Publications by authors named "Meagan E Tibbo"

53 Publications

Distal femoral replacement versus ORIF for severely comminuted distal femur fractures.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S.W, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Introduction: Distal femoral replacement (DFR) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) are surgical options for comminuted distal femur fractures. Comparative outcomes of these techniques are limited. The aims of this study were to compare implant survivorship, perioperative factors, and clinical outcomes of DFR vs. ORIF for comminuted distal femur fractures.

Methods: Ten patients treated with rotating hinge DFRs for AO/OTA 33-C fractures from 2005 to 2015 were identified and matched 1:2 based on age and sex to 20 ORIF patients. Patients treated with DFR and ORIF had similar ages (80 vs. 76 years, p = 0.2) and follow-up (20 vs. 27 months, p = 1.0), respectively. Implant survivorship, length of stay (LOS), anesthetic time, estimated blood loss (EBL), ambulatory status, knee range of motion (ROM), and Knee Society scores (KSS) were assessed at final follow-up.

Results: Survivorship free from any revision at 2 years was 90% and 65% for the DFR and ORIF groups, respectively (p = 0.59). Survivorship free from any reoperation at 2 years was 90% for the DFR group and 50% for the ORIF group (p = 0.16). Three ORIF patients (15%) went on to nonunion and two went on to delayed union. Mean EBL and LOS were significantly higher for the DFR group: 592 mL vs. 364 mL, and 13 vs. 6.5 days, respectively. Knee ROM (p = 0.71) and KSSs (p = 0.36) were similar between groups.

Conclusions: Comminuted distal femur fractures treated with DFR trended toward lower revision and reoperation rates, with similar functional outcomes when compared to ORIF. We noted a trend toward increased EBL and LOS in the DFR group.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-021-03061-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcomes of operatively treated interprosthetic femoral fractures.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jul;103-B(7 Supple B):122-128

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aims: The prevalence of ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is rising in concert with life expectancy, putting more patients at risk for interprosthetic femur fractures (IPFFs). Our study aimed to assess treatment methodologies, implant survivorship, and IPFF clinical outcomes.

Methods: A total of 76 patients treated for an IPFF from February 1985 to April 2018 were reviewed. Prior to fracture, at the hip/knee sites respectively, 46 femora had primary/primary, 21 had revision/primary, three had primary/revision, and six had revision/revision components. Mean age and BMI were 74 years (33 to 99) and 30 kg/m (21 to 46), respectively. Mean follow-up after fracture treatment was seven years (2 to 24).

Results: Overall, 59 fractures were classified as Vancouver C (Unified Classification System (UCS) D), 17 were Vancouver B (UCS B). In total, 57 patients (75%) were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF); three developed nonunion, three developed periprosthetic joint infection, and two developed aseptic loosening. In all, 18 patients (24%) underwent revision arthroplasty including 13 revision THAs, four distal femoral arthroplasties (DFAs), and one revision TKA: of these, one patient developed aseptic loosening and two developed nonunion. Survivorship free from any reoperation was 82% (95% confidence interval (CI) 66.9% to 90.6%) and 77% (95% CI 49.4% to 90.7%) in the ORIF and revision groups at two years, respectively. ORIF patients who went on to union tended to have stemmed knee components and greater mean interprosthetic distance (IPD = 189 mm (SD 73.6) vs 163 mm (SD 36.7); p = 0.546) than nonunited fractures. Patients who went on to nonunion in the revision arthroplasty group had higher medullary diameter: cortical width ratio (2.5 (SD 1.7) vs 1.3 (SD 0.3); p = 0.008) and lower IPD (36 mm (SD 30.6) vs 214 mm (SD 32.1); p < 0.001). At latest follow-up, 95% of patients (n = 72) were ambulatory.

Conclusion: Interprosthetic femur fractures are technically and biologically challenging cases. Individualized approaches to internal fixation versus revision arthroplasty led to an 81% (95% CI 68.3% to 88.6%) survivorship free from reoperation at two years with 95% of patients ambulatory. Continued improvements in management are warranted. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(7 Supple B):122-128.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B7.BJJ-2020-2275.R1DOI Listing
July 2021

Atraumatic proximal radial nerve entrapment. Illustrative cases and systematic review of literature.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Radiology, Hôpital Pierre-Paul Riquet, 31059, Toulouse, France.

Purpose: The aims of the present study were to describe atraumatic proximal radial nerve entrapment (PRNE) and potential strategies for management.

Materials And Methods: We performed a comprehensive search of 4 electronic databases for studies pertaining to patients with atraumatic PRNE. Studies published between 1930 and 2020 were included. Clinical presentation, nerve conduction studies, electromyography, and treatment methods were reviewed. In order to outline management strategies, 2 illustrative cases of acute PRNE were presented.

Results: We analyzed 12 studies involving 21 patients with 22 PRNE (15 acute and 7 progressive). Sudden or repetitive elbow extension with forceful muscle contraction (n = 16) was the primary mechanism of injury. The two main sites of entrapment were the fibrous arch (n = 7) and hiatus of the lateral intermuscular septum (n = 7). Conservative treatment was performed in 4 patients and allowed for complete clinical recovery in all cases. The remaining 18 patients underwent epineurolysis (n = 16) or resection/repair of hourglass-like constriction (n = 2) between 1.5- and 120-months following diagnosis. Twelve patients experience complete recovery, while partial or no clinical recovery was reported in 1 and 4 cases, respectively; the outcome was unknown in 1 case.

Conclusions: Atraumatic PRNE is rare and remains challenging with respect to diagnosis and treatment. Current literature suggests that primary sites of entrapment are the fibrous arch and hiatus of the radial nerve at the time of forceful elbow extension.

Level Of Evidence: Case series (IV) & systematic review (I).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-021-03037-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Does a combined screw and dowel construct improve tibial fixation during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Orthopaedics, Children's Hospital, CHU de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Purpose: The aims of the present study were to compare the biomechanical properties of tibial fixation in hamstring-graft ACL reconstruction using interference screw and a novel combination interference screw and dowel construct.

Material And Methods: We compared the fixation of 30 (2- and 4-stranded gracilis and semitendinosis tendons) in 15 fresh-frozen porcine tibiae with a biocomposite resorbable interference screw (Group 1) and a screw and dowel construct (Group 2). Each graft was subjected to load-to-failure testing (50 mm/min) to determine maximum load, displacement at failure and pullout strength.

