be tested biomechanically, but our desire is to warn surgeons that while trying to prevent instability, one might trade one complication (instability) for another: aseptic loosening.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571930PMC
November 2020

Pull-out of Upper Thoracic Pedicle Screws Can Cause Spinal Canal Encroachment in Growing Rod Treatment.

J Pediatr Orthop 2018 Aug;38(7):e399-e403

Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Proximal foundation failure is a common complication of growing rod (GR) treatment for early-onset scoliosis. Spinal canal encroachment due to pull-out of pedicle screw used as proximal foundation has been anecdotally reported in GR patients. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of spinal canal encroachment of pedicle screws in GR treatment and determine risk factors using a single-center cohort.

Methods: Inclusion criteria were: (1) GR for early-onset scoliosis and (2) pull-out of at least 1 proximal anchor pedicle screw. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of medial screw migration. Medial migration of the screw was confirmed by computed tomography. The extracted data included demographic, clinical, and radiographic information.

Results: A total of 21 patients (of 96) met inclusion criteria (21.8%). None of the screws appeared malpositioned on early postoperative x-ray. Average follow-up until screw failure was 50.4 months (64 to 85 mo) and average number of lengthenings 8.1 (4 to 13). Computed tomography revealed canal encroachment in 11 patients (group 1), and no encroachment in 10 (group 2). There was no significant difference between groups for age, follow-up or number of lengthenings. At the time of screw pull-out, coronal plane deformity was increased compared with early postoperative x-ray in all; however, this increase was significantly higher in group 1 (45.7 vs. 35 degrees, P=0.002). Proximal junctional angle (PJA) was increased in both groups at the time of pull-out. While not statistically significant, PJA increased linearly in group 1 but spiked in group 2 at the time of pull-out. There was no neurological event preoperatively, intraoperatively or postoperatively. Failed screws were safely revised in either planned/unplanned surgeries.

Conclusions: In patients with proximal anchor failure of GR, especially if there is increase of coronal deformity and/or PJA, possible spinal encroachment should be kept in mind.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV-retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001196DOI Listing
August 2018

Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy Versus Multiple Posterior Column Osteotomies in Severe and Rigid Neuromuscular Scoliosis.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2018 08;43(15):E905-E910

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis.

Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of the apical pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) technique with multiple posterior column osteotomies (PCOs) in nonambulatory patients with severe, rigid neuromuscular scoliosis.

Summary Of Background Data: Neuromuscular scoliosis frequently causes intolerance to sitting due to pelvic obliquity, trunk decompensation, and associated back and rib impingement pain which diminish the patient's functional capacity. In the case of rigid curves, spinal osteotomy techniques are occasionally required for effective correction.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our patients with severe and rigid neuromuscular scoliosis with associated pelvic obliquity who were treated with posterior instrumented fusion extending to pelvis with more than 1-year postoperative follow-up. We compared radiological and clinical results of PSO and multiple PCO techniques in severe rigid neuromuscular scoliosis with pelvic obliquity of more than 15° in traction radiograph under general anesthesia. Hospital records were also reviewed for operative time, intraoperative blood loss, amount of blood transfusion, duration of hospital stay, and complications.

Results: There were 12 patients in the PSO group and 10 patients in the PCO group. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of major curve magnitude, sagittal parameters or pelvic obliquity. Although not statistically significant, PSO technique did trend toward better scoliosis correction (post-op Cobb angle 56.1° vs. 66.7° [P = 0.415]). PSO technique provided a significantly better correction in pelvic obliquity (59% vs. 84%) (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in average intraoperative blood loss, transfusion, and operative times including anesthesia time, hospital stay, or complications.

Conclusion: PSO may be an option in correction of severe and rigid neuromuscular scoliosis. It provides better correction of pelvic obliquity without increasing operative time, need for transfusion, or duration of hospitalization as compared to multiple apical PCO technique. Traction radiograph under general anesthesia is a valuable tool in surgical decision making.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000002538DOI Listing
August 2018

Denosumab treatment in aneurysmal bone cyst: Evaluation of nine cases.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 Apr 29;65(4). Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign bone tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is the common treatment. Here, we retrospectively evaluate nine patients treated with denosumab.

Procedure: Nine patients with ABC, mostly pelvic and vertebral, treated with denosumab were analyzed retrospectively. A 70 mg/m denosumab dose was used weekly in the first month, and then monthly. Clinical and radiological responses to treatment were evaluated.

Results: In all patients, clinical symptoms including pain and limping regressed completely within 3 months. Radiological evaluation revealed changes in lesion size and content. In six patients, overall volume reduction in the range of 18-82% was detected. Decreases in the size and number of cysts were detected in eight patients. In five patients, fat signal appeared on follow-up imaging. No major side effects were observed during treatment. Median follow-up time after treatment was 15 months. At 5 months, severe hypercalcemia was observed in two patients due to rebound increase in osteoclastic activity. Subsequent to denosumab treatment, three patients underwent surgery for clinical or radiological recurrence.

Conclusions: Our results showed that denosumab provided a meaningful clinical and radiological improvement in ABC. It may be a treatment option, especially in spinal and pelvic tumors with potentially high surgical morbidity. However, late rebound hypercalcemia may restrict its use. Studies with more cases are required for routine use of denosumab in ABC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.26926DOI Listing
April 2018

Evaluation of Metatarsal Head Resurfacing Hemiarthroplasty in the Surgical Treatment of Hallux Rigidus: A Retrospective Study and Mid- to Long-Term Follow-up.

