Publications by authors named "Mehdi Sharif"

71 Publications

Global seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Camelidae: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Sari Medical School, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, 48168-95475, Iran.

Purpose: The present study aimed to analyze data available of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) among camelids around the world.

Methods: The search was performed using seven international databases including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and EMBASE up to 11 October 2018. Random effects model was used to determine the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii infection with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analyzed data from four continents. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were also performed according to continent and gender.

Results: In total, 42 studies out of 3517 published articles involving 14,542 camels from 17 countries were included for the final analyses. The global pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in the Camelidae family was 28.16% (95% CI 23.64-32.68%). Besides, the highest seroprevalence rate was in Europe (49.64%) followed by Africa (37.63%), America (21.76%), and Asia (17.58%). Moreover, the overall seroprevalence rates of T. gondii infection were 22% (95% CI 10-33%) and 15% (95% CI 9-22%) for the females and males, respectively.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in camelids as these animals play an important role in the transmission cycle of this zoonotic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-020-00333-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Phylogeography and Genetic Diversity of Human Hydatidosis in Bordering the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran by Focusing on Sensu Stricto Complex.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Sep;49(9):1758-1768

Department of Parasitology, Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Human a cyclo-zoonotic infection caused by tapeworms of the sensu stricto complex. The detection of mitochondrial genome data of genus can reflect the taxonomic status, genetic diversity, and population structure genetics.

Methods: Totally, 52 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from patients with histologically confirmed CE were collected from Mazandaran province, Iran in the period of Mar 1995 to May 2018. All extracted DNAs from (FFPE) tissue samples were subjected to amplify by polymerase chain reactions method targeting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 () gene. All PCR amplicons were sequenced to phylogenetic analysis and genetic diversity.

Results: Molecular analysis showed that 50(96.1%) and 2 (3.84%) isolates were identified as G1 andG3 genotypes, respectively. DNA sequence analyses indicated a high gene diversity for G1 (Haplotype diversity: 0.830) and G3 genotypes (Hd: 1.00). Based on multiple sequence alignment analyses, 7 (13.46%; G1 genotype) and 2 (3.84%; G3 genotype) new haplotypes were unequivocally identified.

Conclusion: G3 genotype (Buffalo strain) was identified from two human hydatidosis isolates in the region. Present study strengthens our knowledge about taxonomic status, transmission patterns of parasite to human and heterogeneity aspects of this parasite in clinical CE isolates of Northern Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49i9.4097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898111PMC
September 2020

Copro-molecular diagnosis of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily in dog and cat populations in northern Iran.

Epidemiol Health 2020 4;42:e2020074. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: The oocysts of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily (Neospora caninum, Hammondia hammondi and H. heydorni, and Besnoitia besnoiti) are morphologically similar to Toxoplasma gondii, and indistinguishable from each other. This study investigated the prevalence of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily in dog and cat fecal samples using a nested polymerase chain reaction method.

Methods: Overall, 200 fecal samples from domestic dogs (n=120) and cats (n=80) were collected from 15 farms in northern Iran. The samples were homogenized in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution and subsequently concentrated with sucrose solution. DNA was extracted from samples using a genomic DNA kit. Specific primers and the 18S rDNA gene were used to screen and detect all Toxoplasmatinae oocysts.

Results: Overall, 2.5% (3 of 120) and 22.5% (18 of 80) of the fecal samples collected from dogs and cats were infected with Toxoplasmatinae. In dogs, 2 samples were positive for N. caninum and 1 sample was positive for T. gondii. In cats, all 18 positive samples belonged to T. gondii. No contamination with H. heydorni was observed in dog fecal samples or H. hammondi and B. besnoiti in cat fecal samples. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the T. gondii (cat) and N. caninum (dog) found had similarities with parasites reported from other regions of the world.

Conclusions: This is the first study to provide data on the epidemiology of Toxoplasmatinae oocysts in Iran. The findings suggest that public-health monitoring for the effective control of feces from cats and dogs and improved pet hygiene habits are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020074DOI Listing
February 2021

Toxoplasmosis among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a population study based on the serological, molecular and epidemiological aspects.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2020 Oct 31. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Sari, Iran.

Background: Toxoplasmosis is highly prevalent in northern Iran and immunocompromised individuals are more susceptible to this infection. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, parasitism and genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii among patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy in northern Iran.

Methods: A total of 350 serum samples obtained from cancer patients were collected from laboratory centers in northern Iran. Immunodiagnosis and DNA detection were accomplished by ELISA and PCR. Thereafter, multiplex-nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for the genotyping of T. gondii.

