Publications by authors named "Meghan Franczek"

3 Publications

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Effectiveness and cardiac safety of bedaquiline-based therapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Bedaquiline improves treatment outcomes in patients with rifampin-resistant TB (RR-TB) but prolongs the QT-interval and carries a black-box warning by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The World Health Organization recommends that all patients with RR-TB receive a regimen containing bedaquiline, yet a phase 3 clinical trial demonstrating its cardiac safety has not been published.

Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study of RR-TB patients from 3 provinces in South Africa who received regimens containing bedaquiline. We performed rigorous cardiac monitoring, including electrocardiograms (ECGs) performed in triplicate at four time points during bedaquiline therapy. Participants were followed until the end of therapy or 24 months. Outcomes included final tuberculosis treatment outcome and QT-prolongation, defined as any QTcF>500 ms or an absolute change from baseline (△ QTcF) >60 ms.

Results: We enrolled 195 eligible participants, of whom 40% had extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. Most participants (97%) received concurrent clofazimine. 74% of participants were cured or successfully completed treatment, and outcomes did not differ by HIV status. QTcF continued to increase throughout bedaquiline therapy, with a mean increase of 23.7 (SD 22.7) ms from baseline to month 6. Four participants experienced a QTcF>500 ms and 19 experienced a △QTcF>60 ms. Older age was independently associated with QT-prolongation. QT-prolongation was neither more common nor severe in participants receiving concurrent lopinavir-ritonavir.

Conclusions: Severe QT-prolongation was uncommon and did not require permanent discontinuation of either bedaquiline or clofazimine. Close QT-monitoring may be advisable in older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab335DOI Listing
April 2021

Activation-Induced Marker Expression Identifies -Specific CD4 T Cells in a Cytokine-Independent Manner in HIV-Infected Individuals with Latent Tuberculosis.

Immunohorizons 2020 10 2;4(10):573-584. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329;

HIV infection is a significant risk factor for reactivation of latent infection (LTBI) and progression to active tuberculosis disease, yet the mechanisms whereby HIV impairs T cell immunity to have not been fully defined. Evaluation of -specific CD4 T cells is commonly based on IFN-γ production, yet increasing evidence indicates the immune response to is heterogeneous and encompasses IFN-γ-independent responses. We hypothesized that upregulation of surface activation-induced markers (AIM) would facilitate detection of human -specific CD4 T cells in a cytokine-independent manner in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with LTBI. PBMCs from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in Kenya were stimulated with CFP-10 and ESAT-6 peptides and evaluated by flow cytometry for upregulation of the activation markers CD25, OX40, CD69, and CD40L. Although -specific IFN-γ and IL-2 production was dampened in HIV-infected individuals, -specific CD25OX40 and CD69CD40L CD4 T cells were detectable in the AIM assay in both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected individuals with LTBI. Importantly, the frequency of -specific AIM CD4 T cells was not directly impacted by HIV viral load or CD4 count, thus demonstrating the feasibility of AIM assays for analysis of -specific CD4 T cells across a spectrum of HIV infection states. These data indicate that AIM assays enable identification of -specific CD4 T cells in a cytokine-independent manner in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected individuals with LTBI in a high-tuberculosis burden setting, thus facilitating studies to define novel T cell correlates of protection to and elucidate mechanisms of HIV-associated dysregulation of antimycobacterial immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/immunohorizons.2000051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585460PMC
October 2020

Aurora A kinase inhibition enhances oncolytic herpes virotherapy through cytotoxic synergy and innate cellular immune modulation.

Oncotarget 2017 Mar;8(11):17412-17427

Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and neuroblastoma models respond to the investigational small molecule Aurora A kinase inhibitor, alisertib. We previously reported that MPNST and neuroblastomas are also susceptible to oncolytic herpes virus (oHSV) therapy. Herein, we show that combination of alisertib and HSV1716, a virus derived from HSV-1 and attenuated by deletion of RL1, exhibits significantly increased antitumor efficacy compared to either monotherapy. Alisertib and HSV1716 reduced tumor growth and increased survival in two xenograft models of MPNST and neuroblastoma. We found the enhanced antitumor effect was due to multiple mechanisms that likely each contribute to the combination effect. First, oncolytic herpes virus increased the sensitivity of uninfected cells to alisertib cytotoxicity, a process we term virus-induced therapeutic adjuvant (VITA). Second, alisertib increased peak virus production and slowed virus clearance from tumors, both likely a consequence of it preventing virus-mediated increase of intratumoral NK cells. We also found that alisertib inhibited virus-induced accumulation of intratumoral myeloid derived suppressor cells, which normally are protumorigenic. Our data suggest that clinical trials of the combination of oHSV and alisertib are warranted in patients with neuroblastoma or MPNST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5392259PMC
March 2017