Publications by authors named "Mehdi Rezaei"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Application of Geographic Information System in Monitoring and Detecting the COVID-19 Outbreak.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Oct;49(Suppl 1):114-116

Department of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49iS1.3679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266007PMC
October 2020

Analyzing the Impact of Green Roof Functions on the Citizens' Mental Health in Metropolitan Cities.

Iran J Public Health 2021 May;50(5):900-907

Department of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The fast-growing trend of urbanizations and the dwellers' stressful lifestyle in megacities has led to several drawbacks from the mental health perspective. Provided that there is a significant association between the green environment and mental health, we investigated different functions of a green roof from two perspectives of well-being and environment.

Methods: After investigating on different functions of the green roof and classifying them into two sections, a self questionnaire survey was conducted in May 2020 on 100 citizens of the Seoul metropolitan area after, South Korea visiting the green roof. They were asked to clarify their perception of the different functions of green roof gardens. The statistical analysis was performed to show the differences in perception and how each variable can contribute to such differences.

Results: The results illustrated a high satisfaction rate among the visitors of green roofs. The perception of the well-being functions was higher than those of environmental functions. However, age group can alter the perception significantly, as the senior citizens significantly perceived the well-being functions. In contrast, the awareness of the environmental functions was higher among the younger participants.

Conclusion: Providing practical information about the ideal functions of green roofs, this study offered helpful insight for the planners who focus on society's general health and work in two different sections: developing the city landscape and mental health improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v50i5.6107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223576PMC
May 2021

Comparison of electronic versus conventional assessment methods in ophthalmology residents; a learner assessment scholarship study.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Jun 13;21(1):342. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Conestoga Eye, Lancaster, PA, USA.

Background: Assessment is a necessary part of training postgraduate medical residents. The implementation of methods located at the "shows how" level of Miller's pyramid is believed to be more effective than previous conventional tools. In this study, we quantitatively compared electronic and conventional methods in assessing ophthalmology residents.

Methods: In this retrospective study, eight different conventional methods of assessment including residents' attendance, logbook, scholarship and research skills, journal club, outpatient department participation, Multiple Choice Question (MCQ), Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), and professionalism/360-degree (as one complex) were used to assess 24 ophthalmology residents of all grades. Electronic media consisting of an online Patient Management Problem (e-PMP), and modified electronic OSCE (me-OSCE) tests performed 3 weeks later were also evaluated for each of the 24 residents. Quantitative analysis was then performed comparing the conventional and electronic assessment tools, statistically assessing the correlation between the two approaches.

Results: Twenty-four ophthalmology residents of different grades were included in this study. In the electronic assessment, average e-PMP scores (48.01 ± 12.40) were much lower than me-OSCE (65.34 ± 17.11). The total average electronic score was 56.67 ± 11.28, while the total average conventional score was 80.74 ± 5.99. Female and male residents' average scores in the electronic and conventional method were (59.15 ± 12.32 versus 83.01 ± 4.95) and (55.19 ± 10.77 versus 79.38 ± 6.29), respectively. The correlation between modified electronic OSCE and all conventional methods was not statistically significant (P-value >0.05). Correlation between e-PMP and six conventional methods, consisting of professionalism/360-degree assessment tool, logbook, research skills, Multiple Choice Questions, Outpatient department participation, and Journal club active participation was statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). The overall correlation between conventional and electronic methods was significant (P-value = 0.017).

Conclusion: In this study, we conclude that electronic PMP can be used alongside all conventional tools, and overall, e-assessment methods could replace currently used conventional methods. Combined electronic PMP and me-OSCE can be used as a replacement for currently used gold-standard assessment methods, including 360-degree assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02759-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201812PMC
June 2021

Clinical and demographic predictors of response to anodal tDCS treatment in major depression disorder (MDD).