Results: There were no significant differences between the biomechanical properties of the constructs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that combination constructs (β = 140.20, p = 0.043), screw diameter (β = 185, p = 0.006) and 4-strand grafts (β = 51, p = 0.050) were associated with a significant increase in load at failure. Larger screw diameter was associated with increased construct stiffness (β = 20.15, p = 0.020).

Conclusion: The screw and dowel construct led to significantly increased fixation properties compared to interference screws alone in a porcine model. Increased screw diameter and utilization of 4-strand ACL grafts also led to improvement in load-to-failure of the construct. However, this is an in vitro study and additional investigations are needed to determine whether the results are reproducible in vivo.

Level Of Evidence: Level V; Biomechanical study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-021-03049-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Outcomes of Vancouver C Periprosthetic Femur Fractures.

J Arthroplasty 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Periprosthetic femur fractures (PFFs) that occur distal to a total hip arthroplasty, Vancouver C fractures, are challenging to treat. We aimed to report patient mortality, reoperations, and complications following Vancouver C PFFs in a contemporary cohort all treated with a laterally based locking plate.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 42 consecutive Vancouver C PFFs between 2004 and 2018. There was a high prevalence of comorbidities, including 9 patients with neurologic conditions, 9 with a history of cancer, 8 diabetics, and 8 using chronic anticoagulation. Mean time from total hip arthroplasty to PFF was 6 years (range 1 month to 25 years). All fractures were treated with a laterally based locking plate. Fixation bypassed the femoral component in 98% of cases and extended as proximal as the lesser trochanter in 18%. Kaplan-Meier survival was used for patient mortality, and a competing risk model was used to analyze survivorship free of reoperation and nonunion. Mean follow-up was 2 years.

Results: Patient mortality was 5% at 90 days and 31% at 2 years. Cumulative incidence of reoperation was 13% at 2 years. There were 5 reoperations including revision osteosynthesis for nonunion and/or hardware failure (2), debridement and hardware removal for infection (2), and removal of hardware and total knee arthroplasty for post-traumatic arthritis (1). Cumulative incidence of nonunion was 10% at 2 years.

Conclusion: Patients who sustained a Vancouver C PFFs had a high mortality rate (31%) at 2 years. Moreover, 13% of patients required a reoperation within 2 years, most commonly for infection or nonunion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.05.033DOI Listing
May 2021

Total Denervation of the Elbow: Cadaveric Feasibility Study.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hôpital Pierre-Paul Riquet, Toulouse, France.

Purpose: Total elbow arthroplasty for the treatment of patients with severe elbow osteoarthritis is associated with postoperative activity limitations and risk of midterm complications. Elbow denervation could be an attractive therapeutic option for young, active patients. The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility of selective total elbow denervation via 2 anteriorly based approaches.

Methods: Selective total elbow denervation was performed in 14 cadaver elbows by 2 fellowship-trained elbow surgeons. Lateral and medial approaches to the elbow were used. The length of skin incisions and the minimum distance between them were noted. The number of articular branches identified and their respective distances from the lateral or medial epicondyle of the humerus were recorded.

Results: The anterolateral and anteromedial approaches allowed for the identification of all mixed and sensory nerves in all 14 cases. The mean number of resultant articular branches per cadaver was 1 for the musculocutaneous nerve, 2 (range, 1-3) for the radial nerve, 1 (range, 1-3) for the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm, 2 (range, 1-3) for the ulnar nerve, and 2 (range, 1-3) for the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve; the collateral ulnar nerve was connected directly to the capsule. The length of the medial and lateral incisions was 15 cm (range, 12-18 cm) and 12 cm (range, 10-16 cm), respectively. The mean minimum distance between the incisions was 7.5 cm (range, 6.7-8.5 cm).

Conclusions: The findings suggest that selective elbow denervation via 2 approaches is feasible.

Clinical Relevance: Selective elbow denervation via 2 approaches is feasible. Surgeons should target the articular branches of the musculocutaneous, radial, ulnar, and collateral ulnar nerves, posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm, as well as medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves when carrying out this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.04.017DOI Listing
May 2021

Midterm outcomes of 146 EVOLVE Proline modular radial head prostheses: a systematic review.

Shoulder Elbow 2021 Apr 19;13(2):205-212. Epub 2019 May 19.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Institut Locomoteur, Hôpital Pierre-Paul Riquet, Toulouse, France.

Introduction: The EVOLVE implant (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN, USA) is a modular loose-fitting radial head prosthesis. The primary objective was to synthesize all available literature investigating the midterm clinical outcomes of the EVOLVE implant.

Materials And Methods: An electronic literature search in Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane library was performed querying for studies published in 2000-2017. Articles describing clinical and radiographical outcomes as well as reoperation were included. Outcomes of interest included range of motion, Mayo Elbow Performance Score, Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand, radiographic outcome, and reason for reoperation.

Results: A total of five articles consisting of 146 patients with EVOLVE implants were included. Mean patient age was 57.4 years (range 22-84), and 43.8% were males (n = 64). Mean follow-up was 4.8 years (range 1-14). Mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score and Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand score were 87.6 (range 30-100) and 18.9 (range 0-82), respectively. Midterm clinical results were good or excellent (Mayo Elbow Performance Score > 74) in 94 patients. Reoperation was observed in 12 patients, with implant revision required in 2 patients. The primary reason for reoperation was persistent stiffness (n = 9).

Conclusion: Midterm outcomes of EVOLVE radial head prosthesis are satisfactory, and associated complication rates are low. Loose-fit implant method appears to be a reliable approach to avoid failure of radial head prosthesis by painful loosening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758573219850111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039765PMC
April 2021

Acquired Idiopathic Stiffness After Contemporary Total Knee Arthroplasty: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Results Over 25 Years.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Aug 1;36(8):2980-2985. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Acquired idiopathic stiffness (AIS) remains a common failure mode of contemporary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The present study investigated the incidence of AIS and manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) at a single institution over time, determined outcomes of MUAs, and identified risk factors associated with AIS and MUA.

Methods: We identified 9771 patients (12,735 knees) who underwent primary TKAs with cemented, modular metal-backed, posterior-stabilized implants from 2000 to 2016 using our institutional total joint registry. Mean age was 68 years, 57% were female, and mean body mass index was 33 kg/m. Demographic, surgical, and comorbidity data were investigated via univariate Cox proportional hazard models and fit to an adjusted multivariate model to access risk for AIS and MUA. Mean follow-up was 7 years.