Results: In general, out of 350 patients, 264 (75.4%) and 9 (2.57%) cases were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM, respectively. Moreover, 19 (5.43%) samples contained T. gondii DNA. From 19 positive samples, 10 high-quality samples with sharp and non-smear bands were selected to determine the genotypes of T. gondii. Accordingly, the samples were classified as genotype #1 (type II clonal; n=4, 40%), genotype #2 (type III clonal; n=3, 30%), genotype #10 (type I clonal; n=2, 20%) and genotype #27 (type I variant; n=1, 10%).

Conclusions: As evidenced by the results, due to the high prevalence of T. gondii, cancer patients in northern Iran are at serious risk of severe toxoplasmosis and its complications. Therefore, oncologists need to regard this critical health problem as a matter requiring urgent attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa112DOI Listing
October 2020

Relationship between toxoplasmosis and autism: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2020 Oct 8;147:104434. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a foodborne parasite that is investigated in many psychiatric diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, a systematic literature review was conducted searching seven electronic databases on the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies among autism patients. The current study involved sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, subgroup analysis, publication bias test, and quality assessment of studies. On the basis of the findings, the odds ratio (OR) of latent Toxoplasma infection 1.93 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.01-3.66) was associated with ASD risk. However, there was no relationship between acute infection and ASD 0.39 (95% CI: 0.18-0.87). The obtained results of Begg's and Egger's tests showed no publication bias (P = 0.851 and P = 0.297, respectively). The sensitivity analysis confirmed robust and stable estimates with a significant level of heterogeneity (I = 78.1%, P < 0.000). Of the investigated patients' characteristics, only the gender variable was analyzed, indicating the combined ORs of 2.63 (95% CI: 0.29-23.63) in females and 2.62 (95% CI: 0.94-7.30) in male participants. This study showed that toxoplasmosis plays an important role as a risk factor for autism. However, further prospective investigations are highly recommended to illuminate the developmental pathways to this disorder and provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104434DOI Listing
October 2020

Isolation and Genotypic Characterization of Based on GRA6 Gene from Environmental Soil Samples in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Apr-Jun;15(2):158-167

Toxoplasmosis Research Center (TRC), Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Soil is one of the environmental sources of oocysts. The other hand, genotype of the parasite is one of the important factors for its pathogenicity. Due to the importance of toxoplasmosis on public health, this study aimed to isolation and genotyping of in environmental soil samples of Mazandaran Province, north of Iran.

Methods: Overall, 192 soil samples were collected from different areas in Mazandaran Province from Apr to Sep 2014. The flotation method was used for recovering oocysts. Then, soil samples were investigated for DNA detection of using nested PCR of RE gene, genotyping with Semi-nested PCR of GRA6 gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results were analyzed using Chi-squared test. A significant difference was considered with a <0.05.

Results: From 192 soil samples, DNA was detected in 150 samples (78.1%). Then genotype of 23 samples was determined (91.3% type I and 8.7% type II).

Conclusion: Prevalence of in soil samples of Mazandaran province, north of Iran is high and GRA6 type I is predominant. Soil can be the most important source of severe toxoplasmosis in this province.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311813PMC
June 2020

High Parasitic Contamination of Soil Samples in the North of Iran: a Potential Risk of Parasitic Infection for Tourists.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran. Iran.

Background: Soil-transmitted parasites (STPs) are significant intestinal parasites that infect humans and animals and impose considerable burdens on human society and animal husbandry industries. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of parasitic elements of soil samples collected from the north of Iran.

Methods: A total of 256 soil samples were collected from public parks, public places, vegetable gardens, sand heaps, and shadow areas near houses in the north of Iran and examined using the sucrose flotation method.

Results: Out of 256 examined samples, 131 (51.2%) ones showed parasitic contamination including larvae (43%), oocysts (14.1%), and different eggs (6.6%). According to the results, the most and least common parasites observed in the samples were larvae (43%), as well as Toxascaris leonina, and Trichuris trichiura (0.4%), respectively. Moreover, the most and least contaminated locations were sand heaps (62.5%) and shadow areas near houses (45.6%), respectively. Regarding cities, Behshahr (68.3%) and Sari (67.5%) had the highest contaminated soil samples, whereas Chalus (37.5%) showed the lowest contamination. On the other hand, rural samples showed more contamination, compared to urban areas (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate that the overall prevalence of STPs in examined areas and highly contaminated soil samples can be considered as a potential source of human contamination particularly tourists with STPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200602150446DOI Listing
June 2020

The Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths in Free-Ranging Canids of Mazandaran, Northern Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Oct-Dec;14(4):563-571

Student Research Committee, Department of Parasitology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the current knowledge on the epidemiology of importance zoonotic parasitic diseases in free-ranging canids of Mazandaran, north of Iran.

