Publications by authors named "Meg F Keil"

7 Publications

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Growth hormone and risk for cardiac tumors in Carney complex.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2016 09 18;23(9):739-46. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome that is caused mostly by PRKAR1A mutations. Cardiac myxomas are the leading cause of mortality in CNC patients who, in addition, often develop growth hormone (GH) excess. We studied patients with CNC, who were observed for over a period of 20 years (1995-2015) for the development of both GH excess and cardiac myxomas. GH secretion was evaluated by standard testing; dedicated cardiovascular imaging was used to detect cardiac abnormalities. Four excised cardiac myxomas were tested for the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). A total of 99 CNC patients (97 with a PRKAR1A mutation) were included in the study with a mean age of 25.8 ± 16.6 years at presentation. Over an observed mean follow-up of 25.8 years, 60% of patients with GH excess (n = 46) developed a cardiac myxoma compared with only 36% of those without GH excess (n = 54) (P = 0.016). Overall, patients with GH excess were also more likely to have a tumor vs those with normal GH secretion (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.23-6.29; P = 0.014). IGF-1 mRNA and protein were higher in CNC myxomas than in normal heart tissue. We conclude that the development of cardiac myxomas in CNC may be associated with increased GH secretion, in a manner analogous to the association between fibrous dysplasia and GH excess in McCune-Albright syndrome, a condition similar to CNC. We speculate that treatment of GH excess in patients with CNC may reduce the likelihood of cardiac myxoma formation and/or recurrence of this tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-16-0246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4991637PMC
September 2016

Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone co-secreting tumors in children and adolescents causing cushing syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma and how to solve it.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 Jan;100(1):141-8

Section on Endocrinology and Genetics (A.S.K., J.B., M.F.K., C.L., M.B.L., C.A.S.), Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Section of Radiology and Imaging Sciences (G.Z.P., N.J.P.), Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Laboratory of Pathology (M.M.Q., M.M.), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Thoracic and Gastrointestinal Oncology Branch (D.S.S.), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Endocrine Oncology Branch (E.K.), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Randall Children's Hospital at Legacy Emanuel (M.K.H.), Children's Diabetes and Endocrine Center, Portland, Oregon 97227; Department of Pediatrics (M.R.A., L.P.K., A.E.B.), Section of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.

Context: Ectopic ACTH/CRH syndrome is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome (CS), especially in children. The localization, work-up, and management of ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors are discussed.

Setting: A retrospective study was conducted of patients under 21 years of age evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for CS and diagnosed with ectopic ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors during the period 2009-2014.

Patients: Seven patients with ectopic ACTH/CRH CS are included in this study with a median age 13.6 years (range 1-21), and 3 are female.

Measurements: Clinical, biochemical, radiological features, treatment, and histological findings are described.

Results: Seven patients were found to have ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors, all with neuroendocrine features. The site of the primary lesion varied: pancreas (3), thymus (2), liver (1), right lower pulmonary lobe (1). PATIENTS underwent biochemical evaluation for CS, including diurnal serum cortisol and ACTH levels, urinary free cortisol levels (UFC), and CRH stimulation tests. All patients underwent radiological investigations including MRI, CT, and PET scan; imaging with octreotide and 68 gallium DOTATATE scans were performed in individual cases. Five patients underwent inferior petrosal sinus sampling; 4 patients had sampling for ACTH and CRH levels from additional sites. Three patients underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS), and 3 patients required bilateral adrenalectomy. Three patients (43%) died due to metastatic disease, demonstrating the high mortality rate. One of the unique findings in these seven patients is that in each case, their neuroendocrine tumors were ultimately proven to be co-secreting ACTH and CRH. This explains the enigmatic presentation, in which 3 patients initially thought to have Cushing's disease (CD) with corresponding pituitary hyperplasia underwent TSS prior to the correct localization of the causative tumor.