Results: During the study period, 456 knees (3.6%) developed AIS and 336 knees (2.6%) underwent MUA. Range of motion (ROM) increased a mean of 34° after the MUA; however, ROM for patients treated with MUA was inferior to patients without AIS at final follow-up (102° vs 116°, P < .0001). Significant risk factors included younger age (HR 2.3, P < .001), increased tourniquet time (HR 1.01, P < .001), general anesthesia (HR 1.3, P = .007), and diabetes (HR 1.5, P = .001).

Conclusion: Acquired idiopathic stiffness has continued to have an important adverse impact on the outcomes of a subset of patients undergoing primary TKAs. When utilized, MUA improved mean ROM by 34°, but patients treated with MUA still had decreased ROM compared to patients without AIS. Importantly, we identified several significant risk factors associated with AIS and subsequent MUA.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.03.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292170PMC
August 2021

Sensory Innervation of the Hip Joint and Referred Pain: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Pain Med 2021 05;22(5):1149-1157

Anatomy Laboratory, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.

Objectives: The aim of this literature review was to establish consensus with respect to the anatomic features of the articular branches innervating the hip joint and the distribution of sensory receptors within its capsule.

Methods: Five electronic databases were queried, with the search encompassing articles published between January 1945 and June 2019. Twenty-one original articles providing a detailed description of sensory receptors around the hip joint capsule (n=13) and its articular branches (n=8) were reviewed.

Results: The superior portions of the anterior capsule and the labrum were found to be the area of densest nociceptive innervation. Similar to the distribution of nociceptors, mechanoreceptor density was found to be higher anteriorly than posteriorly. Hip joint capsular innervation was found to consistently involve the femoral and obturator nerves, which supply the anterior capsule, and the nerve to the quadratus femoris, which supplies the posterior capsule. The femoral, obturator, and superior gluteal nerves supply articular branches to the most nociceptor-rich region of the hip capsule.

Conclusions: The femoral and obturator nerves and the nerve to the quadratus femoris were found to consistently supply articular branches to both the anterior and posterior capsule of the hip joint. The anterior capsule, primarily supplied by the femoral and obturator nerves, and the superior labrum appear to be the primary pain generators of the hip joint, given their higher density of nociceptors and mechanoreceptors.

Level Of Evidence: Anatomy study, literature review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnab061DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of Coronal Alignment on 10-Year Survivorship of a Single Contemporary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 4;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Debate remains regarding the utility of mechanical axis alignment as a predictor of durability after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our study aimed to assess the effects of coronal alignment on implant durability, clinical outcomes, and radiographic results with a single fixed-bearing TKA design. All patients undergoing primary cemented TKA of a single design (Stryker Triathlon) from 2005-2007 with >10 years of follow-up and available pre-operative and post-operative hip-knee-ankle radiographs were included ( = 89). Radiographs were measured to determine coronal alignment and assessed for loosening. Mean preoperative mechanical axis alignment was -6° ± 6.7° (varus, range, -16°-23°), while mean post-operative alignment was -1° ± 2.7° (varus, range, -3°-15°). The aligned group was defined as knees with a post-operative mechanical axis of 0° ± 3° ( = 73) and the outlier group as those outside this range ( = 16). No patients underwent revision. Ten-year survivorship free from any reoperation was 99% and 100% in the aligned and outlier groups, respectively ( = 0.64). Knee Society scores improved significantly in both groups ( < 0.001) and did not differ at final follow-up ( = 0.15). No knees demonstrated radiographic evidence of loosening. Post-operative mechanical axis alignment within 3° of neutral was not associated with improved implant durability, clinical outcomes, or radiographic results at 10 years following primary TKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795414PMC
January 2021

Outcome of Soft-tissue Reconstruction in the Setting of Combined Preoperative and Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Extremity Soft-tissue Sarcomas.

Anticancer Res 2020 Dec 7;40(12):6941-6945. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Reconstruction for soft-tissue sarcomas is complex and often uses soft-tissue flaps. To preserve critical structures, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) can be used to boost the total dose to these critical structures and close margins; however, there are limited data on the outcome of soft-tissue reconstruction in patients treated with IORT.

Patients And Methods: Twenty patients received IORT with soft-tissue flap coverage. There were 14 tumors of the lower extremities and six of the upper, including seven free-flaps and 13 pedicle flaps. Mean preoperative and IORT doses were 49.4 Gy and 10.4 Gy, respectively, with a mean total dose of 59.8 Gy.

Results: Seven (35%) patients had a complication, most commonly an infection (n=4, 27%). Total flap loss occurred in one treated with pedicle flap. Four (20%) patients suffered a radiation-associated fracture. At the final follow-up, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 75±11%.

Conclusion: Complications and postoperative fractures were common with IORT, however, there were no cases requiring amputation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14718DOI Listing
December 2020

A Potential Theragnostic Regulatory Axis for Arthrofibrosis Involving Adiponectin (ADIPOQ) Receptor 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2), TGFβ1, and Smooth Muscle α-Actin (ACTA2).

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 17;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

(1) Background: Arthrofibrosis is a common cause of patient debility and dissatisfaction after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The diversity of molecular pathways involved in arthrofibrosis disease progression suggest that effective treatments for arthrofibrosis may require a multimodal approach to counter the complex cellular mechanisms that direct disease pathogenesis. In this study, we leveraged RNA-seq data to define genes that are suppressed in arthrofibrosis patients and identified adiponectin () as a potential candidate. We hypothesized that signaling pathways activated by ADIPOQ and the cognate receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 may prevent fibrosis-related events that contribute to arthrofibrosis. (2) Methods: Therefore, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were analyzed in a TGFβ1 inducible cell model for human myofibroblastogenesis by both loss- and gain-of-function experiments. (3) Results: Treatment with AdipoRon, which is a small molecule agonist of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, decreased expression of collagens (, , and ) and the myofibroblast marker smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) at both mRNA and protein levels in basal and TGFβ1-induced cells. (4) Conclusions: Thus, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 represent potential drug targets that may attenuate the pathogenesis of arthrofibrosis by suppressing TGFβ-dependent induction of myofibroblasts. These findings also suggest that AdipoRon therapy may reduce the development of arthrofibrosis by mediating anti-fibrotic effects in joint capsular tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698546PMC
November 2020

Treatment outcome of superficial leiomyosarcoma.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Jan 15;123(1):127-132. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Clinic Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Nonuterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are common extremity soft-tissue sarcomas. Deep LMS are at an increased risk for recurrence; however, few studies have focused on superficial LMS.

