Publications by authors named "Md Zabir Hasan"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Does social capital increase healthcare financing's projection? Results from the rural household of Uttar Pradesh, India.

SSM Popul Health 2021 Sep 21;15:100901. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

In the absence of adequate social security, out-of-pocket health expenditure compels households to adopt coping strategies, such as utilizing savings, selling assets, or acquiring external financial support (EFS) by borrowing with interest. Households' probability of acquiring EFS and its amount (intensity) depends on its social capital - the nature of social relationships and resources embedded within social networks. This study examines the effect of social capital on the probability and intensity of EFS during health events in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. The analysis used data from a cross-sectional survey of 6218 households, reporting 3066 healthcare events, from two districts of UP. Household heads (HH) reported demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related information, including EFS, for each household member. Self-reported data from Shortened and Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool in India (SASCAT-I) was used to generate four unique social capital measures (organizational participation, social support, trust, and social cohesion) at HH and community-level, using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. After descriptive analysis, two-part mixed-effect models were implemented to estimate the probability and intensity of EFS as a function of social capital measures, where multilevel mixed-effects probit regression was used as the first-part and multilevel mixed-effects linear model with log link and gamma distribution as the second-part. Controlling for all covariates, the probability of acquiring EFS significantly increased (p = 0.04) with higher social support of the HH and significantly decreased (p = 0.02) with higher community social cohesion. Conditional to receiving any EFS, higher social trust of the HH resulted in higher intensity of EFS (p = 0.09). Social support and trust may enable households to cope up with financial stress. However, controlling for the other dimensions of social capital, high cohesiveness with the community might restrict a household's access to external resources demonstrating the unintended effect of social capital exerted by formal or informal social control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383105PMC
September 2021

Stronger together: a new pandemic agenda for South Asia.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 08;6(8)

School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-006776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8344301PMC
August 2021

A practical measure of health facility efficiency: an innovation in the application of routine health information to determine health worker productivity in Ethiopia.

Hum Resour Health 2021 08 5;19(1):96. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 E Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Background: A simple indicator of technical efficiency, such as productivity of health workers, measured using routine health facility data, can be a practical approach that can inform initiatives to improve efficiency in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents a proof of concept of using routine information from primary healthcare (PHC) facilities to measure health workers' productivity and its application in three regions of Ethiopia.

Methods: In four steps, we constructed a productivity measure of the health workforce of Health Centers (HCs) and demonstrated its practical application: (1) developing an analytical dataset using secondary data from health management information systems (HMIS) and human resource information system (HRIS); (2) principal component analysis and factor analysis to estimate a summary measure of output from five indicators (annual service volume of outpatient visits, family planning, first antenatal care visits, facility-based deliveries by skilled birth attendants, and children [< 1 year] with three pentavalent vaccines); (3) calculating a productivity score by combining the summary measure of outputs and the total number of health workers (input), and (4) implementing regression models to identify the determinant of productivity and ranking HCs based on their adjusted productivity score.

Results: We developed an analytical dataset of 1128 HCs; however, significant missing values and outliers were reported in the data. The principal component and factor scores developed from the five output measures were highly consistent (correlation coefficient = 0.98). We considered the factor score as the summary measure of outputs for estimating productivity. A very weak association was observed between the summary measure of output and the total number of staff. The result also highlighted a large variability in productivity across similar health facilities in Ethiopia, represented by the significant dispersion in summary measure of output occurring at similar levels of the health workers.

Conclusions: We successfully demonstrated the analytical steps to estimate health worker productivity and its practical application using HMIS and HRIS. The methodology presented in this study can be readily applied in low- and middle-income countries using widely available data-such as DHIS2-that will allow further explorations to understand the causes of technical inefficiencies in the health system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12960-021-00636-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340541PMC
August 2021

Greenness and the Potential Resilience to Sexual Violence: "Your Neighborhood Is Being Neglected Because People Don't Care. People With Power Don't Care".

J Interpers Violence 2021 Jul 1:8862605211028009. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

University of California, La Jolla, CA, USA.