Conclusions: Ectopic ACTH/CRH co-secreting tumors are extremely rare in children and adolescents. The diagnosis of this condition is frequently missed and is sometimes confused with CD due to the effect of CRH on the pituitary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-2945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4283025PMC
January 2015

Does somatostatin have a role in the regulation of cortisol secretion in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (ppnad)? a clinical and in vitro investigation.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 May 10;99(5):E891-901. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

INSERM Unité 982 (Z.B., E.L., H.L.), Laboratory of Neuronal and Neuroendocrine Differentiation and Communication, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, 76821 Rouen, France; Section on Endocrinology and Genetics (P.X., D.A., C.G., M.N., R.C., C.A.S.), Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Pediatric Endocrinology Inter-Institute Training Program (M.F.K., C.A.S.), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, and Clinical Center (N.S.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Erasmus Medical Center (L.J.H.), 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands; and Department of Endocrinology (H.L.), Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University Hospital of Rouen, 76031 Rouen, France.

Context: Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) are expressed in a number of tissues, including the adrenal cortex, but their role in cortisol secretion has not been well characterized.

Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the expression of SSTRs in the adrenal cortex and cultured adrenocortical cells from primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) tissues and to test the effect of a single injection of 100 μg of the SST analog octreotide on cortisol secretion in patients with PPNAD.

Setting And Design: The study was conducted at an academic research laboratory and clinical research center. Expression of SSTRs was examined in 26 PPNAD tissues and the immortalized PPNAD cell line CAR47. Ten subjects with PPNAD underwent a randomized, single-blind, crossover study of their cortisol secretion every 30 minutes over 12 hours (6:00 pm to 6:00 am) before and after the midnight administration of octreotide 100 μg sc.

Methods: SSTRs expression was investigated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The CAR47 and primary cell lines were studied in vitro. The data of the 10 patients were analyzed before and after the administration of octreotide.

Results: All SSTRs, especially SSTR1-3, were expressed in PPNAD at significantly higher levels than in normal adrenal. SST was found to differentially regulate expression of its own receptors in the CAR47 cell line. However, the administration of octreotide to patients with PPNAD did not significantly affect cortisol secretion.

Conclusions: SSTRs are overexpressed in PPNAD tissues in comparison with normal adrenal cortex. Octreotide did not exert any significant effect on cortisol secretion in a short clinical pilot study in a small number of patients with PPNAD, but long-acting SST analogs targeting multiple SSTRs may be worth investigating in this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-2657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4010701PMC
May 2014

Lack of mutations in the gene coding for the hGR (NR3C1) in a pediatric patient with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, absence of stigmata of Cushing's syndrome and unusual histologic features.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2012 ;25(1-2):213-9

Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Background: Rare cases of human glucocorticoid receptor (hGRalpha) (NR3C1) gene mutations have been described in the gemline or somatic state in Cushing's disease (CD).

Aim: We describe a pediatric patient with CD with clinical evidence of partial glucocorticoid resistance (GR) due to the relative absence of stigmata of Cushing's syndrome (CS).

Case Description: A 14-year-old boy with slow growth and hypertension, but no other signs of CS was admitted for CD evaluation. Urinary free cortisol levels (UFC) were consistently 2-3-fold the upper normal range. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 3x4 mm hypoenhancing lesion in the right side of the pituitary gland anteriorly (microadenoma). A graded dexamethasone suppression test indicated that the patient had partial GR. Histology confirmed an adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenoma. We hypothesized that a NR3C1 mutation was present. Sequencing of the entire coding region of the gene produced normal results in both peripheral and tumor DNA.

Conclusion: We present the case of a pediatric patient with an ACTH-producing tumor but little evidence of CS. No mutations in the coding sequence of NR3C1 were detected. We conclude that low level somatic mosaicism for NR3C1 mutations or a mutation in another molecule participating in hGRalpha-signaling may account for this case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem.2011.371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5590677PMC
May 2012

Recurrent left atrial myxomas in Carney complex: a genetic cause of multiple strokes that can be prevented.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2012 Nov 15;21(8):914.e1-8. Epub 2012 Feb 15.

Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Background: Intracardiac myxomas in Carney complex are significant causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality through embolic stroke and heart failure. The genetic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of Carney complex-related strokes from atrial myxomas have not been described. The regulatory subunit (R1A) of the protein kinase gene (PRKAR1A) is mutated in >60% of patients with Carney complex.

Methods: We studied patients with strokes and cardiac myxomas that were hospitalized in our institution and elsewhere; a total of 7 patients with 16 recurrent atrial myxomas and >14 episodes of strokes were identified.