Methods: We reviewed the clinicopathological features of 82 patients with a primary superficial LMS. The mean age and follow-up were 57 ± 15 and 7 ± 5 years. Depth was classified as dermal (based in the skin; n = 35, 43%) and subcutaneous (based below the dermis, above the fascia; n = 47, 57%) on the final resection specimen. Dermal cases were treated with negative margin resection, while subcutaneous tumors were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team for consideration of possible adjuvant therapy.

Results: The 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) for superficial LMS was 90% with no difference (p = .18) in the 10-year DSS between patients with dermal (100%) and subcutaneous (86%) LMS. All disease recurrences occurred in subcutaneous LMS (17% vs. 0%, p = .02) and subcutaneous tumors had a worse10-year metastatic free survival (81% vs. 100%, p = .03).

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that dermal LMS can be managed with a negative margin resection alone. Although the prognosis for patients with subcutaneous LMS is quite favorable, there is some risk for local and distant recurrence, and such patients will benefit from multidisciplinary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26262DOI Listing
January 2021

Outcomes of free vascularized fibular flaps for the treatment of radiation-associated femoral nonunions.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2020 Nov 4;73(11):1989-1994. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Mayo Clinic, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: Nonunion is a known complication following fracture in the setting of radiotherapy. Free vascularized fibular (FVF) flaps have been used successfully in the treatment of segmental bone defects; however, their efficacy in the treatment of radiated nonunions is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the outcome following FVFG for radiation-associated femoral fracture nonunions.

Methods: 23 (11 male and 12 female; mean age 60 ± 12 years) patients underwent FVF for radiation-associated femoral fracture nonunions. The most common indication for radiotherapy was soft tissue sarcomas (n = 16). The mean follow-up was 5 ± 4 years. Mean radiation dose was 51 ± 14 Gy at a mean of 11 ± 3 years prior to FVF. The mean FVF length was 17 ± 4 cm and placed commonly with an intramedullary nail (n = 18).

Results: First time union was 52% (n = 12) following additional bone grafting, the overall union was 78% (n = 18) at a mean of 13 ± 6 months. Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scores improved from 30% preoperatively to 73% at latest follow-up (p < 0.0001). Five fractures failed to unite; 3 were converted to proximal femoral replacements.

Conclusions: FVF are a reasonable treatment option for radiation-associated femoral fracture nonunions, providing a union rate of 78% and an improvement in functional outcome.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2020.08.062DOI Listing
November 2020

Anti-fibrotic effects of the antihistamine ketotifen in a rabbit model of arthrofibrosis.

Bone Joint Res 2020 Jun 23;9(6):302-310. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aims: Arthrofibrosis is a relatively common complication after joint injuries and surgery, particularly in the knee. The present study used a previously described and validated rabbit model to assess the biomechanical, histopathological, and molecular effects of the mast cell stabilizer ketotifen on surgically induced knee joint contractures in female rabbits.

Methods: A group of 12 skeletally mature rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. One group received subcutaneous (SQ) saline, and a second group received SQ ketotifen injections. Biomechanical data were collected at eight, ten, 16, and 24 weeks. At the time of necropsy, posterior capsule tissue was collected for histopathological and gene expression analyses (messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein).

Results: At the 24-week timepoint, there was a statistically significant increase in passive extension among rabbits treated with ketotifen compared to those treated with saline (p = 0.03). However, no difference in capsular stiffness was detected. Histopathological data failed to demonstrate a decrease in the density of fibrous tissue or a decrease in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining with ketotifen treatment. In contrast, tryptase and α-SMA protein expression in the ketotifen group were decreased when compared to saline controls (p = 0.007 and p = 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in α-SMA () gene expression in the ketotifen group compared to the control group (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggest that ketotifen mitigates the severity of contracture formation in a rabbit model of arthrofibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2046-3758.96.BJR-2019-0272.R2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376284PMC
June 2020

Sensory innervation of the human shoulder joint: the three bridges to break.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Dec 23;29(12):e499-e507. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hôpital Pierre-Paul Riquet, Toulouse, France.

Background: Painful shoulders create a substantial socioeconomic burden and significant diagnostic challenge for shoulder surgeons. Consensus with respect to the anatomic location of sensory nerve branches is lacking. The aim of this literature review was to establish consensus with respect to the anatomic features of the articular branches (ABs) (1) innervating the shoulder joint and (2) the distribution of sensory receptors about its capsule and bursae.

Materials And Methods: Four electronic databases were queried, between January 1945 and June 2019. Thirty original articles providing a detailed description of the distribution of sensory receptors about the shoulder joint capsule (13) and its ABs (22) were reviewed.

Results: The suprascapular, lateral pectoral, axillary, and lower subscapular nerves were found to provide ABs to the shoulder joint. The highest density of nociceptors was found in the subacromial bursa. The highest density of mechanoreceptors was identified within the insertion of the glenohumeral ligaments. The most frequently identified innervation pattern comprised 3 nerve bridges (consisting of ABs from suprascapular, axillary, and lateral pectoral nerves) connecting the trigger and the identified pain generator areas rich in nociceptors.

Conclusion: Current literature supports the presence of a common sensory innervation pattern for the human shoulder joint. Anatomic studies have demonstrated that the most common parent nerves supplying ABs to the shoulder joint are the suprascapular, lateral pectoral, and axillary nerves. Further studies are needed to assess both the safety and efficacy of selective denervation of the painful shoulders, while limiting the loss of proprioceptive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.07.017DOI Listing
December 2020

Modular Fluted Tapered Stems in Aseptic Oncologic Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Game Changer?

J Arthroplasty 2020 12 18;35(12):3692-3696. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN.

Background: Modular fluted tapered (MFT) stems are the most frequently used femoral component in revision total hip arthroplasties (THAs). Despite this, no data are available on how they perform in revision THA for oncologic salvage. This is a unique population, often with severe bone loss and prior radiation that extends the limits of uncemented femoral reconstruction. The aims of this study were to evaluate the implant survivorship, radiographic results, and clinical outcomes of MFT stems used for revision oncologic salvage.