There is increasing evidence that green space in communities reduces the risk of aggression and violence, and increases wellbeing. Positive associations between green space and resilience have been found among children, older adults and university students in the United States, China and Bulgaria. Little is known about these associations among predominately Black communities with structural disadvantage. This study explored the potential community resilience in predominately Black neighborhoods with elevated violent crime and different amounts of green space. This embedded mixed-methods study started with quantitative analysis of women who self-identified as "Black and/or African American." We found inequality in environments, including the amount of green space, traffic density, vacant property, and violent crime. This led to 10 indepth interviews representing communities with elevated crime and different amounts of green space. Emergent coding of the first 3 interviews, a subset of the 98 in the quantitative analysis, led to a priori coding of barriers and facilitators to potential green space supported community resilience applied to the final 7 interview data. Barriers were a combination of the physical and social environment, including traffic patterns, vacant property, and crime. Facilitators included subjective qualities of green space. Green spaces drew people in through community building and promoting feelings of calmness. The transformation of vacant lots into green spaces by community members affords space for people to come together and build community. Green spaces, a modifiable factor, may serve to increase community resilience and decrease the risk of violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08862605211028009DOI Listing
July 2021

Integrated health service delivery during COVID-19: a scoping review of published evidence from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 06;6(6)

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Integrated health service delivery (IHSD) is a promising approach to improve health system resilience. However, there is a lack of evidence specific to the low/lower-middle-income country (L-LMIC) health systems on how IHSD is used during disease outbreaks. This scoping review aimed to synthesise the emerging evidence on IHSD approaches adopted in L-LMIC during the COVID-19 pandemic and systematically collate their operational features.

Methods: A systematic scoping review of peer-reviewed literature, published in English between 1 December 2019 and 12 June 2020, from seven electronic databases was conducted to explore the evidence of IHSD implemented in L-LMICs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were systematically charted, and key features of IHSD systems were presented according to the postulated research questions of the review.

Results: The literature search retrieved 1487 published articles from which 18 articles met the inclusion criteria and included in this review. Service delivery, health workforce, medicine and technologies were the three most frequently integrated health system building blocks during the COVID-19 pandemic. While responding to COVID-19, the L-LMICs principally implemented the IHSD system via systematic horizontal integration, led by specific policy measures. The government's stewardship, along with the decentralised decision-making capacity of local institutions and multisectoral collaboration, was the critical facilitator for IHSD. Simultaneously, fragmented service delivery structures, fragile supply chain, inadequate diagnostic capacity and insufficient workforce were key barriers towards integration.

Conclusion: A wide array of context-specific IHSD approaches were operationalised in L-LMICs during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging recommendations emphasise the importance of coordination and integration across building blocks and levels of the health system, supported by a responsive governance structure and stakeholder engagement strategies. Future reviews can revisit this emerging evidence base at subsequent phases of COVID-19 response and recovery in L-LMICs to understand how the approaches highlighted here evolve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210663PMC
June 2021

Evidence of integrated health service delivery during COVID-19 in low and lower-middle-income countries: protocol for a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2021 05 3;11(5):e042872. Epub 2021 May 3.

International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: The importance of integrated, people-centred health systems has been recognised as a central component of Universal Health Coverage. Integration has also been highlighted as a critical element for building resilient health systems that can withstand the shock of health emergencies. However, there is a dearth of research and systematic synthesis of evidence on the synergistic relationship between integrated health services and pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, the authors are organising a scoping review aiming to explore the application of integrated health service delivery approaches during the emerging COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs.

Methods And Analysis: This scoping review adheres to the six steps for scoping reviews from Arksey and O'Malley. Peer-reviewed scientific literature will be systematically assembled using a standardised and replicable search strategy from seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL Plus, the WHO's Global Research Database on COVID-19 and LitCovid. Initially, the title and abstract of the collected literature, published in English from December 2019 to June 2020, will be screened for inclusion which will be followed by a full-text review by two independent reviewers. Data will be charted using a data extraction form and reported in narrative format with accompanying data matrix.

Ethics And Dissemination: No ethical approval is required for the review. The study will be conducted from June 2020 to May 2021. Results from this scoping review will provide a snapshot of the evidence currently being generated related to integrated health service delivery in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs. The findings will be developed into reports and a peer-reviewed article and will assist policy-makers in making pragmatic and evidence-based decisions for current and future pandemic responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098290PMC
May 2021

An interrupted time series analysis of the lockdown policies in India: a national-level analysis of COVID-19 incidence.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Jun;36(5):620-629