Foot Ankle Spec 2018 Feb 1;11(1):22-31. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Medical School, Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey (MUM).

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid- to long-term outcomes of metatarsal head resurfacing hemiarthroplasty in the surgical treatment of advanced-stage hallux rigidus.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 57 consecutive patients (25 [43.9%] males, 32 [56.1%] females; mean age, 61.0 ± 6.4 years) who underwent first metatarsal head resurfacing hemiarthroplasty (HemiCAP) for hallux rigidus between August 2007 and September 2010. Sixty-five implantations were performed in 57 patients; 8 patients underwent bilateral procedures. All patients were clinically rated prior to surgery and at the final follow-up visit using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale and first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion (MTPJ ROM).

Results: The median follow-up duration was 81 (range = 8-98) months. The median preoperative AOFAS score was 34 (range = 22-59) points, which had increased to 83 (range = 26-97) points at the final follow-up visit (P < .001). The median preoperative first MTPJ ROM was 25° (range = 15° to 40°), which had increased to 75° (range = 30° to 85°) at the final follow-up visit (P < .001).

Conclusions: First MTPJ hemiarthroplasty is an effective treatment method that recovers toe function and first MTPJ ROM, and provides good mid- to long-term functional outcomes.

Levels Of Evidence: Level IV: Retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640017695864DOI Listing
February 2018

Paper #44: Pull-Out of the Upper Thoracic Pedicle Screws Can Cause Spinal Canal Encroachment in Growing Rod Treatment.

Spine Deform 2017 Nov;5(6):463-464

The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of spinal canal encroachment of pedicle screw in proximal anchor of GR construct and determine risk factors using a single-center cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2017.09.047DOI Listing
November 2017

Graduation Protocol After Growing-Rod Treatment: Removal of Implants without New Instrumentation Is Not a Realistic Approach.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2017 Sep;99(18):1554-1564

1Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey 2University Orthopaedics, Hawthorne, New York.

Background: The growing rod remains an effective option in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis, and has previously been likened to an internal brace. While details of growing-rod treatment have been largely agreed on, the appropriate end point remains a matter of controversy. A decision was made in 2004, at the beginning of growing-rod treatment at our institution, to remove longitudinal instrumentation when the period of lengthening concluded and, similar to discontinuing a brace, leave the spine free.

Methods: From 2004, patients managed with a growing rod who were ≤10 years old at the time of the index surgery and had no previous surgery were enrolled in the prospective treatment pathway. For this report, the inclusion criteria were complete records and radiographs; regular lengthenings; no complications defined as SV (severity grade) IIA, IIB, III, or IV; and a minimum follow-up of 2 years after reaching the age of 14 years. At the age of 14 years, the patients were reevaluated and 1 of 3 treatments was undertaken. In Group 1, which included patients with adequate correction and no requirement for extension of fusion, the growing rods were removed. In Group 2, which included patients with inadequate correction and/or interval changes, the growing rods were removed and instrumented fusion was performed. In Group 3, which included patients with a Risser sign of 0 or who were otherwise immature, lengthening was continued.

Results: Twenty-six patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at the time of the index operation was 82.6 months. There were 10 patients in Group 1, 9 patients in Group 2, and 7 patients in Group 3. Of the 10 patients whose rods were removed without additional instrumentation, 9 had clinically important worsening of the deformity and required reimplantation with fusion.

Conclusions: Despite the initial intention to remove the implants, allow the spine to regain motion, and observe patients when they turned 14, the results of this report reveal that only 10 of the initially included 26 patients met the criteria to do so. In 9 of these patients, the deformity worsened after removal, confirming that prolonged growing-rod treatment does not necessarily result in spontaneous, reliable fusion. Removal of spinal implants without new instrumentation is not a realistic graduation protocol following growing-rod treatment, and implants should be retained, or if extension is required, another procedure should be undertaken.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.00031DOI Listing
September 2017

Anterior and Posterior Vertebral Column Resection Versus Posterior-only Technique: A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes and Complications in Congenital Kyphoscoliosis.

Clin Spine Surg 2017 Aug;30(7):285-290

*Hacettepe University Hospitals, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey †Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the anterior-posterior surgery to posterior-only vertebra resection for congenital kyphoscoliosis in pediatric patients.

Summary Of Background Data: Vertebral column resection is a very powerful correction technique mainly used in the treatment of severe and rigid spinal deformities. The technique can be applied with combined anterior and posterior vertebral column resection (APVCR) or posterior-only vertebral column resection (PVCR) approaches. PVCR has gained popularity recently due to several apparent advantages, but APVCR is still believed by some to be a viable alternative, despite the use of an anterior exposure.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective chart and radiographic review was performed including the patients with congenital kyphoscoliosis up to 16 years of age who were operated on by a single senior surgeon in our department after 2005. The data included surgical time, estimated blood loss, duration of hospital and postoperative intensive care unit stay, intraoperative and postoperative complications. Preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up radiographs were evaluated for scoliosis, kyphosis, and spinal balance.

Results: Twenty-six patients (20 girls, 6 boys) met the inclusion criteria. APVCR was performed on 17 (median age, 13.2 y) and PVCR on 9 (median age, 10.7 y). Scoliosis correction at the time of last follow-up was 54.3% and 52.6% for APVCR and PVCR, respectively, whereas the average kyphosis correction was 25.4 degrees in APVCR and 30.1 degrees in PVCR group. Surgical time, hospital stay, and estimated blood loss were all significantly higher in the APVCR group, whereas the complication rates were similar. No neurological or vascular complications were encountered.