Methods: We identified 17 patients treated initially with primary THA for an oncologic diagnosis (15 primary oncologic, 2 metastatic disease) who underwent subsequent femoral revision with an MFT stem. Mean age at revision was 66 years and 35% of patients were female. Mean follow-up was 4 years. Before revision, 5 of 17 had undergone local radiation.

Results: Ten-year survivorship free from aseptic loosening was 100%. The survivorship free of any reoperation was 76%. There were no femoral component fractures. Three patients were revised for recurrent instability, and 1 patient underwent irrigation and debridement for an acute infection. At most recent follow-up, no patient had radiographic evidence of progressive femoral component subsidence or failure of osteointegration. The mean Harris Hip Score improved from 29 preoperatively to 76 postoperatively (P < .0001).

Conclusion: In this series of patients with cancer, many of whom had severe bone loss and/or prior local radiation, being treated with revision THA, there were no revisions for femoral component loosening and no cases of implant fracture.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.06.038DOI Listing
December 2020

Primary and revision total hip arthroplasty with uncemented acetabular components in patients with Paget's disease.

Hip Int 2020 Apr 28:1120700020920178. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Introduction: Paget's disease affects 3-4% of the population; however, literature describing outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in this population are limited. Given the known concerns with bleeding, heterotopic ossification (HO), and component loosening, we describe our results with primary and revision THAs in Paget's disease with emphasis on implant survivorship, radiographic results, and clinical outcomes.

Methods: We identified 25 THAs performed with contemporary uncemented acetabular components in patients with Paget's disease from 1999 to 2014. Mean age and follow-up were 78 and 7 years.

Results: In primary THAs, survivorship free from aseptic acetabular and femoral loosening was 100% and 94% at 8 years. 7 patients (41%) received blood transfusions. HO was seen in 9 (53%). Mean Harris Hip Score (HHS) improved from 49 to 76. In revision THAs, survivorship free from acetabular and/or femoral aseptic loosening was 100% at 5 years. 3 patients (38%) received a transfusion. HO was seen in 5 (63%). Mean HHS improved from 52 to 77. There were no radiographic signs of aseptic loosening among unrevised cases in either group.

Discussion: Our investigation demonstrates that concerns with acetabular fixation in Paget's disease have been mitigated with contemporary uncemented acetabular components. Complications previously noted, namely intraoperative bleeding and HO, continue to be of concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120700020920178DOI Listing
April 2020

Varus-valgus constraint in 416 revision total knee arthroplasties with cemented stems provides a reliable reconstruction with a low subsequent revision rate at early to mid-term review.

Bone Joint J 2020 Apr;102-B(4):458-462

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aims: Varus-valgus constrained (VVC) implants are often used during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to gain coronal plane stability. However, the increased mechanical torque applied to the bone-cement interface theoretically increases the risk of aseptic loosening. We assessed mid-term survivorship, complications, and clinical outcomes of a fixed-bearing VVC device in revision TKAs.

Methods: A total of 416 consecutive revision TKAs (398 patients) were performed at our institution using a single fixed-bearing VVC TKA from 2007 to 2015. Mean age was 64 years (33 to 88) with 50% male (199). Index revision TKA diagnoses were: instability (n = 122, 29%), aseptic loosening (n = 105, 25%), and prosthetic joint infection (PJI) (n = 97, 23%). All devices were cemented on the epiphyseal surfaces. Femoral stems were used in 97% (n = 402) of cases, tibial stems in 95% (n = 394) of cases; all were cemented. In total, 93% (n = 389) of cases required a stemmed femoral and tibial component. Femoral cones were used in 29%, and tibial cones in 40%. Survivorship was assessed via competing risk analysis; clinical outcomes were determined using Knee Society Scores (KSSs) and range of movement (ROM). Mean follow-up was four years (2 to 10).

Results: The five-year cumulative incidence of subsequent revision for aseptic loosening and instability were 2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2 to 3, number at risk = 154) and 4% (95% CI 2 to 6, number at risk = 153), respectively. The five-year cumulative incidence of any subsequent revision was 14% (95% CI 10 to 18, number at risk = 150). Reasons for subsequent revision included PJI (n = 23, of whom 12 had previous PJI), instability (n = 13), and aseptic loosening (n = 11). The use of this implant without stems was found to be a significant risk factor for subsequent revision (hazard ratio (HR) 7.58 (95% CI 3.98 to 16.03); p = 0.007). KSS improved from 46 preoperatively to 81 at latest follow-up (p < 0.001). ROM improved from 96° prerevision to 108° at latest follow-up (p = 0.016).

Conclusion: The cumulative incidence of subsequent revision for aseptic loosening and instability was very low at five years with this fixed-bearing VVC implant in revision TKAs. Routine use of cemented and stemmed components with targeted use of metaphyseal cones likely contributed to this low rate of aseptic loosening. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(4):458-462.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B4.BJJ-2019-0719.R2DOI Listing
April 2020

Reduction of arthrofibrosis utilizing a collagen membrane drug-eluting scaffold with celecoxib and subcutaneous injections with ketotifen.

J Orthop Res 2020 11 11;38(11):2474-2483. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

The dense formation of abnormal scar tissue after total knee arthroplasty results in arthrofibrosis, an unfortunate sequela of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to use a validated rabbit model to assess the effects on surgically-induced knee joint contractures of two combined pharmacological interventions: celecoxib (CXB) loaded on an implanted collagen membrane, and subcutaneously (SQ) injected ketotifen. Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. The first group received no intervention after the index surgery. The remaining four groups underwent intra-articular implantation of collagen membranes loaded with or without CXB at the time of the index surgery; two of which were also treated with SQ ketotifen. Biomechanical joint contracture data were collected at 8, 10, 16, and 24 weeks. At the time of necropsy (24 weeks), posterior capsule tissue was collected for messenger RNA and histopathologic analyses. At 24 weeks, there was a statistically significant increase in passive extension among rabbits in all groups treated with CXB and/or ketotifen compared to those in the contracture control group. There was a statistically significant decrease in COL3A1, COL6A1, and ACTA2 gene expression in the treatment groups compared to the contracture control group (P < .001). Histopathologic data also demonstrated a trend towards decreased fibrous tissue density in the CXB membrane group compared to the vehicle membrane group. The present data suggest that intra-articular placement of a treated collagen membrane blunts the severity of contracture development in a rabbit model of arthrofibrosis, and that ketotifen and CXB may independently contribute to the prevention of arthrofibrosis. Statement of clinical significance: Current literature has demonstrated that arthrofibrosis may affect up to 5% of primary total knee arthroplasty patients. For that reason, novel pharmacologic prophylaxis and treatment modalities are critical to mitigating reoperations and revisions while improving the quality of life for patients with this debilitating condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483403PMC
November 2020

Influence of the sublaminar band density in the treatment of Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2020 11 26;106(7):1269-1274. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Orthopaedics, Children's Hospital, Toulouse University Hospital, France.