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

India implemented a national mandatory lockdown policy (Lockdown 1.0) on 24 March 2020 in response to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The policy was revised in three subsequent stages (Lockdown 2.0-4.0 between 15 April to 18 May 2020), and restrictions were lifted (Unlockdown 1.0) on 1 June 2020. This study evaluated the effect of lockdown policy on the COVID-19 incidence rate at the national level to inform policy response for this and future pandemics. We conducted an interrupted time series analysis with a segmented regression model using publicly available data on daily reported new COVID-19 cases between 2 March 2020 and 1 September 2020. National-level data from Google Community Mobility Reports during this timeframe were also used in model development and robustness checks. Results showed an 8% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 6-9%] reduction in the change in incidence rate per day after Lockdown 1.0 compared to prior to the Lockdown order, with an additional reduction of 3% (95% CI = 2-3%) after Lockdown 4.0, suggesting an 11% (95% CI = 9-12%) reduction in the change in COVID-19 incidence after Lockdown 4.0 compared to the period before Lockdown 1.0. Uptake of the lockdown policy is indicated by decreased mobility and attenuation of the increasing incidence of COVID-19. The increasing rate of incident case reports in India was attenuated after the lockdown policy was implemented compared to before, and this reduction was maintained after the restrictions were eased, suggesting that the policy helped to 'flatten the curve' and buy additional time for pandemic preparedness, response and recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czab027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135431PMC
June 2021

Residential Greenness Positively Associated with the Cortisol to DHEA Ratio among Urban-Dwelling African American Women at Risk for HIV.

J Urban Health 2021 08 9;98(4):570-578. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

, La Jolla, USA.

As ecosystems that support human health, societies, and civilization change in the era of the Anthropocene, individuals with disproportionate balance of salivary hormones may be at greatest risk of morbidity and mortality. Vulnerable communities, in particular, are overburdened by inequities in features of built environments linked to health disparities. This study examined the cross-sectional association of greenness in the built environment with the ratio of cortisol to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in an urban-dwelling high-risk community sample of African American women (n = 84, age 18-44 years). Saliva samples, collected across 2 consecutive days, were assayed for cortisol and DHEA. Controlling for sexual violence, perceived stress, education, and income, as well as crime, traffic density, and vacant properties, we observed a significant positive cross-sectional association between greenness and the cortisol to DHEA ratio, (β = 7·5, 95% CI: 0.89, 14.19). The findings highlight environmental influence on stress response at waking when there is the greatest individual variation. Implications for advancing our understanding of the waking ratio of cortisol to DHEA as a potential marker of physiological resilience are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-020-00492-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382813PMC
August 2021

Evidence of integrated primary-secondary health care in low-and middle-income countries: protocol for a scoping review.

Syst Rev 2020 11 9;9(1):260. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Integrated care is a people-centered health delivery approach that ensures the comprehensiveness, quality, and continuity of service across the settings and levels of health systems. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration across levels and building-blocks of health systems as a prerequisite of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). While health systems of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are often fragmented and led by siloed service delivery structure, several LMICs-including India-have attempted health system integration. Several systematic reviews of evidence on healthcare integration from developed countries exist, but no synthesis from LMICs was reported to date. This review will overview the existing evidence of primary-secondary care integration (PSI) in the context of LMICs, aiming to support policy decisions for the effective integration of health delivery systems in India.

Methods: The review will be conducted following the six steps recommend by Arksey and O'Malley. Scientific and grey literature will be systematically selected from PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Global Index Medicus, and electronic repositories (such as WHO, World Bank, Health Policy Plus, and OpenGrey). Using a comprehensive search strategy, literature written in English and published between 2000 and 2020 will be selected, and two independent authors will screen their titles and abstracts. The result will be charted using a data extraction form and reported using tables, figures, and narrative forms.

Discussion: No ethical approval is necessary for the review. The final report will be developed with the consultation of other stakeholders and disseminated through workshops, conference papers, and peer review articles. The review will serve as a guiding tool to approach, implement, and test the PSI models in India and other LMICs. SCOPING REVIEW REGISTRATION: https://osf.io/kjhzt .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01514-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654598PMC
November 2020

Social capital and peer influence of tobacco consumption: a cross-sectional study among household heads in rural Uttar Pradesh, India.

BMJ Open 2020 06 30;10(6):e037202. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Objective: Having the world's second-largest tobacco-consuming population, tobacco control is a priority agenda of the Indian Government. Yet, there is no evidence of how peer influence and nature of social relationships-defined as social capital-affect tobacco use. This study aimed to explore the role of social capital and peer influence on tobacco consumption among household heads in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India.