J Psychiatr Res 2021 06 30;138:68-74. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex is known as a promising intervention in major depression disorder (MDD). However, limited information on predictors of therapeutic response to tDCS are available. This study aimed to investigate clinical and demographic predictors of therapeutic response in patients taking no medications. For this purpose, the required data were collected from 2 independent tDCS trials on 116 MDD patients. Accordingly, 84 patients underwent 10 sessions of 2 mA tDCS daily each one lasted for 20 min and 32 patients received 10 twice sessions of 2 mA tDCS daily each one lasted for 20 min. Anodal electrode was located over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and cathode was over the right supraorbital region. Depression symptoms and the underlying clinical dimensions were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) at baseline and after the tDCS treatment. Of the included 116 patients, 47.4% showed an antidepressant response. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that the reduction in BDI-II scores after tDCS was associated with the baseline values of cognitive-affective symptoms factor, loss of pleasure, loss of interest, and sleep problems. Pronounced sleep disturbances and cognitive-affective symptoms were identified as the potential clinical predictors of response to tDCS. However, more prospective tDCS studies are necessary to validate the predictive value of the derived model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.03.047DOI Listing
June 2021

Lymphatic filariasis in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Parasitol Res 2021 Feb 8;120(2):411-422. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is an important neglected parasitic disease according to the World Health Organization. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of human LF in Asia using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. Records from 1990 to 2018 in reputable databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched using a panel of related keywords. All 48 countries of Asia were searched one by one in combination with the keywords. In all, 41,742 cases identified in this study were included in the analysis. According to our findings, the pooled prevalence of LF in Asia was estimated at 3% (95% CI: [1.7, 5.2]). There was no major trend in the cumulative prevalence of LF over time. Some countries in Asia including China, Japan, Vietnam, and South Korea succeeded in eliminating LF as a public health problem, but others still need to monitor the disease. Based on the initiative of the WHO starting in 2000, some countries in Asia succeeded in eliminating LF as a public health problem. Other countries have taken steps to eliminate the disease with variable degrees of success. These efforts might be affected by issues such as climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06991-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790732PMC
February 2021

Human Cysticercosis in Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Oct;49(10):1839-1847

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cysticercosis in among the neglected tropical disease caused by eating the egg of parasite . In this review, we aimed to verify the prevalence of human cysticercosis in different countries of Asia using systematic review and meta-analysis approach.

Methods: Based of the protocol, reliable databases including PubMed, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Embase, and Cochrane Library from 1990-2018 were searched using a panel of keywords. Overall, 48 countries of Asia were searched in turn and data were analyzed using a category of statistical tests.

Results: Out of 28 included studies, 586175 samples were collected and included in the data analysis. Based on the meta-analysis results, the overall pooled percent of cysticercosis was estimated 3.8% (95% CI: [2.0, 7.0]). According to the result of heterogeneity statistics including I-squared, chi-square, and tau-squared, it was statistically significant (Tau2 = 2.94, chi2 = 12733.31, <0.001, I2 = 100%) therefore a random effect model was used to handle the heterogeneity of studies. To evaluate the trend of cysticercosis over the time, Cumulative meta-analysis was performed and the result showed that there was a minor upward tendency in the prevalence of cysticercosis over the time.

Conclusion: Although, considering the religious culture and food habits in Asia, we might have expected to witness a low prevalence of human cysticercosis, but we noticed more or less significant infection in some countries of the region. Regarding the new feature of immigration and travel between countries, all authorities are advised to take measures on controlling and monitoring the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijph.v49i10.4683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719645PMC
October 2020

PEDIATRIC REGIONAL DRL ASSESSMENT IN COMMON CT EXAMINATIONS FOR MEDICAL EXPOSURE OPTIMIZATION IN TEHRAN, IRAN.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2020 Dec;192(3):341-349