Conclusions: This study showed that although the operative time and surgical blood loss were higher with APVCR, there were no major complications and the radiologic outcomes were similar between APVCR and PVCR. APVCR should be considered as an acceptable technique especially in deformities where PVCR would be technically difficult or at the beginning of the spine surgeon's learning curve.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000000348DOI Listing
August 2017

Titanium mesh cage as an alternative reconstruction method for epiphyseal-sparing tumour resections in children.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2018 Jul;27(4):350-355

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine.

In this study, we introduced an alternative reconstruction option for epiphysis-sparing tumour resection in children. Eight patients with a malignant tumour in the diaphysis or metaphysis-diaphysis junction of a long bone underwent epiphysis-sparing intercalary resection. Reconstruction was performed using a titanium mesh cage filled with impacted cancellous bone allograft and autograft. A plate and screws were used to supplement the fixation. At the last follow-up, union was achieved in seven patients. Limb-length discrepancy occurred in three patients. Functional scores revealed a good functional outcome. This technique may be an alternative method for epiphyseal-sparing tumour resections in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPB.0000000000000482DOI Listing
July 2018

Modular cementless prosthetic reconstruction after resection of lower extremity malignant tumor.

Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2016 Dec 10;50(6):674-680. Epub 2016 Dec 10.

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Introduction: The aim of the study is to report the preliminary clinical and functional outcomes of a modular cementless tumor resection prosthesis system (Megasystem-C, Waldemar Link GmbH&Co. KG, Hamburg, Germany) in patients undergoing limb salvage surgery with wide resection in a lower extremity primary or metastatic malignant bone tumor.

Material And Methods: Fifty-two consecutive patients (33 male and 19 female; mean age 37.1 years (range, 16 to 79) with primary or metastatic lower extremity malignant bone tumor who underwent wide resection and reconstruction with cementless Megasystem-C system were included in the study. Patients were analyzed for age at diagnosis, gender, type and localization of the tumor, time of follow-up, patient and prosthesis survival, complications, oncological and functional outcomes.

Results: Mean follow-up time was 43.2 months (range, 8 to 66). Cumulative patient survival rate was 92.3 percent and cumulative prosthetic survival rate was 65.4 percent. 18 complications were recorded and 9 of them required revision (17.3 percent). Mean overall Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score score was 72.7 percent (range, 52 to 86). Subgroup analyzes demonstrated no difference in complication rates, overall patient or prosthetic survivals. Functional scores according to age, diagnosis and location of the reconstruction also were not significantly different.

Conclusion: The preliminary short-term follow-up results revealed that, the new generation modular cementless endoprosthetic system offers promising clinical and functional outcomes with reasonable complication rates.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, Therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aott.2016.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197450PMC
December 2016

Reconstruction of periacetabular tumours with saddle prosthesis or custom-made prosthesis, functional results and complications.

Hip Int 2016 Mar 23;26(2):e14-8. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara - Turkey.

Reconstruction after resection of pelvic tumours is a major challenge. We report the outcomes and complications of 7 patients who underwent limb salvage following type II or type II, III pelvic resection and reconstruction using a saddle prosthesis or custom-made hemipelvic prosthesis. In our opinion, reconstruction using custom-made prostheses is better than placement of saddle prostheses because of a lower risk of complications and improved functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/hipint.5000306DOI Listing
March 2016

Convex Instrumented Hemiepiphysiodesis With Concave Distraction: A Treatment Option for Long Sweeping Congenital Curves.

J Pediatr Orthop 2016 Apr-May;36(3):226-31

*Hacettepe University Hospitals, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara ‡Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Acibadem University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey †Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Convex hemiepiphysiodesis has been reported to have mixed results in the treatment of congenital spine deformities. Multiple modifications of the original technique were suggested to improve the results. The purpose of this study is to report the results and complications of an instrumented convex growth arrest procedure modified with concave distraction.

Methods: The records of 11 patients with long sweeping congenital curves (involving multiple anomalous vertebrae) who underwent convex instrumented hemiepiphysiodesis with concave distraction were evaluated. Mean age at index operation was 58 months (range, 29 to 101 mo). Lengthening of the concave distraction rod was done every 6 months. The magnitude of coronal/sagittal deformity and T1-T12 height were measured on the preoperative, postoperative, and latest follow-up radiographs. Average follow-up was 44.9 months (range, 24 to 89 mo).

Results: In the coronal plane, the convex hemiepiphysiodesis segment was corrected from an average of 60.5 to 40.4 degrees postoperatively and further improved to 35.5 degrees at the latest follow-up. The distracted segment was corrected from 33.4 to 15.2 degrees postoperatively and to 12.7 degrees at the latest follow-up. Sagittal plane alignment was minimally affected. The average T1-T12 height was 157.1 mm in the early postoperative period and 181.1 mm at last follow-up. During follow-up, we identified partial pull-out of screws on the distraction side in 5 of the 11 patients and rod breakages in 3 patients. These were revised during planned lengthenings. There were no unplanned surgeries, deep wound infections, nor neurological complications.

Conclusions: Convex instrumented hemiepiphysiodesis with concave distraction resulted in good curve correction while maintaining the growth of thorax. The correction of the anomalous segment improved over time, proving the effectiveness of the hemiepiphysiodesis. Addition of a concave distraction construct appears to enhance spinal growth, thereby augmenting the hemiepiphysiodesis effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000441DOI Listing
November 2016

Iliac bone cysts adjacent to the sacroiliac joint: an unusual cause of sacroiliac pain.

Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2014 ;48(5):495-9

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe cystic bone lesions involving the sacroiliac region of the iliac bone as a rare cause of sacroiliac joint-related pain.

Methods: The study included 9 patients with benign cystic bone lesion in Zone 1 according to Enneking and Dunham with a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Detailed radiological examination was performed using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Extended curettage, adjuvant treatment with phenol and thermal cauterization and bone grafting with auto/allografts were performed. Patients were analyzed for age of onset, side of involvement, clinical and radiological findings, tumor stage, complications and clinical/radiological findings at the final follow-up.

Results: Female to male ratio was 4 to 5. Average age at the time of diagnosis was 40.3 (range: 27 to 54) years. Average diameter of the lesion was 6.6 (range: 4 to 11) cm. Superficial infection was detected in one patient and hypoesthesia around the site of incision in two. Clinical improvement in pain and limp was reported in all patients. No radiological recurrence was detected after an average follow-up time of 30.7 (range: 21 to 40) months.

Conclusion: Benign tumor-like cystic lesions should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of sacroiliac joint-related pain. Such lesions can be safely and effectively managed with intralesional curettage, local adjuvant methods and bone grafting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3944/AOTT.2014.14.0039DOI Listing
August 2015

Two-staged revision with custom made prosthesis in septic failure of massive allograft reconstruction after type II-III pelvic resection.

Eklem Hastalik Cerrahisi 2014 ;25(3):182-5

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Dr. Sami Ulus Training and Research Hospital, 06080 Altındağ, Ankara, Turkey.

Reconstruction of defects occurring during periacetabular resections of pelvic tumors is required particularly in young and functionally active persons. Allograft reconstruction provides good functional outcomes in restoration of normal pelvic anatomy. A 24-year-old male patient was reconstructed with an allograft-prosthesis composite after periacetabular resection due to pelvic chondrosarcoma. After four years, a two-staged revision with a custom-made pelvic prosthesis was performed due to septic failure. Successful radiographic and functional outcomes were achieved at two-year follow-up. In conclusion, we suggest a two-staged revision with a custom-made pelvic prosthesis as a satisfactory option in case of septic failure of allograft reconstruction after periacetabular resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5606/ehc.2014.39DOI Listing
February 2016

Intralesional curettage and cementation for low-grade chondrosarcoma of long bones: retrospective study and literature review.

World J Surg Oncol 2014 Nov 10;12:336. Epub 2014 Nov 10.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey.

Background: Various treatment strategies for low-grade chondrosarcomas with variable outcomes have been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the oncological and functional outcomes associated with intralesional curettage followed by adjuvant therapy comprising high-speed burring, thermal cauterization, and bone cementation with polymethylmethacrylate.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 21 consecutive patients with intramedullary low-grade chondrosarcoma of long bones treated by intralesional curettage and adjuvant therapy comprising high-speed burring, thermal cauterization, and cementation at our institution from 2007 to 2012.

Results: The average age of the patients was 48.7 (range, 18-71) years. There were 7 male and 14 female patients. The mean follow-up period was 58.4 (range, 26-85) months after surgery. The treated lesions were located in the proximal humerus (n=10), proximal tibia (n=6), and distal femur (n=5). At the average follow-up time point of 58.4 (range, 26-85) months, no patient had developed local recurrence and no distant metastases were observed. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score among all 21 patients was 95% (84-100).

Conclusions: The combination of intralesional curettage, application of high-speed burring, thermal cauterization, and cementation is an effective treatment strategy for low-grade intramedullary chondrosarcoma of long bones. Excellent oncological and functional results can be obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-12-336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246483PMC
November 2014

Evaluation of vacuum-assisted closure in patients with wound complications following tumour surgery.

Int Wound J 2016 Jun 26;13(3):394-7. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Covering the reconstructed area with a healthy soft-tissue envelope is a major challenge after limb-sparing surgery in patients with malignant bone and soft-tissue tumours. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) of open wounds hastens healing and minimises the requirement for complex reconstructive soft-tissue surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of NPWT in bone and soft-tissue malignant tumour patients with postoperative wound complications. Between January 2006 and November 2009, at a single institution, 13 patients with malignant bone and soft-tissue tumours who had undergone wide resection were retrospectively analysed. NPWT was performed in all patients to temporarily close the soft-tissue defects. After obtaining the culture negativity and normal infection markers, definitive soft-tissue reconstruction was performed to close the wound with primary suturisation in two patients, split thickness grafts in four patients, full thickness grafts in two patients, rotational flaps in three patients and free flaps in two patients. Mean duration of hospitalisation was 20 (range 8-48) days and mean follow-up period was 57·3 (range 50-74) months. There was no tumour recurrence or skip metastasis in the follow-up period. In addition, there was no periprosthetic infection or complication associated with NPWT. In conclusion, NPWT therapy seems to be a safe and effective option in the management of local wound problems and secondary surgical site infections after musculoskeletal tumour surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iwj.12318DOI Listing
June 2016

Serial derotational casting in congenital scoliosis as a time-buying strategy.

J Pediatr Orthop 2015 Jan;35(1):43-9

*Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine †Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Dr Sami Ulus Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey ‡Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Serial casting is an effective treatment modality in early-onset idiopathic scoliosis; however, the role of this method in congenital scoliosis is not well studied.