Methods: Overall, 63 small intestinal samples of animals (20 stray dogs and 43 golden jackals) were collected from April 2017 to May 2018. The intestine contents were studied to detect and identify helminth infections. Additionally, 274 fecal samples (130 dogs, 35 fox, 90 golden jackal and 19 wolf) were examined by Sheather's flotation method for detection of eggs.

Results: Sixty (95.2%) animals were infected with at least one species of intestinal helminth. the intestinal helminths were found in dogs and golden jackals included: (25.3%), (52.3%), (41.2%), spp. (33.3%) and (14.2%). In fecal examination, 2.5% of samples contained eggs, and through a species-specific PCR, 1.09% of these samples were confirmed positive for .

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and clear risks of zoonotic helminths in free-ranging carnivores in Mazandaran province, north of Iran. Therefore, understanding the epidemiology of zoonotic parasite infection is useful for health care access both domestic animals and humans health.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028244PMC
February 2020

The global serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in felids during the last five decades (1967-2017): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Feb 17;13(1):82. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Felids (domestic and wild cats) are important in the epidemiology of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of T. gondii in species of the family Felidae.

Methods: We searched seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Proquest and Web of Science) for studies reporting seroprevalence of T. gondii in felids from 1967 to 31 December 2017. A total of 217 published papers, containing 223 datasets were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, comprised 59,517 domestic and 2733 wild cats from 1967 to 2017.

Results: The pooled global T. gondii seroprevalence was estimated to be 35% (95% CI: 32-38%) and 59% (95% CI: 56-63%) in domestic cats and wild felids, respectively, using random effects model. The seroprevalence was higher in Australia and Africa where the T. gondii seropositivity in domestic cats was 52% (95% CI: 15-89%) and 51% (95% CI: 20-81%), respectively. The lowest seroprevalence was estimated in Asia 27% (95% CI: 24-30%). The seroprevalence values for T. gondii in wild felids were 74% (95% CI: 62-83%) in Africa, 67% (95% CI: 23-111%) in Asia, 67% (95% CI: 58-75%) in Europe and 66% (95% CI: 41-91%) in South America.

Conclusions: Our study provides the global prevalence of T. gondii in species of the family Felidae and is a source of information to aid public health workers in developing prevention plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-3954-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026947PMC
February 2020

The Mixed AII and BIII Genotypes of Human Giardia lamblia Isolate Circulating in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(6):834-839

Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Giardiasis is one of the human parasitic diseases by a flagellate protozoan named Giardia lamblia. This parasite is one of the most common organisms causing diarrhea in humans and a common gastrointestinal parasite in vertebrates. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the molecular epidemiology of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) by PCR-RFLP method in the Mazandaran Province and to investigate the possible relationship between parasite genotype and clinical symptoms.

Methods: In this study, 50 stool samples were collected from human cases of G. lamblia. referred to health centers in Sari, Babol, Nowshahr cities. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration procedure. DNA extraction was carried out on samples containing adequate Giardia cysts, and then PCR-RFLP was done on glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) marker.

Results: In these patients, the most common signs were abdominal pain (42.9%), and diarrhea (47.6%); and least marked common sign was malaise (4.7%). Of all 21 isolates, 9 samples (42.8%) were found as genotype mixed AII and BIII, 6 samples (28.6%) belonged to genotype BIII and 6 (28.6%) were of genotype AII. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between AII genotype and clinical symptoms (P <0.05). According to the statistical tests, there was a significant relationship between abdominal pain and the intensity of infection (P<0.05).

Conclusion: However, genotype AII and mixed AII and BIII genotypes were more common, respectively. The relatively high prevalence of mixed infection of these genotypes indicated the potential of zoonotic source of giardiasis among patients in Mazandaran Province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200127155118DOI Listing
January 2020

The effect of edelfosine on GRA1 and MIC3 expressions in acute toxoplasmosis.

Parasitol Res 2020 Apr 22;119(4):1371-1380. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Toxoplasma Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase-C (PI-PLC) triggers the calcium signaling pathway which plays an important role in dense granule and microneme secretion and pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). There are limited data about the effects of phospholipid analogues against T. gondii. The current study assessed the effect of edelfosine, as a phospholipid analogue, on GRA1 and MIC3 expressions using in vitro and in vivo models of acute toxoplasmosis. Infected Vero cells were treated by edelfosine in two subgroups: 24 h following the cell infection and treatment at the same time of cell infection. Animal study was performed on forty mice in four groups including non-infected, infected untreated, infected edelfosine-treated, and infected pyrimethamine-treated. Gene and protein expression analyses were done using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Edelfosine significantly reduced the GRA1 (P < 0.01) and MIC3 (P < 0.01) mRNA and protein expressions in 24 h following the cell infection and at the same time of cell infection groups. In vivo study showed that the edelfosine significantly reduced the GRA1 expression in eye, and MIC3 expression in brain and liver. Moreover, the edelfosine-treated infected mice had significant higher survival rate compared with uninfected mice. The reducing effect of edelfosine on GRA1 and MIC3 mRNA and protein levels 24 h following the cell infection was more than treatment at the same time of cell infection group. Moreover, the effect of edelfosine on GRA1 and MIC3 expression in animal tissues was variable. These data showed that the edelfosine may decrease the T. gondii excretory/secretory antigens through inhibition of PI-PLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06601-xDOI Listing
April 2020

Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 1 (SAG1) as a potential candidate to develop vaccine against toxoplasmosis: A systematic review.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Apr 7;69:101414. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects a broad range of animal species and humans. As the main surface antigen of the tachyzoite, SAG1 is involved in the process of recognition, adhesion and invasion of host cells. The aim of the current systematic review study is to clarify the latest status of studies in the literature regarding SAG1-associated recombinant proteins or SAG1-associated recombinant DNAs as potential vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Data were systematically collected from six databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO and Scopus, up to 1st of January 2019. A total of 87 articles were eligible for inclusion criteria in the current systematic review. The most common antigens used for experimental cocktail vaccines together with SAG1 were ROP2 and SAG2. In addition, the most parasite strains used were RH and ME49. Freund's adjuvant and cholera toxin have been predominantly utilized. Furthermore, regarding the animal models, route and dose of vaccination, challenge methods, measurement of immune responses and cyst burden have been discussed in the text. Most of these experimental vaccines induce immune responses and have a high degree of protection against parasite infections, increase survival rates and duration and reduce cyst burdens. The data demonstrated that SAG1 antigen has a high potential for use as a vaccine and provided a promising approach for protecting humans and animals against toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2020.101414DOI Listing
April 2020

A serological investigation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii among Iranian blood donors indicates threat to health of blood recipients.

Transfus Apher Sci 2020 Jun 9;59(3):102723. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran; Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Mazandaran, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease in animals and human caused by the intracellular obligatory protozoan named Toxoplasma gondii. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sero-molecular prevalence and genotyping T. gondii among healthy blood donors in north of Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 400 blood donors participated from all Blood Transfusion Organization (BTO) in Mazandaran province during October and November 2014. The blood samples were investigated for seroprevalence, DNA detection and genotyping of T. gondii using ELISA, nested-PCR, and Multilocus nested-PCR-RFLP methods respectively.

Results: Among all of blood donors, 294 (73.5 %) and 9 (2.2 %) cases were seropositive for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. T. gondii DNA was detected in 7 samples. Four genotype of T. gondii were identified in blood donors samples (Genotype ToxoDB#1, #2, #10 and #27), which 50 % of T. gondii strains were highly pathogenic.

Conclusions: Taking into account survive T. gondii in blood transfusion bag, the high prevalence of T. gondii and existence of pathogenic genotypes in Iranian blood donors, it seems that T. gondii screening should be performed at the BTO to prevent complications of toxoplasmosis in blood recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2020.102723DOI Listing
June 2020

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum Infection in Dog Population Worldwide: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Jun 9;65(2):273-290. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 18th Km of Khazar Abad Road, Sari, Iran.

Purpose: Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan protozoan that causes neurological disorders in dogs. This systematic review and meta-analysis targeted at evaluating the worldwide seroprevalence rate of N. caninum in dogs.

Methods: Five electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google Scholar, until December 2018 were thoroughly searched for relevant English language articles. Papers were selected based on inclusion criteria. Data were analyzed in StatsDirect statistical software (version 2.7.9).

Results: The searching process yielded a total number of 156 papers. The total prevalence (95% confidence intervals) of N. caninum infection in dog population worldwide was measured as 17.14% in data analyses (15.25-19.10). In addition, a significant association was also detected between neosporosis infection in dogs and continent, country, year, WHO regions, sample size and diagnostic method (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Dogs are a matter of concern to public health officials as a source of N. caninum infection. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to provide comprehensive data and systematically analyze the prevalence of N. caninum infection in dogs. Accordingly, it is recommended that researchers carry out further studies to prevent and control neosporosis among dog population worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-019-00163-4DOI Listing
June 2020

Genetic characterization of in Iranian HIV positive patients using multilocus nested-PCR-RFLP method.