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

The main purpose of this pilot study was to assess the regional diagnostic reference level (RDRL) of computed tomography (CT) examinations to optimise medical exposure in five pediatric medical imaging centers in Tehran, Iran where the most frequent CT examinations were investigated. For each patient, CT volume dose indexes (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) in each group were recorded and their third quartile was calculated and set as RDRL. Pediatrics were divided into four age groups (<1; 1-5; 5-10 and 10-15 years). Then, the third quartile values for head, chest and abdomen-pelvic CTs were, respectively, calculated for each group in terms of CTDIvol: 21.3, 24.4, 24.2 and 36.3 mGy; 2.9, 3.2, 3.7 and 5.7 mGy; 3.7, 5.7, 6.3 and 6.8 mGy; and in terms of DLP: 322.2, 390.1, 424.9 and 694.1 mGy.cm; 53.1, 115.2, 145.3 and 167.6 mGy.cm and 128.7, 317.7, 460.2 and 813.8 mGy.cm. Finally, RDRLs were compared with other countries and preceding data in Iran. As a result, CTDIVOL values were lower than other national and international studies except for chest and abdomen-pelvic values obtained in Europe. Moreover, this matter applied to DLP so that other formerly reported values were higher than the present study but European values for chest and abdomen-pelvic scans and also Tehran studies conducted in 2012. Variation of scan parameters (tube voltage (kVp), tube current (mAs) and scan length), CTDIvol and DLP of different procedures among different age groups were statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). The variations in dose between CT departments as well as between identical scanners suggest a large potential for optimization of examinations relative to which this study provides helpful data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncaa192DOI Listing
December 2020

Validity of a Serological Diagnostic Kit for SARS-CoV-2 Available in Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2020 09 1;23(9):629-632. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic broke out in December 2019 and is now characterized as a pandemic. Effective control of this infectious disease requires access to diagnostic techniques, for both case finding and epidemic size estimation. The molecular technique is routinely used worldwide. Although it is the "standard" case detection and management method, it has its own shortcomings. Thus, some easy-to-use rapid serological tests have been developed.

Methods: One hundred and fourteen positive RT-PCR-diagnosed patients were tested by VivaDiag Kit, a brand of rapid serological kits available in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran. Frozen serum specimens taken from healthy people in summer and fall 2019 were also tested as negative controls.

Results: Test sensitivity was 47.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.8-56.9) for IgM and 47.0% (95% CI: 38.0-56.0) for IgG. There was no difference between IgG and IgM seropositivity except in one case. Specificity was calculated as 99.0% (95% CI: 96.4-99.9) for IgM and of 100.0% (95% CI: 0.98.2-100.0) for IgG. Sensitivity was higher in men and older participants.

Conclusion: This test can be used for epidemiological investigations, especially for the estimation of the level of infection in the community, after it is properly corrected for sensitivity and specificity. The low sensitivity could be attributed to the technical limitations of the kit or low levels of antibodies after infection. The different sensitivity in age and sex groups supports the hypothesis that different people show different immune responses to this virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.75DOI Listing
September 2020

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial.

Brain Res Bull 2019 11 24;153:273-278. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Epworth Centre for Innovation in Mental Health, The Epworth Clinic, Camberwell, Victoria, Australia, 3124 and Monash University Central Clinical School, Commercial Rd, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Currently, there is not definitive information regarding the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to examine the efficacy of tDCS for PTSD and its sub-symptoms. In a double-blind, controlled randomized clinical trial, 40 participants with PTSD were randomly assigned to receive either 10 tDCS sessions delivered at 2 mA to the right (cathode) and left (anode) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or 10 sham tDCS sessions to the same area. A blinded rater assessed PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms before treatment, following it, and after a 1-month follow-up period. According to the results: i) PTSD patients demonstrated a significant reduction in PTSD symptoms, hyper-arousal and negative alterations in cognition and mood sub-symptoms as well as depressive and anxiety symptoms in the active stimulation compared to the sham stimulation at post-treatment and follow-up; ii) active stimulation when compared to sham stimulation revealed greater reductions in re-experiencing sub-symptoms from baseline to post-test. However, follow-up differences did not reach significance; iii) With respect to avoidance sub-symptoms, there were no significant differences between the active and sham stimulation at post-test and follow-up. This study supported the efficacy of 10 sessions of bilateral DLPFC tCDS delivered at 2 mA for the treatment of PTSD symptoms. Taken together, these findings suggest that although tDCS can reduce PTSD symptoms, researchers should consider the different types of PTSD and use strategies to ensure sufficient power to detect a potential effect of tDCS on various types of PTSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.09.011DOI Listing
November 2019

The Persian version of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS-P).

