Publications by authors named "Meghna R Sebastian"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prolonged Untreated Disease and Limited English Proficiency: A Case of Van Wyk-Grumbach Syndrome.

J Adolesc Health 2020 Nov 18. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Section of Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Children from families with limited English proficiency have worse health outcomes than those from English-speaking families, likely related to the impact of a variety of social determinants on an increased risk of delayed presentation, diagnosis, and loss to follow-up. Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome (VWGS) is a result of prolonged untreated primary hypothyroidism and early diagnosis of hypothyroidism is critical to prevent VWGS from developing. Whether social determinants of health, particularly limited English proficiency, impact the development, diagnosis, and treatment of VWGS has not been discussed previously. Here, we describe the case of an adolescent girl diagnosed with VWGS whose primary caregiver is foreign-born and with limited English proficiency, explore factors that may have placed her at increased risk for delayed presentation of VWGS, and discuss ongoing challenges of her disease management. We briefly review the pathophysiology of VWGS, emphasize the importance of being sensitive to this atypical presentation of hypothyroidism, and explore the intersections of this case with limited English proficiency status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.10.016DOI Listing
November 2020

Rate of weight gain as a predictor of readmission in adolescents with eating disorders.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Baylor College of Medicine, Section of Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX, USA.

Background Readmission after hospital discharge is common in adolescents with eating disorders. Studies on the association between rapidity of weight gain and readmission are inconsistent. With an emphasis on more rapid weight gain during hospitalization, the effect of this strategy on readmission rates warrants further investigation. Objective This project explored the relationship between rate of weight gain during hospitalization and medically necessitated readmissions. Subjects Eighty-two patients who: were admitted due to an eating disorder during a 5-year period; achieved weight restoration to ≥84% of ideal body weight (IBW); had a follow-up visit with the adolescent medicine service after discharge; and, had information available on rate of weight gain. Methods Data were extracted from medical records. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of rate of weight gain on readmission. The effect of a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis was tested for an interaction. Results Of patients 20.7% required readmission. The median rate of weight gain was 118.6 g/day [interquartile range (IQR) = 91.8-150.8]. There was a 1.8 times [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9-3.6, p = 0.087] greater odds of readmission with each increase in weight gain quartile after adjusting for potential confounders. Patients in the lowest rate of weight gain quartile and no psychiatric co-morbidity had a significantly lower predicted probability of readmission (25.1%) compared to those with a psychiatric comorbidity and in the highest quartile of rate of weight gain (48.4%). Conclusion Patients with eating disorders who have rapid inpatient weight gain and psychiatric co-morbidities may be at increased risk for readmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0228DOI Listing
February 2019

Diagnostic Evaluation, Comorbidity Screening, and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents in 3 Specialty Clinics.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2018 Aug 1;31(4):367-371. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Section of Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Study Objective: A polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis in adolescence can have significant long-term health implications. The criteria for its diagnosis in adolescents have been subject to much debate. In this study we aimed to characterize the variability in diagnosis and management among different pediatric specialties.

Design, Setting, Participants, And Interventions: This was a retrospective review of electronic medical records of female patients (11-21 years old) who presented to 3 specialties (adolescent medicine [ADO], pediatric endocrinology [ENDO], and gynecology [GYN]), with a postvisit diagnosis of PCOS, menstrual disorders, or hirsutism, at a large tertiary care center, from November 1, 2011 to October 31, 2012. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were abstracted.

Main Outcome Measures: Testing for diagnosis of PCOS and its comorbidities, and treatment strategies in the 3 pediatric specialties.

Results: One hundred forty-one patients (50 ADO, 48 ENDO, and 43 GYN) were eligible. Testing for hyperandrogenemia (17-hydroxy-progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol), thyroxine, and use of pelvic ultrasound differed among specialties. Providers failed to document weight concerns in 28.3% (29 of 101) of overweight or obese patients. Patients seen by ENDO were most likely, and GYN least likely, to be identified as having elevated weight, and to be tested for glucose abnormalities, dyslipidemia, and liver disease. ENDO providers prescribed metformin more often and hormonal therapy less often than ADO and GYN.

Conclusion: There is considerable variability across pediatric specialties in the evaluation of PCOS, with significant underassessment of comorbidities. Use of unified guidelines, including for the evaluation of comorbidities, would improve evidence-based management of adolescent PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2018.01.007DOI Listing
August 2018

Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

Indian J Pediatr 2009 Aug;76(8):833-41

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India.

Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-009-0170-6DOI Listing
August 2009

Unexplained coma in a toddler. Denouement.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009 Jun;28(6):551, 558-9

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/inf.0b013e31819ea540DOI Listing
June 2009

Chikungunya infection in children.

Indian J Pediatr 2009 Feb 28;76(2):185-9. Epub 2009 Mar 28.

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Chikungunya fever is caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIK) and spread by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The median incubation period is 2 to 4 days. Vertical transmission of disease from mother to child has also been documented. Clinical manifestations are very variable, from asymptomatic illness to severe debilitating disease. Children are among the group at maximum risk for severe manifestations of the disease and some clinical features in this group are distinct from those seen in adults. Common clinical features include: abrupt onset high grade fever, skin rashes, minor hemorrhagic manifestations, arthralgia/ arthritis, lymphadenopathy, conjunctival injection, swelling of eyelids and pharyngitis. Unusual clinical features include: neurological manifestations including seizures, altered level of consciousness, blindness due to retrobulbar neuritis and acute flaccid paralysis. Watery stools may be seen in infants. Treatment is symptomatic. Generally non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are avoided. Paracetamol may be used for pain and fever. However, NSAIDS may be required for relief of severe arthralgia during convalescent phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-009-0049-6DOI Listing
February 2009