Results: Neurologic deficits were reported; in 1 patient, an aneurysm developed at the site of a previous stroke. All patients were females, were also diagnosed with Cushing syndrome, and all had additional tumors or other Carney complex manifestations. Other than gender, although there was a trend for patients being overweight and hypertensive, no other risk factors were identified. A total of 5 patients (71%) had a PRKAR1A mutation; all mutations (c418_419delCA, c.340delG/p.Val113fsX15, c.353_365del13/p.Ile118fsX6, c.491_492delTG/p.Val164fsX4, and c.177+1G>A) were located in exons 3 to 5 and introns 2 to 3, and all led to a non-sense PRKAR1A mRNA.

Conclusions: Female patients with Carney complex appear to be at a high risk for recurrent atrial myxomas that lead to multiple strokes. Early identification of a female patient with Carney complex is of paramount importance for the early diagnosis of atrial myxomas and the prevention of strokes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2012.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3369015PMC
November 2012

Adrenal function in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2011 Nov 11;155A(11):2732-8. Epub 2011 Oct 11.

Program in Developmental Endocrinology & Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a multiple malformation syndrome due to mutations of the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene (DHCR7), which leads to a deficiency of cholesterol synthesis and an accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol. The SLOS clinical spectrum ranges from multiple major malformations to a mild phenotype with minor anomalies and intellectual disability. Several children with SLOS and adrenal insufficiency have been described. We performed ovine corticotropin (oCRH) testing in 35 SLOS patients and 16 age- and gender-matched controls. We reviewed prior adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation tests of our SLOS patients (19 of 35 available) and reviewed results of ACTH stimulation tests from 10 additional SLOS patients. Results from oCRH testing showed that patients with SLOS had significantly higher ACTH baseline values than healthy controls (24.8 ± 15.3 pg/ml vs. 17.8 ± 7.5 pg/ml, P = 0.034). However, no statistically significant differences were noted for peak ACTH values (74.4 ± 35.0 pg/ml vs. 64.0 ± 24.9 pg/ml, P = 0.303) and for baseline (14.2 ± 7.8 mcg/dl vs. 14.2 ± 6.3 mcg/dl, P = 0.992) and peak cortisol values (28.2 ± 7.9 mcg/dl vs. 24.8 ± 8.1 mcg/dl, P = 0.156). The area-under-the-curve (AUC) was not significantly different in SLOS patients compared to controls for both ACTH (250.1 ± 118.7 pg/ml vs. 195.3 ± 96.6 pg/ml, P = 0.121) as well as cortisol secretion (83.1 ± 26.1 mcg/dl vs. 77.8 ± 25.9 mcg/dl, P = 0.499). ACTH stimulation test results were normal in 28 of 29 tests. The individual with the abnormal test results had subsequent normal oCRH tests. The slightly increased baseline ACTH level seen during oCRH testing may be due to compensated adrenocortical insufficiency. However, we were able to show that our patients with SLOS had an adequate glucocorticoid response, and thus, in mild to moderate cases of SLOS stress steroid coverage may not be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.34271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3488380PMC
November 2011

An unusual presentation of pediatric Cushing disease: recurrent corticotropinoma of the posterior pituitary lobe.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2010 Jun;23(6):607-12

Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Program on Developmental Endocrinology Genetics (PDEGEN), Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Cushing's syndrome (CS) is rare in childhood and adolescence and its diagnosis and work up are often challenging. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a recurrent corticotrophin (ACTH)-secreting adenoma, located in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. At the age of 11, she presented with classic CS symptoms; biochemical investigation was compatible with ACTH-dependent Cushing disease, although pituitary gland imaging did not show any tumor. Following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), histopathological analysis identified an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma arising from the posterior gland. The patient went into remission but 4 years later she presented with recurrent CS; this time, pituitary gland imaging showed a microadenoma located in the posterior lobe, which was resected after TSS. Posterior lobe pituitary adenomas are very rare and often hard to diagnose and treat; this is the first case of such a tumor causing recurrent Cushing's disease in a child.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4727444PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem.2010.100DOI Listing
June 2010