Asian J Psychiatr 2019 Oct 30;45:44-49. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Determining depression symptoms in schizophrenic patients is a challenging process because of a degree of similarity between depression symptoms and negative symptoms and the extrapyramidal side effects of neuroleptic drugs, but it is crucial to evaluate and measure depression among patients with schizophrenia for a better clinical outcome. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) is a valid and reliable instrument used for the evaluation of depression in schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of CDSS in a sample of people with schizophrenia. Clinical interviews were conducted with 95 schizophrenic patients (40 inpatients and 55 outpatients), who were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17 and HDRS-24 items), and the Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDSS). Then an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine correlations between scales, Cronbach's alpha, and cutoff scores. The factor analysis led to the extraction of a unifactorial solution. The CDSS had significant relationships with PANSS Negative and PANSS General. However, it had no significant relationship with PANSS Positive and the PANSS Total. The CDSS also had significant relationships with HDRS-17 and HDRS-24. In addition, Cronbach's alpha of total score, test-retest reliability, and cutoff score were estimated at 0.86, 0.82, and 8 (sensitivity = 0.79 and specificity = 0.84), respectively. The findings support the CDSS unifactorial approach. Results also showed that the CDSS Persian version had acceptable psychometric properties; thus, it could be employed to evaluate depression among schizophrenic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2019.08.017DOI Listing
October 2019

Treatment of amphetamine abuse/use disorder: a systematic review of a recent health concern.

Daru 2019 Dec 21;27(2):743-753. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Women's and New Born Health Department, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Objectives: The study systematically reviewed the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments alone or combined with brief cognitive-behavioural therapy (BCBT) for treating Iranian amphetamine abusers. The secondary aim was to review the efficacy of BCBT alone or combined with pharmacological treatments for treating amphetamine abusers in the world.

Evidence Acquisition: Published trials were considered for inclusion. The review was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Web of Science, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group's Specialised Register of Trials, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, PsychINFO, Iran Medex, Magiran and the Scientific Information Database were searched (January 2001 to March 2019). The reference lists of included studies were hand searched for more information. A systematic literature search in eight databases produced 10 trials.

Results: Risperidone reduced positive psychotic symptoms while aripiprazole reduced negative psychotic symptoms. Methylphenidate reduced craving and depression compared with placebo. Topiramate reduced addiction severity and craving for methamphetamine abuse compared with placebo. Buprenorphine reduced methamphetamine craving more than methadone. Haloperidol and risperidone reduced psychosis. Riluzole reduced craving, withdrawal, and depression compared with placebo. Abstinence from amphetamine or reduction in amphetamine abuse was confirmed in four BCBT studies and one study which applied BCBT with a pharmacological treatment which were stable between two and 12-months. Other changes in BCBT studies were as follows: reduced polydrug use; drug injection, criminality and severity of amphetamine dependence at six-month follow-up; improved general functioning; mental health; stage of change as well as improved motivation to change in a pharmacological + BCBT study.

Conclusion: A review of trials indicates that pharmacological treatments and BCBT in a research setting outperform control conditions in treating amphetamines abuse and associated harms. Large-scale studies should determine if both treatments can be effective in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40199-019-00282-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6895313PMC
December 2019

Barriers of medication adherence in patients with type-2 diabetes: a pilot qualitative study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2019 1;12:589-599. Epub 2019 May 1.

Clinical Care Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Patients with type-2 diabetes have poor adherence to the therapeutic regime. It can result in various complications in body systems associated with undesirable metabolic control. The present study aimed to explore the inhibitors of medication adherence in patients with type-2 diabetes. This was a qualitative study using a conventional content analysis method. Participants were 12 patients with type-2 diabetes referred to the diabetes unit in Saghez, Kurdistan Province in 2015. The purposive sampling method was used with a maximum variation in sampling, and data collection was continued until data saturation was achieved. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Interviews were recorded and immediately transcribed verbatim. Data analysis led to the development of four main categories including disbelief in medical explanatory/prescriptive knowledge, lived experiences of the disease, challenges of everyday life, and interactive/economic challenges. The main inhibitors were the patient's understanding of his/her own physical status and strategies used for maintaining the internal balance. Healthcare providers need to take patients' perceptions into account when they are prescribing medicinal diets. Another inhibitor was the incidents of everyday life, including economic and social challenges, and interactions to receive education and skills for living with the disease. Beliefs of the medical team and patients should be brought closer to each other, and patients' trust in the medical team should be increased. Nurses should consider the unique experience of every patient when giving healthcare recommendations, and try to limit the existing challenges as much as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S197159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6507070PMC
May 2019

Evaluation of broiler chickens' digestibility of Neurospora intermedia biomass.