Methods: A total of 11 patients with progressive congenital scoliosis were treated with serial cast application. Age at initial cast application, magnitudes of the congenital, compensatory and sagittal deformities, coronal balance, T1 to T12 height, number of casts and time-in cast per patient, subsequent surgical interventions, and complications were evaluated.

Results: Mean age at the first cast application was 40 months, and the average number of cast changes was 6.2 per patient. There were no major complications. The average precasting curve magnitude was 70.7 degrees (range, 44 to 88 degrees) and was significantly reduced to 55.1 degrees (range, 16 to 78 degrees) at the latest follow-up (P=0.005). The average precasting compensatory curve was 55.8 degrees (range, 38 to 72 degrees) and was significantly reduced to 39.8 degrees (range, 23 to 62 degrees) at the latest follow-up (P=0.017). Average T1 to 12 height increased from 12.8 cm at post-first cast to a 14.6 cm at the latest follow-up (P=0.04). Average time in cast was 26.3 months (range, 13 to 49 mo). During the treatment period, none of the patients required surgery for curve progression.

Conclusions: Serial derotational casting is a safe and effective time-buying strategy to delay the surgical interventions in congenital deformities in the short-term follow-up.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000229DOI Listing
January 2015

[Treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures using combined pedicle screw-laminar hook fixation].

Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2014 ;48(2):152-6

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Acıbadem University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term outcome of pedicle screw-laminar hook (PS-LH) fixation in the surgical treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures.

Methods: Nineteen patients (12 male, 7 female; mean age: 34.4 years, range: 19 to 57 years) with thoracolumbar burst fractures treated using PS-LH between 1996 and 2006 were evaluated. The 17 patients (11 male, 6 female) who had a minimum of 2 years follow-up were included in the study. Radiographic outcome was evaluated by measuring the local kyphosis angle (LKA) and anterior vertebral height (AVH). Mean follow-up was 81 (range: 38 to 122) months and 15 patients completed more than 5 years of follow-up.

Results: Preoperative vertebral height loss and LKA of 41.2% (range: 29% to 64%) and 16.8° (range: 5° to 36°), respectively, were corrected to 16.3% (range: 0% to 44%) and -1.2° (range: -17° to 10°), respectively, after the operation. Mean losses of correction for vertebral height and local kyphosis were 1.8 ± 7.9% and 4.3 ± 7.1 degrees, respectively, at the 2-year follow-up and -1.8 ± 4.5% and 0.5 ± 1.5 degrees, respectively, between 2 years and 5 years. Loss of correction was significant for the LKA (p=0.023) but not for vertebral height (p=0.360). Five patients had losses of correction of more than 5 degrees. Changes between 2 and 5 years were not significant for vertebral height loss and local kyphosis (p=0.147 and p=0.205, respectively) and remained improved when compared with the preoperative values (p<0.001). Average SF-36 scores of the 15 patients evaluated at the final follow-up were comparable with the general Turkish population.

Conclusion: The PS-LH construct provided a significant correction of the local kyphotic deformity. Augmentation of the upper and lower pedicle screw by the sublaminar hook did not completely prevent correction loss but was found to stabilize at the 5th year of follow-up without any clinical problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3944/AOTT.2014.3201DOI Listing
December 2014

Long-term results of reconstruction with pelvic allografts after wide resection of pelvic sarcomas.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 27;2014:605019. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, 06100 Ankara, Turkey.

Reconstruction after the resection of a pelvic tumor is a challenging procedure in orthopedic oncology. The main advantage of allograft reconstruction is restoration of the bony architecture of the complex pelvic region. However, high complication rates such as infection and allograft resorption had been reported in the literature. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively review nine patients treated with pelvic resection and structural pelvic allograft reconstruction. Functional results, complications, and survival of the patients and the allografts were evaluated. At a mean follow-up of 79 months, three patients were dead. Major complications were detected in eight of the nine patients. Infection (four of the nine patients) and allograft resorption (three of the nine patients) were the most common causes of failure. The cumulative survival of the patients was 66.7 percent at 70 months. However, allograft survival was only 26.7 percent at 60 months. Mean MSTS score was 69. In conclusion, we suggest that other reconstruction options should be preferred after pelvic resections because of the high complication rates associated with massive allograft reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/605019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3925599PMC
March 2015

Safety and efficacy of instrumented convex growth arrest in treatment of congenital scoliosis.

J Pediatr Orthop 2014 Apr-May;34(3):275-81

*Hacettepe University Hospitals, Hacettepe University Medical School §Ankara Spine Center †Silvan Government Hospital, Diyarbakir ‡Kent Hospital, Izmir ∥Bilim University Hospital, University Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Anterior and posterior convex hemiepiphysiodesis is a widely used surgical alternative in the treatment of congenital scoliosis. This procedure has the disadvantage of the need for both anterior and posterior approaches. Furthermore, outcomes may be unpredictable. Posterior convex growth arrest (CGA) with pedicle screws at each segment on the convex side may obviate the need for anterior surgery and provides more predictable outcomes. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of instrumented posterior CGA in congenital scoliosis.

Methods: Patients who had posterior CGA with convex pedicle screw instrumentation for congenital scoliosis were evaluated retrospectively. Thirteen patients (6 male, 7 female) were included in the study. Preoperative, early postoperative, and last follow-up standing posteroanterior and lateral x-rays were evaluated. Cobb angles were recorded for the instrumented segment (main curve). Global thoracic kyphosis was measured between T2 and T12 on sagittal plane. These values were compared preoperatively, postoperatively, and at last follow-up. The T1-S1 vertical height and the height between the concave side pedicles of the upper and lower end vertebra of the main curve was also determined and recorded as the concave height.