Introduction: Optimal pedicle screw density for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains unknown. It is not clear whether higher implant density results in better clinical outcomes. Large variability in implant density exists among hybrid or all screw constructs. Significant heterogeneity exists with respect to the number of sublaminar bands (SB) used, and the influence of SB density on curve correction in the treatment of AIS.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that increased SB density does not improve sagittal or coronal plane curve correction.

Methods: A single-center, retrospective study of 131 consecutive patients (118 females) with Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, all operated between 2012 and 2015 by two surgeons using identical surgical technique and type of instrumentation (SB hybrid instrumentation treatment). SB density was measured using the number of SB reported as well as the number of vertebrae instrumented. Radiographic measurements included preoperative thoracic curve flexibility, Cincinnati reduction index (CRI), and postoperative thoracic Cobb (POCC) and kyphosis (POKC) angle correction measured on immediate postoperative radiographs and at 2 years postoperatively.

Results: Median patient age was 15.6 years (IQR, 12-18). The median SB density was 0.4 (IQR 0.4-0.5). No statistically significant correlation was identified between SB density and CRI (p=0.71), POCC (p=0.55), or POKC (p=0.61) at 2-years postoperatively. Preoperative curve flexibility was found to have significant effect both on immediate (r=-3.02, p<0.001) and 2-year (r=-2.69, p<0.001).

Discussion: SB utilized as a part of a hybrid construct for patients with flexible Lenke I AIS achieve satisfactory deformity correction regardless of SBd. The use of low SB density is appropriate for a subset of patients with flexible Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2019.10.021DOI Listing
November 2020

Sensory innervation of the human elbow joint and surgical considerations.

Clin Anat 2020 Oct 8;33(7):1062-1068. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Orthopaedic surgery, Hôpital Pierre-Paul Riquet, Toulouse, France.

Based on the currently available literature, total denervation of the elbow joint is considered impossible. However, consensus with respect to the anatomic location of sensory branches is lacking. The aim of this literature review was to establish consensus with respect to the anatomic features of the articular branches innervating the elbow joint, as well as the distribution of sensory receptors about its capsule. Four electronic databases were queried, between January 1945 and June 2019. Twenty-one original articles providing a detailed description of the distribution of sensory receptors about the elbow joint capsule (5) and its articular branches (16) were reviewed. The posterior capsule was found to be primarily innervated by the ulnar and radial nerves via combined articular branches and sensory branches of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. The anterior capsule was found to be primarily innervated by a plexus of articular ramifications from muscular branches of mixed nerves (ulnar, musculocutaneous, radial, and median nerves). A higher density of nociceptors and mechano-receptors was identified within the posterior and anterior capsules, respectively. Thorough denervation, via the technique proposed herein, is likely to be sufficient in eliminating pain from degenerative conditions of the elbow joint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.23538DOI Listing
October 2020

Utility of free vascularized fibular flaps to treat radiation-associated nonunions in the upper extremity.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2020 Apr 27;73(4):633-637. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Nonunion is a common complication following a fracture in the setting of previous radiotherapy; however, currently there is a paucity of data describing treatment for these nonunions in the upper extremity. Free vascularized fibular (FVF) flaps successfully treat bone defects; however, their efficacy with respect to treatment of radiated nonunions is limited. The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome following FVF for radiation-associated upper extremity nonunions.

Methods: Seven patients underwent FVF for the treatment of radiation-associated upper extremity nonunion between 1998 and 2016.

Results: There were 5 male and 2 female patients, with a mean age and follow-up of 44 years and 4 years, respectively. Mean total radiation dose was 41.3 Gy, given at a mean of 11 years prior to FVF. The average FVF length was 15 cm. First time union rate was 71%, however, following repeat bone grafting all patients healed. The median time to union was 10 months. Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scores improved from 57% preoperatively to 89% at latest follow-up (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: FVF is a reliable treatment option for radiation-associated nonunions of the upper extremity, providing an overall union rate of 100% and an improvement in functional outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2019.11.015DOI Listing
April 2020

Long-Term Results of Total Knee Arthroplasty with Contemporary Distal Femoral Replacement.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 Jan;102(1):45-51

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Distal femoral replacement (DFR) is a salvage option for complex primary and revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Although excellent immediate fixation and weight-bearing are achieved, there is a paucity of data on long-term outcomes of TKA with DFR. The purpose of the present study was to determine implant survivorship, clinical outcomes, and radiographic results of TKAs with contemporary DFR components in a large series.

Methods: We identified 144 consecutive TKAs performed with DFR for non-oncologic indications from 2000 to 2015 at a single academic institution. Indications for the index DFR included 66 (46%) for native (n = 11) or periprosthetic (n = 55) femoral fracture, 40 (28%) for staged treatment of periprosthetic joint infection, 28 (19%) for aseptic TKA loosening, and 10 (7%) for other indications. Porous metal cones were used to augment femoral fixation in 28 patients (19%) and tibial fixation in 38 patients (26%). Outcomes included cumulative incidence of revision and reoperation (utilizing a competing risk model), Knee Society scores, and radiographic results. The mean age at the time of index DFR was 72 years, and 65% of patients were female. The mean follow-up was 5 years (range, 2 to 13 years) for the 111 patients who did not undergo revision, had not died, and were not lost to follow-up.