Poult Sci 2019 Oct;98(10):5017-5022

Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), PO Box 7024, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.

A total of 70 broiler chickens were used to evaluate the apparent ileal digestibility coefficient (AIDC) of protein and amino acids, and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of energy in the protein rich Fungal Biomass of Neurospora intermedia (FBN) obtained from bioethanol production. The chickens were housed in 10 pens with seven chickens per pen and fed one of two experimental diets between day 28 and 35 of age. The experimental diets were wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and a diet composed of 70% control diet and 30% of FBN. There were no difference (P > 0.05) between the control and FBN diet on chick feed intake and body weight at day 35. However, the AIDCs of crude protein and amino acids were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in control diet than in the FBN diet except for proline and phenylalanine. The AIDC of CP (0.74), cysteine (0.68), methionine (0.70), AME (15.6), and threonine (0.69) in FBN were comparable to the corresponding values in other protein-rich feedstuffs such as soybean meal and fish meal. The results from this study show that FBN may be an alternative protein source for poultry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez174DOI Listing
October 2019

Elder abuse and its sociocultural factors from the perspectives of Kurdish rural older people: Does gender matter?

Health Care Women Int 2019 10 30;40(10):1031-1046. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz , Iran.

We aimed to explore the meaning of elder abuse and its sociocultural factors from the perspectives of Kurdish older people. We purposively selected the participants, 38 female and 17 male, from a rural area in Boukan country, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions and were analyzed applying conventional content analysis. Researchers finally characterized viewpoints of the participants into two themes including structural changes in family interactions and changes in sociocultural values. Public education about moral norms and enactment of supportive laws for elderly people may help minimize elder abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2018.1534236DOI Listing
October 2019

Leakage fault detection in Electro-Hydraulic Servo Systems using a nonlinear representation learning approach.

ISA Trans 2018 Feb 3;73:154-164. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Electro-Hydraulic Servo Systems (EHSS) are employed as actuators to track the desired trajectory and exert force in heavy-duty industrial applications. The EHSS is often prone to problems such as leakage and actuator seal damage during the course of its utilization. These faults which cannot be directly detected from current sensor values, can eventually result in complications and degrade control performance. The goal of this research is to use representation learning concepts to detect these faults with decreased complexity. The objective is to find a nonlinear mapping to transform raw data into another space in which classification becomes easier. The data are driven from the hydraulic supply pressure signal. To find the mapping, a custom-built optimization algorithm is proposed along with a suitable cost function to carry out the search for the new representation. The performance of the resulting transformation is tested in an experimental setting to show the merits of the proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2018.01.015DOI Listing
February 2018

Statistical Data Analysis on the Trends of Time Series Activities: Potential Correlation between Computer-based Activity and Health Lifestyle Activity.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Sep;47(9):1292-1299

College of Business, CHA University, Pocheon-si, Republic of Korea.

Background: We aimed to investigate the trends of interested and extra time spending activities in order to find potential correlation between computer-based activities (CBA) and healthy lifestyle (HLA).

Methods: Information was adapted from the South Korea governmental open source database which gathered from official measurement statistical results. Various types of the interested and extra time spending activities were categorized into eight main activities based on the library research and expert comments. Moreover, two main categories of sports and outdoor activity (S&OA) were found to be attributed to HLA. Descriptive and analytical statistics analyses, besides correlation analysis were conducted; through Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normalizing data and Fisher's exact test for making the comparison.

Results: Among demographic variables, watching and listening as well as social activities, were the most interesting activities for almost all citizens, furthermore computer games and social network system (CG&SNS) were found to have a negative association with HLA.