Parasitology 2020 03 18;147(3):322-328. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Mazandaran, Sari, Iran.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Iranian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients using multilocus-nested polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (Mn-PCR-RFLP). A total of 102 serum samples obtained from infected patients were collected from the laboratory centres in northern Iran. Anti-T. gondii antibodies and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection were accomplished by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR. The Mn-PCR-RFLP method was used for the genotyping of T. gondii. Overall, 68.6% (70/102) and 11.7% (12/102) of the individuals were tested positive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G and T. gondii DNA, respectively. Complete genotyping was performed on 10/12 (83.3%) PCR-positive samples. Accordingly, the samples were classified as genotype #1 (type II clonal; n = 3, 30%), genotype #2 (type III clonal; n = 2, 20%), genotype #10 (type I clonal; n = 2, 20%), genotype #27 (type I variant; n = 1, 10%), genotype #35 (type I variant; n = 1, 10%) and genotype #48 (type III variant; n = 1, 10%). The results were indicative of the high frequency of the type I and type I variant of T. gondii strains in HIV-positive patients in northern Iran. Given the high prevalence of T. gondii and frequency of pathogenic types (pathogen in laboratory mice) in the patients, special measures should be taken to prevent the possible increased incidence of encephalitis by T. gondii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182019001598DOI Listing
March 2020

Anti-Toxoplasma Activities of Zea Mays and Eryngium Caucasicum Extracts, In Vitro and In Vivo.

J Pharmacopuncture 2019 Sep 30;22(3):154-159. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem that caused by intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Considering that the available drugs for toxoplasmosis have serious host toxicity, the aim of the current study was to survey the in vitro and in vivo anti-Toxoplasma activity of Zea mays (Z. mays) and Eryngium caucasicum (E. caucasicum) extracts.

Methods: Four concentrations (5, 10, 25, and 50 mg mL) of Z. mays and E. caucasicum methanolic extracts for 30, 60, 120, and 180 min were incubated with infected macrophages and then the viability of RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites was evaluated by trypan blue staining method. Also, we evaluated the survival rate of acutely infected mice with the extracts (100 and 200 mg kg day) intraperitoneally for 5 days after infection with 2× 104 tachyzoites of T. gondii.

Results: The anti-Toxoplasma effect of the methanolic extracts were extremely significant compared to the negative control group in all exposure times (P < 0.05). The Z. mays (10, 25 and 50 mg mL) killed 100% of the parasites after 180 and 120 min exposure, respectively. Also, high toxoplasmacidal activity was observed with E. caucasicum extract. Furthermore, treatment of experimentally infected mice with the Z. mays (100, 200 mg kg day) and E. caucasicum (100 mg kg day) significantly increased their survival rate compared to untreated infected control (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: These extracts are promising candidates for further medicine development on toxoplasmosis. However, further investigations are necessary to clarify effective fractions of the Z. mays and E. caucasicum extracts and the mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2019.22.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820479PMC
September 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Is Toxoplasma gondii a potential risk factor for Alzheimer's disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2019 Dec 16;137:103751. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Toxoplasmosis is a major public health concern due to neurotropic nature and role in the development of mental and behavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an important nervous disease that results in the reduction of the amount of beta-amyloid plaque deposition and irreversible loss of neurons in the brain. Although a few studies evaluated the association between AD and toxoplasmosis, the present study as a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies investigated the possible association between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and AD. A systematic literature search was conducted using seven electronic databases from the inception to 25th of November 2018 with no restriction of language that looked at toxoplasmosis (as an exposure) and AD (as a disease). The random effect model was used to determine the total odds ratio (OR) and total p-value. Generally, eight studies containing 3239 subjects (360 patients and 2879 controls) met the eligibility criteria. Then, eight articles were used for meta-analysis with respect to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of the meta-analysis (random effect model) showed a common OR of 1.53 (95% CI: 1.07-2.18). Despite the fact that there was no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.079) using formal statistical test, the visual inspection of the funnel graph suggested that the observed effect was fueled mainly by three studies with large effects (and large standard errors). Moreover, the file-drawer effect (i.e. publishing mainly studies with positive results) might play a role in the phenomenon. Results of this meta-analytic study suggested that T. gondii can be considered a risk factor for the development of AD and exacerbation of its symptoms. However, the number of published relevant studies is still relatively low, and the risk of the presence of publication bias is relatively high. Therefore, the investigation of the clinically important question of the possible association between toxoplasmosis and AD definitively deserves further attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103751DOI Listing
December 2019