Design And Setting: This study was embedded within the baseline evaluation of Project Samuday. A cross-sectional multistage cluster survey was implemented in six census blocks of Hardoi and Sitapur districts of UP from June to August 2017. Self-reported tobacco consumption status of randomly selected 6218 household heads (≥18 years; men vs women=5312 vs 906) was assessed from 346 rural communities. Peer influence of tobacco use was measured by the non-self cluster proportion of tobacco consumption among respondents. Community engagement, social support, trust and social cohesion were separately measured as unique facets of social capital both at individual and community levels using the Shortened Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool in India (SASCAT-I). The explanatory power of covariates was assessed using gender-stratified generalised estimating equations (GEE) with robust-variance estimator.

Result: Tobacco consumption patterns were starkly different for men and women (71% vs 14%). The peer influence only affected men (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.10, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.16, p<0.01), whereas women were more likely to consume tobacco if they were more engaged with community organisations (AOR=1.33, 95% CI=1.07 to 1.66, p<0.01).

Conclusion: Gender alters the way social engagement affects tobacco use in rural India. Countering peer influence on Indian men should be prioritised as a tobacco control strategy. Moreover, as gender mainstreaming is a critical egalitarian agenda in India, further research is needed to understand how social engagement affects tobacco consumption behaviours among women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328809PMC
June 2020

Social capital and utilization of immunization service: A multilevel analysis in rural Uttar Pradesh, India.

SSM Popul Health 2020 Apr 23;10:100545. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The National Health Policy (2017) of India advocates Universal Health Coverage through inclusive growth, decentralization, and rebuilding a cohesive community through a participatory process. To achieve this goal, understanding social organization, and community relationships - defined as social capital - is critical. This study aimed to explore the influence of individual and community-level social capital on a critical health system performance indicator, three-doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT3) immunization among 12-59 month children, in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. The analysis is based on a cross-sectional survey from two districts of UP, which included 2239 children 12-59 months of age (level 1) from 1749 households (level 2) nested within 346 communities (level 3). We used multilevel confirmatory factor analysis to generate standardized factor scores of social capital constructs ( Support and ) of the household heads and mothers both at individual and community level, which were then used in the multilevel logistic regressions to explore the independent and contextual effect of social capital on a child's DPT3 immunization status. The result showed only community-level of the mothers was associated with a child's DPT3 immunization status (Adjusted odds ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.54; p = 0.04). Beyond its independent effect on utilization of immunization service, the collective of the mothers significantly modified the relationship of child age, mother's knowledge of immunization, community wealth, and communities' contact with frontline workers with immunization status of the child. With a strong theoretical underpinning, the result substantially contributes to understanding the individual and contextual predictors of immunization service utilization and further advancing the literature of social capital in India. This study can serve as a starting point to catalyze social capital within the health interventions for achieving wellbeing and the collective development of society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211897PMC
April 2020

Exploration of Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance by Gender for a Modified Shortened Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool in India.

Front Psychol 2019 11;10:2641. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Social capital is defined as the nature of the social relationship between individuals or groups and the embedded resources available through their social network. It is considered as a critical determinant of health and well-being. Thus, it is essential to assess the performance of any tool when meaningfully comparing social capital between specific groups. Using measurement invariance (MI) analysis, this paper explored the factor structure of the social capital of men and women measured by a modified Shortened Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool (SASCAT-I) in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. The study sample comprised 5,287 men (18-101 years) and 7,186 women (15-45 years) from 6,218 randomly selected households who responded to SASCAT-I during a community-level cross-sectional survey. Social capital factor structure was examined by both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and MI across genders was investigated using multigroup CFA. While disregarding gender, four unique factors (, , , and ) represented the structure of social capital. The MI analysis presented a partial metric-invariance indicating factor loadings for and were the same across genders. The gender-stratified analysis demonstrated that a four-factor solution was best fitted for both men and women. Men and women of rural UP interpreted social capital differently as the perception of and varied across genders. For any future applications of SASCAT-I, we recommend gender-stratified factor analysis to quantify social capital's measure, acknowledging its multidimensionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6918543PMC
December 2019

Determinants of health seeking behavior for chronic non-communicable diseases and related out-of-pocket expenditure: results from a cross-sectional survey in northern Bangladesh.

J Health Popul Nutr 2019 12 23;38(1):48. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Medical Faculty and University Hospital, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 130.3, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: In spite of high prevalence rates, little is known about health seeking and related expenditure for chronic non-communicable diseases in low-income countries. We assessed relevant patterns of health seeking and related out-of-pocket expenditure in Bangladesh.