Conclusion: Newly emerged computer-based activities, such as game behavior, would be among the main determinates of the HLA. The associated implications are provided to assist the authorities and governments in making the policy and planning.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174049PMC
September 2018

Bilateral Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on DLPFC Changes Resting State Networks and Cognitive Function in Patients With Bipolar Depression.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 5;12:356. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Epworth Healthcare, Epworth Clinic Camberwell, Victoria Australia and Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Bipolar patients have abnormalities in cognitive functions and emotional processing. Two resting state networks (RSNs), the default mode network (DMN) and the sensorimotor network (SMN), play a decisive role in these two functions. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is one of the main areas in the central executive network (CEN), which is linked to the activities of each of the two networks. Studies have found DLPFC abnormalities in both hemispheres of patients with bipolar depression. We hypothesized that the bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of DLPFC would produce changes in the activity of both the SMN and DMN as well as relevant cognitive function in patients with bipolar depression that responded to treatment. 20 patients with bipolar depression underwent 10 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS on right DLPFC with subsequent 10 Hz rTMS on left DLPFC. Changes in electroencephalography resting networks between pre and post rTMS were evaluated utilizing low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA). Depression symptom was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and cognitive function was assessed by Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Stroop Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Responders to rTMS showed significantly lower DMN activity at baseline and a significant decrease in SMN connectivity after treatment. Non-responders did not significantly differ from the control group at the baseline and they showed higher activity in the SMN, visual network, and visual perception network compared to control group following treatment. Bilateral rTMS resulted in significant changes in the executive functions, verbal memory, and depression symptoms. No significant changes were observed in selective attention and verbal fluency. Bilateral stimulation of DLPFC, as the main node of CEN, results in changes in the activity of the SMN and consequently improves verbal memory and executive functions in patients with bipolar depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135217PMC
September 2018

Genetic diversity of superior Persian walnut genotypes in Azadshahr, Iran.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2018 Sep 2;24(5):939-949. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

3Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran.

Persian walnut ( L.) is known to have originated in central and eastern Asia. Remnants of these wild populations can still be found in the Hyrcanian forest in north-eastern Iran. In this study, 102 individual walnut trees from four geographic populations in the Azadshahr province (Vamenan, Kashidar, Rudbar and Saidabad) were sampled. We characterized individual trees using 28 standard morphological traits. The range of traits varied widely for some economically important characteristics including nut weight (6.1-19.79 g), kernel weight (2.9-9.4 g), and kernel fill percentage (26.51-60.34%). After morphological evaluation, 39 superior individuals based on nut quality and kernel fill percentage were selected for further genetic analysis. Individual superior trees were genotyped using 10 simple sequence repeat markers (SSR) and genetic diversity. Number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 (WGA005) to 12 (WGA054). Clustering analysis of 10 SSR loci divided the genotypes into three main groups. PCoA analysis clearly sorted genotypes into one of four distinctive groups which aligned with the cluster analysis. All analyses showed that individuals from Saidabad were genetically distinct. Likewise, results indicated that the high level of genetic diversity in Azadshahr region walnuts may provide a diverse source for superior walnuts in walnut breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-018-0573-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103937PMC
September 2018

Applying Multi-modal and Correlation Analysis on Environmental Parameters and Effect on Cardiopulmonary Endurance of Gender in Elderly People.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Apr;47(4):546-552

College of Business, CHA University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation and interaction between the air pollution's components with cardiopulmonary endurance of elderly people in eight regions by using a multi-modal and correlation analysis.

Methods: The data of air pollution was collected in eight selected regions in 2013 to 2015. At the same time, total number of 880 male and female, older than 65 year-olds, were investigated based on the cardiopulmonary endurance measurement in the same regions. The correlation, interaction and multiple linear regressions was tested between the air pollution components in each region and cardiopulmonary endurance of elderly people, also between the air pollution components in each region and gender, respectively. In this case, the regression analysis for both hypotheses was conducted.