Results: The average follow-up was 56.1±10 months (range, 36 to 74 mo) and the average age of the patients at the time of operation was 64.5±30.1 months (range, 15 to 108 mo). All patients were Risser zero at the time of surgery. The average curve magnitude was 49±10.9 degrees (range, 34 to 68 degrees) preoperatively, 38.3±9.7 degrees (range, 28 to 58 degrees) early postoperatively, and 33.5±12.4 degrees (16 to 52 degrees) at last follow-up. There was a significant difference between the preoperative and early postoperative main curve Cobb angle measurements (P=0.001). The average concave height was 94.2±20.2 mm in the early postoperative period and 104.7±21.7 mm at last follow-up (P=0.003). The average T1-S1 height was 292.1±67.1 mm in the early postoperative period and 363.9±94.5 mm at last follow-up (P=0.005). There was at least ≥5 degrees improvement in 9 of the 12 patients in the follow-up period after the index procedure. In 3 patients, the curve did not change and the correction was maintained. Curve progression was observed in 1 patient due to a technical error. There were no wound infections or instrumentation failures during follow-up.

Conclusions: Instrumented CGA can safely be used in long sweeping curves of immature spines. Using this technique; thoracotomy, anterior procedure, and 2-stage surgery can be avoided. Moreover, it guarantees some degree of correction in all patients because of the instrumentation effect, eliminating the unpredictable nature of classic CGA.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic level IV study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000090DOI Listing
May 2015

Effects of the fusionless instrumentation on the disks and facet joints of the unfused segments: a pig model.

J Pediatr Orthop 2014 Mar;34(2):185-93

Departments of *Orthopaedics †Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara ‡Experimental Research and Application Center, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Background: Growing rod (GR) is a state-of-the-art procedure favored when curvatures of the spine cannot be managed nonoperatively in early-onset scoliosis. Although some postulate that multiple distractions and/or relative immobilization of the unfused segments affect the health of disk and facet joint (FJ) and cause degeneration and/or spontaneous fusion, this has not thoroughly been investigated. In this study, changes in the unfused segment after a spine-based fusionless instrumentation (SBFI) are investigated and compared with the control (CG) and instrumented fusion (IF) groups.

Methods: A total of 13 piglets, 10 to 14 weeks of age, were used. SBFI and IF were performed on 7 and 3 piglets, respectively, and 3 formed the CG. In SBFI, lengthening procedures of 5 mm were applied once monthly for 3 months, and, after 4 months, all piglets were euthanized. Histologic sections of the unfused disks and FJ were analyzed, and morphometric histologic analysis was performed.

Results: On the basis of the Gries criteria, unfused disk median grades were 1, 2, and 4 for control, SBFI, and IF, respectively, that revealed a statistical difference (P<0.001). Unfused FJ median grades were 1 and 2 for control and SBFI, respectively, that revealed a statistical difference (P<0.001). The mean hypertrophic zone (HZ) heights were 69.78, 84.20, and 66.14 μm; HZ chondrocyte cell widths were 19.03, 18.76, and 17.36 μm; and HZ chondrocyte cell heights were 15.01, 15.04, and 12.42 μm in the CG, SBFI, and IF groups, respectively. Statistically, for HZ heights, SBFI was different compared with CG and IF (P<0.001), and, for HZ chondrocyte cell widths and heights, IF was different compared with CG and SBFI (P<0.001).

Conclusions: Morphometric analysis in this study supports the findings that SBFI preserves the growth potential of the spine. Furthermore, changes in the HZ heights show that distractive forces stimulate the apophyseal growth of the axial skeleton describing how the growth rate of the spine in GR might surpass the normal growth rate. Overall, although some degenerative changes are observed, SBFI and repeated distractions alone are not solely responsible for FJ arthrosis and disk degeneration, given that they are structurally preserved.

Clinical Relevance: GR and regular lengthening procedures do not impair disk health and preserve the growth potential of the spine if it is applied with a meticulous technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0b013e3182972404DOI Listing
March 2014

Posterior all-pedicle screw instrumentation combined with multiple chevron and concave rib osteotomies in the treatment of adolescent congenital kyphoscoliosis.

Spine J 2014 Jan 4;14(1):11-9. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University, Hacettepe Hastaneleri, 06100 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background Context: Congenital kyphoscoliosis is a disorder that often requires surgical treatment. Although many methods of surgical treatment exist, posterior-only vertebral column resection with instrumentation and fusion seem to have become the gold standard for very severe and very rigid curves. Multiple chevron and concave rib osteotomies have been previously reported to be effective in the treatment of neglected severe idiopathic curves. We hypothesized that this method may also be used successfully in the treatment of congenital kyphoscoliosis.

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of multiple chevron osteotomies combined with concave rib osteotomy and posterior pedicle screw instrumentation.

Study Design: Retrospective chart review in the spine service of a large university hospital.

Patient Sample: Adolescent patients undergoing a specific surgical treatment for the indication of rigid congenital kyphoscoliotic deformity.