Results: The 10-year cumulative incidences of revision for aseptic loosening, all-cause revision, and any reoperation were 17.0%, 27.5%, and 46.3%, respectively. There was an increased risk of reoperation in patients who underwent index DFR for aseptic TKA loosening (hazard ratio [HR], 2.30; p = 0.026) or periprosthetic joint infection (HR, 2.18; p = 0.022) compared with periprosthetic or native femoral fractures. However, there was no difference in risk of revision for aseptic loosening or all-cause revision based on the original operative indication. The mean Knee Society score increased from 45 preoperatively to 71 at the time of the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). Radiographic loosening was observed in 8 unrevised DFRs (7%). There were 7 above-the-knee amputations performed at the time of the final follow-up, all for intractable periprosthetic joint infection.

Conclusions: TKAs with contemporary DFR had high 10-year cumulative incidences of both revision and reoperation, underscoring the salvage nature of this procedure as a final reconstructive option. Most patients experienced substantial clinical improvements with this end-stage revision procedure.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.19.00489DOI Listing
January 2020

Use of Natural Language Processing Algorithms to Identify Common Data Elements in Operative Notes for Total Hip Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Nov;101(21):1931-1938

Departments of Orthopedic Surgery (C.C.W., M.E.T., D.J.B., D.G.L., and H.M.-K.) and Health Sciences Research (S.F., Y.W., S.S., W.K.K., and H.M.-K.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Manual chart review is labor-intensive and requires specialized knowledge possessed by highly trained medical professionals. Natural language processing (NLP) tools are distinctive in their ability to extract critical information from raw text in electronic health records (EHRs). As a proof of concept for the potential application of this technology, we examined the ability of NLP to correctly identify common elements described by surgeons in operative notes for total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Methods: We evaluated primary THAs that had been performed at a single academic institution from 2000 to 2015. A training sample of operative reports was randomly selected to develop prototype NLP algorithms, and additional operative reports were randomly selected as the test sample. Three separate algorithms were created with rules aimed at capturing (1) the operative approach, (2) the fixation method, and (3) the bearing surface category. The algorithms were applied to operative notes to evaluate the language used by 29 different surgeons at our center and were applied to EHR data from outside facilities to determine external validity. Accuracy statistics were calculated with use of manual chart review as the gold standard.

Results: The operative approach algorithm demonstrated an accuracy of 99.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1% to 99.9%). The fixation technique algorithm demonstrated an accuracy of 90.7% (95% CI, 86.8% to 93.8%). The bearing surface algorithm demonstrated an accuracy of 95.8% (95% CI, 92.7% to 97.8%). Additionally, the NLP algorithms applied to operative reports from other institutions yielded comparable performance, demonstrating external validity.

Conclusions: NLP-enabled algorithms are a promising alternative to the current gold standard of manual chart review for identifying common data elements from orthopaedic operative notes. The present study provides a proof of concept for use of NLP techniques in clinical research studies and registry-development endeavors to reliably extract data of interest in an expeditious and cost-effective manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.19.00071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406139PMC
November 2019

Evolution of Hip Dysplasia in Pediatric Patients With Prader-Willi Syndrome Treated With Growth Hormone Early in Development.

J Pediatr Orthop 2020 May/Jun;40(5):e357-e361

Pediatric Orthopaedics Unit, Children's Hospital.

Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by obesity, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, obesity, musculoskeletal manifestations including scoliosis, and hip dysplasia (HD). The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical and radiographic evolution of HD in the pediatric PWS population.

Methods: The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of 72 patients (147 anteroposterior pelvic radiographs) between January 2004 and December 2016. Center-edge angle (CEA) of Wiberg, acetabular index (AI), and neck-shaft angle (NSA) were measures in all hips. The relationship between radiographic and demographic parameters of age, sex, and body mass index z-score (BMIzs) were assessed.

Results: A total of 274 radiographic measurements were performed and analyzed in 72 patients. The mean CEA, AI, and NSA were 21.8±7.1 degrees (range, 5 to 35 degrees), 16.7±7 degrees (range, 5 to 45 degrees), and 142±8.5 degrees (range, 128 to 165 degrees), respectively. HD was diagnosed in 79 (29%) hip radiographs and varied significantly between the age groups (P<0.01). A statistically significant association was identified between age and CEA [β coef, 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-1; P<0.01], AI (β coef, -0.90; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.7; P<0.01), and NSA (β coef, -1.11; 95% CI, -1.4 to -0.9; P<0.01) angles. Sex and BMIzs were not identified as independent predictors of radiographic hip angles (P>0.1).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated favorable evolution of hip radiographic parameters in the PWS population treated with growth hormone early in development. This finding should prompt orthopedists to consider observation alone in the management algorithm for HD in patients with PWS.

Levels Of Evidence: Level III-a retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001443DOI Listing
September 2020

Use of Natural Language Processing Tools to Identify and Classify Periprosthetic Femur Fractures.

J Arthroplasty 2019 10 24;34(10):2216-2219. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Background: Manual chart review is labor-intensive and requires specialized knowledge possessed by highly trained medical professionals. The cost and infrastructure challenges required to implement this is prohibitive for most hospitals. Natural language processing (NLP) tools are distinctive in their ability to extract critical information from unstructured text in the electronic health records. As a simple proof-of-concept for the potential application of NLP technology in total hip arthroplasty (THA), we examined its ability to identify periprosthetic femur fractures (PPFFx) followed by more complex Vancouver classification.

Methods: PPFFx were identified among all THAs performed at a single academic institution between 1998 and 2016. A randomly selected training cohort (1538 THAs with 89 PPFFx cases) was used to develop the prototype NLP algorithm and an additional randomly selected cohort (2982 THAs with 84 PPFFx cases) was used to further validate the algorithm. Keywords to identify, and subsequently classify, Vancouver type PPFFx about THA were defined. The gold standard was confirmed by experienced orthopedic surgeons using chart and radiographic review. The algorithm was applied to consult and operative notes to evaluate language used by surgeons as a means to predict the correct pathology in the absence of a listed, precise diagnosis. Given the variability inherent to fracture descriptions by different surgeons, an iterative process was used to improve the algorithm during the training phase following error identification. Validation statistics were calculated using manual chart review as the gold standard.

Results: In distinguishing PPFFx, the NLP algorithm demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 99.8% specificity. Among 84 PPFFx test cases, the algorithm demonstrated 78.6% sensitivity and 94.8% specificity in determining the correct Vancouver classification.