Results: There was a correlation between the level of air pollution and cardiopulmonary endurance, especially for the carbon monoxide which has a strong effect, it was followed by the effect of sulfur dioxide and fine dust, meanwhile nitrogen dioxide seems not to be effective for this measurement test. Furthermore, it was highly unlikely that gender was a significant factor for the correlation between air pollution and cardiopulmonary endurance.

Conclusion: The importance and correlation between air pollution and cardiopulmonary capacity is a critical determinant for the public health of a society, while at the same time having a serious impact on certain age groups. Provided that the factor of gender is highly unlikely to modify this impact, it is necessary to study the potential of other factors.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996332PMC
April 2018

Unilateral right and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment post-traumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled study.

Brain Res Bull 2018 06 5;140:334-340. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Psychology, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a potential non-invasive treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the treatment parameters of rTMS required to optimize therapeutic efficacy remains unclear.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of bilateral rTMS and unilateral right rTMS and compare the efficacy of bilateral rTMS and unilateral rTMS on PTSD symptoms.

Methods: Sixty-five veterans with current combat-related PTSD symptoms were randomly selected to receive bilateral rTMS (1200 pulses at 20 Hz followed by 1200 pulses per session), unilateral right rTMS (2400 pulses at 20 Hz) or sham rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).

Results: Results showed significant differences among the 3 groups. Patients demonstrated significant PTSD symptom reductions in the bilateral group compared to the sham group in session five and endpoint. There were no significant differences between the bilateral and unilateral right groups at endpoint. Unilateral right group when compared to sham group showed greater symptom reductions from baseline to endpoint. There were no significant differences between the unilateral right and sham groups in session five.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that bilateral and unilateral right rTMS are superior to sham rTMS but does not support the hypothesis that bilateral rTMS is more effective than unilateral high-frequency right-sided rTMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2018.06.001DOI Listing
June 2018

The mediating role of repetitive negative thinking and experiential avoidance on the relationship between childhood trauma and depression.

Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2018 06 15;32(3):432-438. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Department of Psychology, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2017.12.010DOI Listing
June 2018

The role of childhood trauma, early maladaptive schemas, emotional schemas and experimental avoidance on depression: A structural equation modeling.

Psychiatry Res 2016 Dec 18;246:407-414. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Department of Psychology, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran.

The present investigation was designed to examine disconnection and rejection (DR) schemas, negative emotional schemas (NESs) and experimental avoidance (EA) as mediating variables of the relationship between the childhood trauma (CT) and depression. Specifically we examined the mediating role of NESs and EA between DR schemas and depression. The study sample consist of 439 female college students (M=22.47; SD=6.0), of whom 88 met the criteria for current major depressive disorder (MDD) and 351 who had history of MDD in the last 12 months. Subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Early Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire (SQ-SF), the Leahy Emotional Schemas Scale (LESS), the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The findings showed that DR schemas were mediator of the relationship CT and depression but CT through the NESs and EA did not predict depression. NESs were mediator of the relationship between DR schemas and depression and EA was mediator of the relationship between DR schemas and depression. In general, results suggest that intervention of depressed women may need to target the changing of DR schemas, NESs and reduction of EA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.10.037DOI Listing
December 2016

A switched energy saving position controller for variable-pressure electro-hydraulic servo systems.

ISA Trans 2014 Jul 29;53(4):1297-306. Epub 2014 May 29.

Amirkabir University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413, Iran. Electronic address:

The electro-hydraulic servo system (EHSS) demonstrates a relatively low level of efficiency compared to other available actuation methods. The objective of this paper is to increase this efficiency by introducing a variable supply pressure into the system and controlling this pressure during the task of position tracking. For this purpose, an EHSS structure with controllable supply pressure is proposed and its dynamic model is derived from the basic laws of physics. A switching control structure is then proposed to control both the supply pressure and the cylinder position at the same time, in a way that reduces the overall energy consumption of the system. The stability of the proposed switching control system is guaranteed by proof, and its performance is verified by experimental testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2014.04.010DOI Listing
July 2014

Attenuation of Hemodynamic Responses to Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation: Propacetamol versus Lidocaine-A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Anesthesiol Res Pract 2014 13;2014:170247. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6447, Tehran, Iran.