A systematic review of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes and feline: Geographical distribution trends.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jan 17;67(1):46-64. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is well known for its ability to virtually infect all warm-blooded vertebrates. Although felines as the definitive hosts have an important role in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis, there are few descriptions of genetic diversity in the world. The present review study aimed to describe the population structure of T. gondii in these animal species. For the purpose of the study, five English language databases reporting data on T. gondii genotyping in cats were searched within March-June 2019. This study is registered on the site of CAMARADES-NC3Rs (15-Jan-2018). The searching process resulted in the inclusion of 50 reports published from 1992 to June 2019. The data revealed that 47,390 samples were genotyped into 662 T. gondii DNA/isolates. Globally, atypical genotypes were predominant (47.7%, n = 316); in addition, Type II clonal strains were the second most common genotype (37%, n = 244). These results suggested an epidemic population structure in America and Asia, and a clonal population structure in Europe and Africa. Genotype #3 was found to be dominant in Africa, Europe and Oceania continents. Furthermore, genotypes #9 and #5 were prevalent in Asia and America, respectively. Additionally, genotypes #2, #3, #5 and #20 were common genotypes in domestic and sylvatic cycles from family Felidae. Collectively, this systematic review indicated a large degree of genetic diversity and circulation of mouse-virulent T. gondii strains in this family. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the population structure of T. gondii in these animal species and determine the significance of their features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13340DOI Listing
January 2020

Is there any association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(6):e0218524. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular opportunistic parasite that is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. This parasite accounts for mental disorders; however, the relationship between T. gondii infection and depressive disorder is unclear. Regarding this, the present systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the scientific evidence regarding the potential association between major depression disorder (MDD) and Toxoplasma infection.

Methods: For the purpose of the study, the articles related to the subject of interest were systematically searched in seven electronic databases. Special attention was given to the studies examining T. gondii seropositivity level in depressed patients and controls.

Results: The search process resulted in the identification of a total of 30 publications meeting the inclusion criteria and published up to April 2018 for the systematic review. Furthermore, 29 studies met the inclusion criteria to be entered into meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis involved the review of cross-sectional studies including 1657 depressed patients and 19565 individuals as controls and case-control studies entailing 1311 depressed cases and 6015 controls without depression. 1582 depressed people participated in cross-sectional studies whose results were reported as odds ratio (OR). In addition, the total number of participants was 15068 in this type of studies. Statistical analysis indicated that the pooled OR of the risk of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in depressed individuals in case-control and cross-sectional studies was 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.39).

Conclusions: As the findings of the reviewed articles indicated, toxoplasmosis is not a risk factor for MDD. However, it is necessary to perform further research to clarify the detailed association between T. gondii and dysthymia or mild and moderate depression. Furthermore, it is recommended to better investigate the effect of antibody titers on the relationship between depression and T. gondii infection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218524PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6564815PMC
February 2020

Molecular Genotyping of the Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Jan-Mar;14(1):151-158

Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: The larval stage of the tapeworm (cestode) is the etiological agent of hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis, which is the zoonotic parasitic disease causing morbidity and mortality in both humans and livestock. Due to a lack of accurate data on the human isolates of in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, the current study aimed to survey the population genetic pattern of cystic echinococcosis isolated from humans by sequencing the mitochondrial genes of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 ().

Methods: Overall, 47 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPT) blocks were collected from patients' files in various pathology departments of Mazandaran Province in Iran from 2003 to 2015. PCR was performed to amplify a 398bp DNA fragment of mitochondrial . PCR products were sequenced by Bioneer Corporation (South Korea), and the resulting data were analyzed via relevant software to determine the genotypes.

Results: The gene was successfully amplified on 10 from all of the isolates. Overall, 66.6% and 33.3% of the isolates in the studied area displayed the G1 and G2-G3 genotypes, respectively.

Conclusion: This study may provide the foundation for further studies in revealing the regional transmission patterns and also in designing adequate control procedures.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511598PMC
May 2019

Congenital toxoplasmosis among Iranian neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Epidemiol Health 2019 17;41:e2019021. Epub 2019 May 17.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Toxoplasmosis is a serious zoonotic disease that can lead to abortion and congenital disorders and has a widespread global distribution in humans and animals. The objective of this review was to investigate the incidence of toxoplasmosis in Iranian neonates in order to obtain a comprehensive assessment of the overall situation of the disease for use in developing future interventions. Original studies investigating the incidence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Iranian neonates were systematically searched in a number of English-language and Persian-language electronic databases. The search process resulted in the inclusion of a total of 11 studies in the systematic review, 10 of which were entered into the meta-analysis. The reviewed articles included 2,230 Iranian neonates investigated through January 1, 2018. Based on the retrieved studies, the overall weighted incidence rates of toxoplasmosis in the Iranian neonatal population and neonates with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis were estimated to be 0.64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 1.09) and 4.10% (95% CI, 2.68 to 5.77), respectively, using a fixed-effects model. The findings of the reviewed studies demonstrate that the incidence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iranian neonates. Accordingly, it can be concluded that toxoplasmosis is a serious public health concern that has been ignored by the Ministry of Health. Therefore, it is essential to perform further studies, in addition to implementing screening and detection programs, using standardized methods to estimate the incidence of toxoplasmosis in Iran and to determine its associated risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6635660PMC
July 2019

Geospatial analysis and epidemiological aspects of human infections with Blastocystis hominis in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

Epidemiol Health 2019 28;41:e2019009. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Blastocystis hominis is a very common large intestinal protozoan with global prevalence in humans and non-human hosts. No precise statistics exist regarding the geographical distribution of Blastocystis that would enable the identification of high-risk communities. Therefore, the current research aimed to characterize the spatial patterns and demographic factors associated with B. hominis occurrence in northern Iran.