Outcome Measures: Radiographic images were used for the measurement of deformity correction. The Turkish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22) Patient Questionnaire has been used as a clinical outcome measure in the patient population.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed. Patients admitted to Hacettepe Hospital Spine Center during the period of 2005 to 2009 were included. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: adolescent age group (10-16 years); congenital kyphoscoliosis; formation and/or segmentation defect of at least two vertebral motion segments; surgical treatment of deformity by posterior all-pedicle screw instrumentation, multiple chevron osteotomies, and multiple concave rib osteotomies; follow-up of at least 24 months; and a complete set of preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up standing posteroanterior and lateral full spinal radiographs. The patients' hospital records and X-rays were reviewed. Duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative transfusion requirements, postoperative stay in postanesthesia care unit (PACU), time of hospitalization, and complications were recorded. Deformity in both coronal and sagittal planes was analyzed for correction and maintenance of the correction in preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up radiographs. Patients' health-related quality of life was assessed using the SRS-22 questionnaire at the final follow-up.

Results: Eighteen patients met the inclusion criteria. Their average age was 13.6 years (range, 11-16 years). Chevron osteotomies were performed at apical segments (three to seven levels) and concave rib osteotomies at Cobb-to-Cobb (five to eight levels). No patient had preoperative cord compression because of the sharply angulated deformity or neurologic deficit. The average preoperative scoliosis was 66.0° (range, 31°-116°), 52.4° (range, 22°-85°) on flexibility X-rays, and became 24.9° (range, 12°-52°) postoperatively. The average preoperative global kyphosis (T2-T12) of 75.9° (range, 50°-106°) became 49.5° (range, 18°-66°). The average preoperative local kyphosis of 71.9° (range, 35°-114°) became 31.4° (range, -44° to 64°). The average intraoperative bleeding was 989 cc, surgical time was 292 minutes, and intraoperative transfusion was 2.3 units. The maximum PACU stay was overnight. There were no neurologic complications except one pneumothorax and one pneumonia. The average follow-up was 34.3 months. At follow-up, average scoliosis was 27.5° (range, 10°-50°), global kyphosis was 50.3° (range, 28°-73°), and local kyphosis was 36.9°(range, -36° to 58°). Performed on the last follow-up, the average scores for the five domains of SRS-22 were 4.3, 4.4, 4.2, 4.1, and 4.8 for function, pain, self-image, mental health, satisfaction, and total, respectively.

Conclusions: Multiple chevron and concave rib osteotomies with posterior instrumentation provide an acceptable rate of deformity correction and maintenance of correction at 2 years with acceptable intraoperative bleeding, surgical time, postoperative morbidity, and rate of complications. It can be considered as an alternative in the treatment of rigid congenital curves involving more than three levels or multiple curves separated by at least two segments that would otherwise require multiple vertebral resections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2012.10.016DOI Listing
January 2014

Long-segment posterior instrumentation and fusion with freeze-dried allograft in congenital scoliosis.

Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2012 ;46(4):275-80

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of long-segment posterior instrumentation and allograft application in obtaining fusion in congenital scoliosis.

Methods: Twenty-one patients with congenital scoliosis who were treated with long-segment posterior instrumentation (>6 levels) and freeze-dried allograft and followed up for more than 24 months were reviewed. Six patients were excluded from the study due to anterior procedures. Fifteen patients with congenital scoliosis (13 females, 2 males; mean age: 12.2 ± 3 years, range: 7-17 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Mean follow-up time was 30.9 ± 9.4 (range: 24 to 48) months. Six patients had laminectomy either due to previous posterior surgeries or to address intraspinal pathologies during the posterior fusion procedure. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow-up anteroposterior and lateral spine X-rays were reviewed. Fusion was graded according to the classification reported by Bridwell et al.

Results: Two patients were graded as 'no fusion' (pseudarthrosis), four patients as 'probably fused', and nine patients as 'definitely fused'. The major curve was corrected from an average of 68 ± 18.6 to 39.3 ± 12.2 degrees (p<0.001). Mean correction lost in the major curve was an average of 4.5 ± 5.2 degrees in the latest follow-up. There was significant correction in the compensatory curve (preoperative 37.9 ± 13.2 degrees, postoperative 20.2 ± 6.6 degrees; p=0.001). Preoperative and postoperative global thoracic kyphosis were 39.5 ± 13.3 and 32.3 ± 7.9 degrees, respectively (p=0.018). Preoperative and postoperative global lumbar lordosis was 36.3 ± 7.4 and 36.1 ± 8.9 degrees, respectively (p=0.883). Successful fusion was detected in %86.7 of patients in the final follow-up.

Conclusion: The usage of allograft alone to achieve fusion increases the rates of pseudarthrosis while additional anterior procedure decreases the pseudarthrosis rate in patients with congenital scoliosis that require long-segment posterior instrumentation. Further studies should be performed to assess the efficacy of the usage of polysegment pedicle screw instrumentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3944/aott.2012.2776DOI Listing
January 2013

Is expansion thoracoplasty a safe procedure for mobility and growth potential of the spine? Spontaneous fusion after multiple chest distractions in young children.

J Pediatr Orthop 2012 Jul-Aug;32(5):483-9

Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Expansion thoracoplasty (ET) is claimed to be a spine-sparing procedure because of the fact that the spine is not exposed directly and intervention toward the spinal column is not performed. It is also recommended in cases of primary spine deformities without rib fusion/aplasia and when the primary problem is not in the thorax itself. The aim of this study was to report spontaneous spinal fusion after multiple thoracic distractions in patients with congenital thoracospinal deformities who have undergone ET in early childhood.