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of propacetamol on attenuating hemodynamic responses subsequent laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation compared to lidocaine. In this randomized clinical trial, 62 patients with the American Anesthesiologists Society (ASA) class I/II who required laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation for elective surgery were assigned to receive propacetamol 2 g/I.V./infusion (group P) or lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg (group L) prior to laryngoscopy. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded at baseline, before laryngoscopy and within nine minutes after intubation. In both groups P and L, MAP increased after laryngoscopy and the changes were statistically significant (P < 0.001). There were significant changes of HR in both groups after intubation (P < 0.02), but the trend of changes was different between two groups (P < 0.001). In group L, HR increased after intubation and its change was statistically significant within 9 minutes after intubation (P < 0.001), while in group P, HR remained stable after intubation (P = 0.8). Propacetamol 2 gr one hour prior intubation attenuates heart rate responses after laryngoscopy but is not effective to prevent acute alterations in blood pressure after intubation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/170247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005081PMC
May 2014

The effect of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety level of the patients in preoperative period.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2011 ;16(4):278-83

Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Jundishapour University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Anxiety is the one of the most common problems before the surgery. Its prevalence rate ranged from 11 to 80 percent in all the adult patients. Delay in wound healing and increasing use of narcotics and anesthetics are some of the other accompanying problems. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary medicine components. It is applied by special type of oil extracted from aromatic plants for medical objectives. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety level in preoperative patients.

Methods: This was a clinical study done on 72 patients candidate for heart and abdominal surgery admitted in Golestan and Imam Khomeini hospitals. The patients were selected according to our study objectives and inclusion criteria. Then, they were divided in two case and control groups. The Spielberger scale was used for evaluating the anxiety level. Twenty minute of inhalation with handkerchief containing lavandula was used in the case group and placebo also (water) in the control group.

Results: The average of anxiety level in inhalation aromatherapy group decreased from 51.00 to 38.61 from before to after the intervention. This average in the inhalation group with placebo was 50.67 before the intervention and decreased to 49.53 after the intervention. The results of independent t-test statistically showed a significant difference between the two groups after the intervention.

Conclusions: The findings showed that inhalation aromatherapy was effective on reduction of anxiety level and this method can be applied as a complementary medicine on the clinic.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583096PMC
March 2013

Promoting survival: A grounded theory study of consequences of modern health practices in Ouramanat region of Iranian Kurdistan.

Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being 2010 May 14;5. Epub 2010 May 14.

Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Bu-Ali-Sina University Hamedan, Hamedan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/qhw.v5i2.5069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2875965PMC
May 2010

Sleep patterns and habits in high school students in Iran.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2008 Mar 13;7. Epub 2008 Mar 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Sleep patterns and habits in high school students in Iran have not been well studied to date. This paper aims to re-address this balance and analyse sleep patterns and habits in Iranian children of high school age.

Methods: The subjects were 1,420 high school students randomly selected by stratified cluster sampling. This was a self-report study using a questionnaire which included items about usual sleep/wake behaviours over the previous month, such as sleep schedule, falling asleep in class, difficulty falling asleep, tiredness or sleepiness during the day, difficulty getting up in the morning, nightmares, and taking sleeping pills.

Results: The mean duration of night sleep was 7.7 h, with no difference between girls, boys, and school year (grade). The mean time of waking in the morning was not different between genders. About 9.9% of the girls and 4.6% of the boys perceived their quality of sleep as being bad, and 58% of them reported sleepiness during the day. About 4.2% of the subjects had used medication to enhance sleep. The time of going to bed was associated with grade level and gender. Sleep latency was not associated with gender and grade level, l and 1.4% experienced bruxism more than four times a week.

Conclusion: Our results are in contrast with that of previous studies that concluded sleep duration is shorter in Asia than in Europe, that boys woke-up significantly later than girls, and that the frequency of sleep latency category was associated with gender and grade level. The magnitude of the daytime sleepiness, daytime sleepiness during classes, sleep latency, and incidences of waking up at night represent major public health concerns for Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-859X-7-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2292723PMC
March 2008
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