Methods: The current study was performed among 4,788 individuals referred to health centers in Mazandaran Province, from whom stool samples were obtained. Socio-demographic data were gathered using a questionnaire. Samples were examined by a direct wet mount, the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique, and trichrome staining. Moran local indicators of spatial association and a geographically weighted regression model were utilized to analyze the results.

Results: Generally, the infection rate of Blastocystis parasites was 5.2%, and was considerably higher in the age group of 10-14 years (10.6%) than in other age groups (p=0.005). Our data showed important associations between the occurrence of B. hominis and age, residence, job, contact with domestic animals, anti-parasitic drug consumption, and elevation above sea level (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The current study characterized for the first time the infection rate and risk of B. hominis in the north of Iran, and produced a prediction map. It is expected that this map will help policymakers to plan and implement preventive measures in high-risk areas and to manage already-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533553PMC
May 2019

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of kojic acid against Toxoplasma gondii in experimental models of acute toxoplasmosis.

Exp Parasitol 2019 May 20;200:7-12. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

As current toxoplasmosis chemotherapies have many side effects along with toxicity on patients, we examined the anti-Toxoplasma effect of a biologically important natural antibiotic, kojic acid, in vitro and in vivo. Vero cells were incubated with different concentrations of kojic acid or pyrimethamine (positive control), and the cellular viability was determined. Next, Vero cells were infected with T. gondii (RH strain) and treated with drugs. Then, we calculated the infection index, T. gondii intracellular proliferation and the number and measure of plaque. Moreover, the effect of kojic acid on survival times, serum levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α and histopathological changes in the liver and spleen of Balb/c mice infected with T. gondii were determined. Kojic acid reduced the infection index, intracellular proliferation, the number and measure of plaque in vitro when compared to untreated infected cells. Kojic acid (100 mg/kg/day) also showed a better survival rate than infected untreated control mice (P < 0.05). IFN-γ and TNF-α secretions were significantly increased by kojic acid treatment in comparison to untreated groups (P < 0.05). In addition, its inhibitory effects on inflammatory alterations, apoptosis, and necrosis have been shown in sections of liver and spleen. We conclude that kojic acid exhibit potent anti-Toxoplasma activity with direct and indirect effects on the parasite, although further studies are needed before consideration of clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2019.03.009DOI Listing
May 2019

Freshwater snails as the intermediate host of trematodes in Iran: a systematic review.

Epidemiol Health 2019 7;41:e2019001. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Freshwater snails, as the first intermediate hosts of trematodes, can cause health hazards in animals and humans. Recently, the World Health Organization has included Iran in a list of 6 countries known to have serious problems with fascioliasis. In addition, cercarial dermatitis is a job-related disease that is seen often in paddy workers, agricultural labourers, and fishermen in Iran, particularly in Mazandaran Province. Many studies have been conducted in Iran to survey larval trematodes in freshwater snails. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive data exist regarding infections in gastropods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the types and prevalence of cercarial infections in snails in Iran. Electronic English-language and Persian-language databases were searched to identify 24 published articles reporting the prevalence of trematode infections in snails (9 species from 6 families) in various provinces of Iran. In total, 4.4% of gastropods were infected with the larval stages of trematodes. According to the studies reviewed in this meta-analysis' the highest infection prevalence was found in Radix auricularia (9.9%). Twelve larval species of trematodes were identified, and the highest prevalence of cercariae was found for Echinostomatidae cercariae (4.3%). Among the provinces explored, West Azerbaijan had the highest prevalence of infected snails (16.9%). The presence of trematodes in snails could pose a serious health problem in Iran. Thus, further studies are necessary to characterize these infections in other provinces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446068PMC
April 2019

Acanthamoeba spp. from water and soil sources in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ann Parasitol 2018;64(4):285–297