Methods: In our clinic, between May 2003 and March 2010, ET treatment was started in 11 patients who had congenital spinal deformity along with thoracic asymmetry due to fused ribs. The lengthening procedures for 6 of them are still ongoing. This study includes 5 of these patients who had undergone 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scans. Four of these patients underwent a CT scan as part of the graduation protocol and 1 was ordered a 3D-CT because a newly formed bony fusion of the ribs was observed in a lengthening procedure.

Results: The mean age of the patients (4 F, 1 M) was 4.2 years (range, 2 to 8 y) at the time of the index operation. The mean number of lengthening procedures was 9.4 (range, 7 to 13). The mean follow-up period was 73 months (range, 60 to 96 mo). All 5 patients in the latest follow-up were evaluated by x-ray and 3D-CT scans of the whole spine. The CT scans confirmed spontaneous spinal fusion in the thoracic spine.

Conclusions: We speculate that distraction-based, growth-friendly instrumentations are not risk-free for spinal health and motion, even when the instrumentation is not primarily on the spine.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0b013e318257d3a9DOI Listing
November 2012

The effect of pedicle screw insertion at a young age on pedicle and canal development.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2012 Sep;37(20):1778-84

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.

Study Design: A longitudinal case study.

Objective: To determine whether pedicle screws placed in an immature spine exert effect on the continued growth of the vertebral body.

Summary Of Background Data: Pedicle screws have revolutionized surgical treatment of spinal deformities by allowing a mode of secure fixation that provides consistently better correction rates in adults and adolescents. In the young child, however, the trajectory of pedicle screws takes them through an open physis: the neurocentral cartilage. There exists little information regarding the possible effect of pedicle screws inserted at a young age on further development of the spine and the spinal canal.

Methods: Patients undergoing pedicle screw instrumentation of at least 2 levels before the age of 5 years (60 mo) for the first time for any diagnosis and who had been followed for at least 24 months were included. Measurements were performed in instrumented and adjacent noninstrumented levels without visible deformity in pre- and postoperative cross-sectional images and compared using statistical methods.

Results: Ninety segments in 15 patients met the inclusion criteria (average age at instrumentation 46.3 mo [range, 29-60 mo]). Forty segments had no screws and 50 had at least 1 screw. Pedicle length and vertebral body diameter had significantly increased in both groups, whereas spinal canal parameters did not change significantly. No significant difference was observed between the growth rates in levels with or without screws in pedicle length, vertebral body diameter, or spinal canal parameters (anterior-posterior and interpedicular diameters, and area).

Conclusion: Pedicle screw instrumentation performed before the age of 5 years does not cause a negative effect on the growth of pedicles, the transverse plane of the vertebral body, or the spinal canal. It can be safely performed in the treatment of deformity in this age group.
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September 2012

Simultaneous forequarter amputation and radical mastectomy for metastatic breast carcinoma in a male patient: a case report.

J Korean Surg Soc 2011 Dec 25;81 Suppl 1:S6-S11. Epub 2011 Nov 25.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Although the majority of forequarter amputations are performed for high-grade bone and soft tissue sarcomas or extensive osteomyelitis of the upper extremity, this radical operation may also be indicated for the curative treatment of recurrent breast cancer and for the palliation of locally advanced breast cancer. We report a male patient with metastatic breast adenocarcinoma who underwent simultaneous mastectomy and forequarter amputation for the management of both his primary and metastatic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/jkss.2011.81.Suppl1.S6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267069PMC
December 2011

Bilateral triradiate cartilage injury: an overuse syndrome in an adolescent football player.

Skeletal Radiol 2012 Mar 14;41(3):353-5. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

The triradiate cartilage is not a recognized site for an overuse injury. We present here X-ray and MRI findings of a young athlete with chronic right-sided hip pain that proved to be secondary to triradiate cartilage overuse injury. MRI also revealed similar but milder findings on the left side. Distal radial and proximal humeral epiphyses, iliac bone, tibial tubercle, calcaneal and proximal 5th metatarsal apophyses are common sites of overuse injuries in the skeletally immature athletes. Radiological findings may resemble a Salter-Harris type I injury, but an insidious onset of the symptoms, absence of acute trauma, and bilaterality of MRI findings may help differentiate these entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-011-1335-8DOI Listing
March 2012

Long-term outcome and quality of life of patients with unstable pelvic fractures treated by closed reduction and percutaneous fixation.

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2011 May;17(3):261-6

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Treatment of unstable pelvic fractures has evolved recently, and percutaneous treatment has become the choice of treatment in most cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of percutaneous treatment in patients with unstable pelvic fractures.

Methods: Twenty patients (11 females, 9 males; mean age, 32 years, range, 11-66 years) who had unstable pelvic fractures and were treated percutaneously were enrolled in the study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores, Majeed scores, Iowa Pelvic Scores, and Pelvic Outcome Scores were determined for the outcome assessment.

Results: The minimum duration of follow-up was 2 years, (range, 24-48 months). The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 31 (range, 16-50). The average SF-36 scores were comparable with the general population in terms of bodily pain, general health and social function. The mean Majeed functional pelvic score was 93.3 (range, 72-100; 19 excellent and 1 good clinical grades) and the mean Iowa Pelvic Score was 86 (range, 82-90). The mean Pelvic Outcome Score was 33 (range, 24-37; maximum score, 40).

Conclusion: We have demonstrated better outcomes in patients with pelvic fractures treated with percutaneous fixation. The technique may be advantageous as it avoids the use of extensive approaches, bleeding, wound complications, and prolonged surgeries.
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May 2011