Methods: We used data from a household survey of 2500 households conducted in 2013 in Rangpur district. We employed multinomial logistic regression to assess factors associated with health seeking choices (no care or self-care, semi-qualified professional care, and qualified professional care). We used descriptive statistics (5% trimmed mean and range, median) to assess related patterns of out-of-pocket expenditure (including only direct costs).

Results: Eight hundred sixty-six (12.5%) out of 6958 individuals reported at least one chronic non-communicable disease. Of these 866 individuals, 139 (16%) sought no care or self-care, 364 (42%) sought semi-qualified care, and 363 (42%) sought qualified care. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the following factors increased the likelihood of seeking qualified care: a higher education, a major chronic non-communicable disease, a higher socio-economic status, a lower proportion of chronic household patients, and a shorter distance between a household and a sub-district public referral health facility. Seven hundred fifty-four (87 %) individuals reported out-of-pocket expenditure, with drugs absorbing the largest portion (85%) of total expenditure. On average, qualified care seekers encountered the highest out-of-pocket expenditure, followed by those who sought semi-qualified care and no care, or self-care.

Conclusion: Our study reveals insufficiencies in health provision for chronic conditions, with more than half of all affected people still not seeking qualified care, and the majority still encountering considerable out-of-pocket expenditure. This calls for urgent measures to secure better access to care and financial protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41043-019-0195-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6929492PMC
December 2019

Prevalence and factors associated with underweight, overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age in India.

Glob Health Res Policy 2019 6;4:24. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

1Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD-21201 USA.

Introduction: Although the prevalence of underweight is declining among Indian women, the prevalence of overweight/obesity is increasing. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with underweight and overweight/obesity among reproductive-aged (i.e., 15-49 years) women in India.

Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey. The Asian and World Health Organization (WHO) recommended cutoffs for body mass index (BMI) were used to categorize body weight. The Asian and WHO BMI cutoffs for combined overweight/obesity were ≥ 23 and ≥ 25 kg/m, respectively. Both recommendations had the same cutoff for underweight, < 18.5 kg/m. After prevalence estimation, logistic regression was applied to investigate associated factors.

Results: Among 647,168 women, the median age and BMI was 30 years and 21.0 kg/m, respectively. Based on the Asian cutoffs, the overall prevalence of underweight was 22.9%, overweight was 22.6%, and obesity was 10.7%, compared to 15.5% overweight and 5.1% obesity as per WHO cutoffs. The prevalence and odds of underweight were higher among young, nulliparous, contraceptive non-user, never-married, Hindu, backward castes, less educated, less wealthy, and rural women. According to both cutoffs, women who were older, ever-pregnant, ever-married, Muslims, castes other than backwards, highly educated, wealthy, and living in urban regions had higher prevalence and odds of overweight/obesity.

Conclusion: The prevalence of both non-normal weight categories (i.e., underweight and overweight/obesity) was high. A large proportion of women are possibly at higher risks of cardiovascular and reproductive adverse events due to these double nutrition burdens. Implementing large-scale interventions based on these results is essential to address these issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41256-019-0117-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6729094PMC
September 2019

Determinants of hypertension among adults in Bangladesh as per the Joint National Committee 7 and 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Hypertension Association hypertension guidelines.

J Am Soc Hypertens 2018 11 22;12(11):e45-e55. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

We investigated determinants of hypertension in Bangladesh using both Joint National Committee 7 (JNC7) and 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Hypertension Association (2017 ACC/AHA) guidelines. After reporting background characteristics, odds ratios (ORs) were obtained by multilevel logistic regression. Among 7839 respondents aged ≥35 years, 25.7% (n = 2016) and 48.0% (n = 3767) respondents had hypertension as per the JNC7 and 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. The following factors were significant according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline: ≥65 years (adjusted OR [AOR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-3.0), 55-64 years (AOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4-1.9), and 45-54 years (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.6) age groups, females (AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.7-2.2), overweight/obesity (AOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0-2.8), diabetes (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), secondary (AOR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), or college education level (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.3), middle (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), richer (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8) or richest (AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6-2.4) wealth quintiles, residence in Khulna (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9), and Rangpur (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.2) divisions. All factors were significant as per the JNC7 guideline too. Both guidelines found similar determinants. Prevention and control programs should prioritize increasing awareness among people with higher likelihood of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2018.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442465PMC
November 2018
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