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Farah Abad Road, Sari, Iran

Acanthamoeba, an opportunistic protozoan parasite, is distributed in the environment globally, causes serious human infections, including a fatal encephalitis and keratitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. from different water and soil sources in Iran. Six English language and four Persian language databases were searched to identify studies published from March 2005 to October 2016. Random effect model and Stats Direct statistical software was used for the meta-analysis. This review resulted in a total 34 articles meeting the including criteria. The overall prevalence rate of Acanthamoeba spp. among the 1850 water and soil samples in Iran with using random-effect model was estimated 42.7%. The genotyping results of the Acanthamoeba isolates showed that T4 (81.2%) was a predominant strain in Iran. In addition, other genotypes, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T11, T13, T15, mixed T3/T4 and mixed T2/T6, were obtained in the environmental samples of Iran. This study may be the first systematic review and meta-analysis of Acanthamoeba prevalence and genotyping in different environmental sources of Iran. Knowledge about wide distribution of Acanthamoeba T4 in the environmental sources may help physicians to manage the patients and susceptible persons in Iran.
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April 2019

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2019 Apr 29;129:30-42. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a great public health concern in cancer patients, which can induce serious pathological effects. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the worldwide seroprevalence rate of T. gondii infection among cancer patients. A search was conducted on five electronic databases that reported data on T. gondii seroprevalence in cancer patients. The searching process resulted in the inclusion of 57 studies. The results showed that T. gondii had the pooled prevalence of 30.8% in cancer patients using a random-effect model (95% CI: 26.3-35.6). Cancer patients had a higher overall prevalence of T. gondii infection, compared to those without cancer. Furthermore, the odds ratio of toxoplasmosis in cancer patients was 3.1 times, compared to that of controls (95% CI: 2.5-3.8, P < 0.0001). Toxoplasmosis had a higher prevalence in females (40%) than in males (33%). Furthermore, the age group of upper 40 years had the highest prevalence infection rate (30%). In addition, a significant association was also observed between toxoplasmosis infection and year (P < 0.001), type of cancer (P < 0.001), country (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.001), age (P = 0.006) and diagnostic method (P < 0.001) in cancer patients. Considering the high prevalence of T. gondii infection in cancer patients and its serious outcomes, the researchers are suggested to carry out further studies to prevent and control toxoplasmosis among this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.01.040DOI Listing
April 2019

Aetiology of livestock fetal mortality in Mazandaran province, Iran.

PeerJ 2019 18;6:e5920. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.

In the farming industry, the productivity of livestock herds depends on the fertility efficiency of animals. The accurate diagnosis of a broad range of aetiological agents causing fetal death is often difficult. Our aim was to assess the prevalence rates of , , and spp. infections in ruminant abortion using bacteriological culture and molecular techniques in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Samples were collected from 70 aborted sheep, goat, and cattle fetuses between September 2014 and December 2015. Necropsy was performed on all the received samples, and brain tissue and abomasal content were obtained from the aborted fetuses. Protozoan infections were detected by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial agents using bacteriological examinations and PCR assay. Infectious pathogens were detected in 22 out of 70 (31.4%) examined fetuses. Moreover, , , and were verified in 13 (18.6%), four (5.7%), and two (2.85%) samples, respectively. Our results showed that infection with the mentioned pathogenic agents may lead to fetal mortality, which can be a major cause of economic loss. The listed pathogens could be considered important etiological agents of fetal loss in Mazandaran Province, for which appropriate control measures such as vaccination and biosecurity can be implemented to prevent infection and reduce reproductive loss in livestock farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340351PMC
January 2019

A systematic review on efficiency of microneme proteins to induce protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Apr 24;38(4):617-629. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals. Many studies on vaccination have been performed previously, and micronemal proteins (MICs) have crucial importance in this regard. The current review aims to reveal the efficiency of MICs as target antigen, adjuvants, animal models (species/strain), T. gondii strains for challenge infection, and routes of vaccine to prevent Toxoplasma infection. A comprehensive literature search was performed on April 18, 2018, in several known databases. Studies were included when evaluating vaccines based on MIC against T. gondii compared to that of a control group. Two independent researchers done the search process, study choice, and data extraction. A total of 28 articles published were selected for further analysis. Among them, 57.03% of the studies focused on MIC3 and its epitopes. SAG1 was further used in cocktail vaccines compared to other antigens. GM-CSF and Freund's complete were the predominant adjuvants used. BALB/c mice have been introduced as a proper model for lethal challenge. Virulent T. gondii (RH) was utilized more than other strains for challenge. Among MICs, the results of vaccination with MIC1-4, MIC6, and PLP1 demonstrated significantly strong humoral and cellular immunity, increased survival time, and reduced cyst burden in the mice. This review summarizes the latest results on MIC-based vaccines and presents that the most effective vaccination procedure is the administration of the cocktail vaccines. Our survey can serve as a basis for further studies to develop more efficient novel vaccines against T. gondii for animals and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-018-03442-6DOI Listing
April 2019