Conclusion: NLP-enabled algorithms are a promising alternative to manual chart review for identifying THA outcomes. NLP algorithms applied to surgeon notes demonstrated excellent accuracy in delineating PPFFx, but accuracy was low for Vancouver classification subtype. This proof-of-concept study supports the use of NLP technology to extract THA-specific data elements from the unstructured text in electronic health records in an expeditious and cost-effective manner.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.07.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760992PMC
October 2019

Ultrasound-Guided Versus Landmark-Based Approach to the Distal Suprascapular Nerve Block: A Comparative Cadaveric Study.

Arthroscopy 2019 08 23;35(8):2274-2281. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Reims, Reims, France.

Purpose: To compare the accuracy of distal suprascapular nerve (dSSN) blockade performed with the use of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (USRA) versus with a landmark-based approach (LBA). A secondary aim was to describe the anatomic features of the sensory branches of the dSSN.

Methods: USRA and LBA were performed in 15 shoulders each from 15 cadavers (total of 30 shoulders). Then, 10 mL of methylene blue‒infused ropivacaine 0.75% was injected into the dSSN. Simultaneously, 2.5 mL of red latex solution was injected to identify the position of the needle tip. The division and distribution of the sensory branches originating from the SSN were described.

Results: The tip of the needle was identified at 1.3 cm (range, 0-5.2 cm) and 1.5 cm (range, 0-4.5 cm) with USRA and the LBA, respectively (P = .90). Staining diffused past the origin of the most proximal sensory branch in 27 cases. The most proximal sensory branch arose 2.5 cm from the suprascapular notch. Among the 3 failures that occurred in the USRA group, the sensory branches also failed to be marked. All 30 dSSNs gave off 3 sensory branches, which innervated the posterior glenohumeral capsule, the subacromial bursa, and the coracoclavicular and acromioclavicular ligaments.

Conclusions: An LBA is as reliable and accurate as US guidance for anesthetic blockade of the dSSN. Marking of the suprascapular nerve must be proximal to the suprascapular notch to involve the 3 sensory branches in the anesthetic blockade.

Clinical Relevance: The present study demonstrates that a landmark-based approach to anesthetic blockade of the distal suprascapular nerve is accurate and can be performed by orthopaedic surgeons lacking experience in ultrasound-guided anesthetic techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2019.02.050DOI Listing
August 2019

Acquired Idiopathic Stiffness After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Jul;101(14):1320-1330

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Stiffness is a common reason for suboptimal clinical outcomes after primary total knee arthroplasty (pTKA). There is a lack of consensus regarding its definition, which is often conflated with its histopathologic subcategory-i.e., arthrofibrosis. There is value in refining the definition of acquired idiopathic stiffness in an effort to select for patients with arthrofibrosis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish a consensus definition of acquired idiopathic stiffness, determine its prevalence after pTKA, and identify potential risk factors for its development.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), and Scopus databases were searched from 2002 to 2017. Studies that included patients with stiffness after pTKA were screened with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria to isolate the subset of patients with acquired idiopathic stiffness unrelated to known extrinsic or surgical causes. Three authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias and collected data. Outcomes of interest were then analyzed according to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI).

Results: In the 35 included studies (48,873 pTKAs), the mean patient age was 66 years. In 63% of the studies, stiffness was defined as a range of motion of <90° or a flexion contracture of >5° at 6 to 12 weeks postoperatively. The prevalence of acquired idiopathic stiffness after pTKA was 4%, and this did not differ according to age (4%, I = 95%, among patients <65 years old and 5%, I = 96%, among those ≥65 years old; p = 0.238). The prevalence of acquired idiopathic stiffness was significantly lower in males (1%, I = 85%) than females (3%, I = 95%) (p < 0.0001) as well as in patients with a BMI of <30 kg/m (2%, I = 94%) compared with those with a BMI of ≥30 kg/m (5%, I = 97%) (p = 0.027).

Conclusions: Contemporary literature supports the following definition for acquired idiopathic stiffness: a range of motion of <90° persisting for >12 weeks after pTKA in patients in the absence of complicating factors including preexisting stiffness. The mean prevalence of acquired idiopathic stiffness after pTKA was 4%; females and obese patients were at increased risk.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.01217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6641113PMC
July 2019

Total Knee Arthroplasty After High Tibial Osteotomy Results in Excellent Long-Term Survivorship and Clinical Outcomes.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Jun;101(11):970-978

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Some prior reports of total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy have shown high rates of aseptic loosening. As such, the goal of this study was to analyze the outcomes of contemporary total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy, with particular emphasis on survivorship free from aseptic loosening, any revision, and any reoperation; complications; radiographic results; and clinical outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 207 patients who underwent 231 total knee arthroplasties using cemented prostheses after high tibial osteotomy from 2000 to 2012 through our total joint registry: 87% were after a closing-wedge osteotomy and 13% were after an opening-wedge osteotomy. The mean follow-up from total knee arthroplasty was 8 years. At the time of the total knee arthroplasty, the mean age was 64 years and the mean body mass index was 31 kg/m. The majority of total knee arthroplasties had a posterior-stabilized design (93%), and 4% had a varus-valgus constraint design. Tibial stems were utilized in 8% of cases. Bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were utilized to analyze risk factors for poorer survival.

Results: At 10 years, survivorship free from aseptic loosening was 97%, survivorship free from any revision was 90%, and survivorship free from any reoperation was 85%. Fifteen patients (15 total knee arthroplasties [6%]) underwent aseptic revision, most commonly for instability (3%), aseptic loosening (2%), and periprosthetic fracture (1%). On bivariate analysis, patient age of <60 years was a significant risk factor for poorer revision-free survival (hazard ratio, 2.9; p = 0.02); on multivariate analysis, younger age was the only significant risk factor for revision (p = 0.04). There were 14 complications (6%), the most common being a manipulation under anesthesia in 9 cases (4%). No unrevised total knee arthroplasties had definitive radiographic evidence of loosening. Knee Society scores improved from a mean preoperative score of 59 points to a mean postoperative score of 93 points (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Contemporary total knee arthroplasty with a cemented prosthesis after high tibial osteotomy demonstrated excellent long-term durability, with 10-year survivorship free from aseptic loosening of 97%. There was reliable improvement in clinical outcomes, but perfect knee balance was sometimes challenging, as reflected by a 4% prevalence of manipulation under anesthesia and a 3% prevalence of revision for instability.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.01060DOI Listing
June 2019
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