Publications by authors named "Md Obyedul Kalam Azad"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Microbial Quality Assessment and Efficacy of Low-Cost Disinfectants on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Collected from Urban Areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Foods 2021 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biosystems and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Alnarp, Sweden.

This study aimed to examine the total viable bacteria (TVBC); total coliform (TCC); fecal coliform (TFC); pathogenic spp., and total fungi (TF); and the effect of different low-cost disinfectants (sterile water, salt water, blanched, and vinegar) in decontamination of 12 types of fruit and 10 types of vegetables. In fruit samples, the lowest TVBC was enumerated at 3.18 ± 0.27 log CFU/g in Indian gooseberry and the highest at 6.47 ± 0.68 log CFU/g in guava. (2.04 ± 0.53-5.10 ± 0.02 log CFU/g), (1.88 ± 0.03-5.38 ± 0.08 log CFU/g), and total fungi (2.60 ± 0.18-7.50 ± 0.15 log CFU/g) were found in all fruit samples; however, no was detected in fruit samples. Similarly, the lowest TVBC recorded 5.67± 0.49 log CFU/g in cucumber and the highest 7.37 ± 0.06 log CFU/g in yard long bean. The (3.48 ± 0.13-4.81 ± 0.16 log CFU/g), (3.57± 0.21- 4.75 ± 0.23 log CFU/g), TCC (1.85 ± 1.11-56.50 ± 37.14 MPN/g), TFC (1.76 ± 0.87- 3.78 ± 3.76 MPN/g), and TF (3.79 ± 0.18-4.40 ± 0.38 log CFU/g) were recorded in all vegetables samples, but no was detected in yard long bean, pointed gourd, carrot, tomato, cucumber, or brinjal. However, vinegar showed the highest microbial load reduction of selected fruit and vegetables among the different treatments. With vinegar treatment, the highest reduction of TVBC (1.61-log) and TF (2.54-log) was observed for fruits, and TVBC (2.31-log) and TF (2.41-log) for vegetables. All the disinfectant treatments resulted in significant ( < 0.01) bacterial load reduction compared to control for the studied fruits and vegetable samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227336PMC
June 2021

Estimation of Yield, Photosynthetic Rate, Biochemical, and Nutritional Content of Red Leaf Lettuce ( L.) Grown in Organic Substrates.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biosystems and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 103, SE23053 Alnarp, Sweden.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic substrates on the growth yield, photosynthetic response, and nutritional profile of red leaf lettuce grown in different compositions of cocopeat (CP), sawdust (SD), and rice husk (RH). The result showed that the properties of substrates were influenced variably by their mixing ratios. The highest water holding capacity and moisture content were found in CP, and it provided the preferable pH, electrical conductivity, bulk density, and air-filled porosity in association with other categories of the substrate. Cocopeat-based media provides ample microclimate conditions in the root region of plants and increased their height, number of leaves, and fresh biomass components. The utmost dry biomass of plant parts also remarkably increased in CP; L*, a*, and b* chromaticity of leaves remained unchanged. The maximum chlorophyll content was attained in CP substrate, except for chlorophyll a/b, which was higher in RH. The net photosynthetic rate (PN), transpiration rate (E), and nitrate in leaves were enhanced substantially in CP, while it was lower in SD. Biochemical compositions and nutrients in leaves were likewise stimulated under the culture of cocopeat-based media. Results indicate that cocopeat, sawdust, and rice husk are a possible substrates mixture in a volume ratio of 3:1:1, which would be a better choice in the cultivation of red leaf lettuce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10061220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232713PMC
June 2021

Exogenous Putrescine Enhances Salt Tolerance and Ginsenosides Content in Korean Ginseng ( Meyer) Sprouts.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Bio-Health Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The effect of exogenously applied putrescine (Put) on salt stress tolerance was investigated in . Thirty-day-old ginseng sprouts were grown in salinized nutrient solution (150 mM NaCl) for five days, while the control sprouts were grown in nutrients solution. Putrescine (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mM) was sprayed on the plants once at the onset of salinity treatment, whereas control plants were sprayed with water only. Ginseng seedlings tested under salinity exhibited reduced plant growth and biomass production, which was directly interlinked with reduced chlorophyll and chlorophyll fluorescence due to higher reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide; HO) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA) production. Application of Put enhanced accumulation of proline, total soluble carbohydrate, total soluble sugar and total soluble protein. At the same time, activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase in leaves, stems, and roots of ginseng seedlings were increased. Such modulation of physio-biochemical processes reduced the level of HO and MDA, which indicates a successful adaptation of ginseng seedlings to salinity stress. Moreover, protopanaxadiol (PPD) ginsenosides enhanced by both salinity stress and exogenous Put treatment. On the other hand, protopanaxatriol (PPT) ginsenosides enhanced in roots and reduced in leaves and stems under salinity stress condition. In contrast, they enhanced by exogenous Put application in all parts of the plants for most cases, also evidenced by principal component analysis. Collectively, our findings provide an important prospect for the use of Put in modulating salinity tolerance and ginsenosides content in ginseng sprouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10071313DOI Listing
June 2021

Production of Potato ( L.) Seed Tuber under Artificial LED Light Irradiation in Plant Factory.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 4;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Bio-Health Convergence, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Plant production in a plant factory is an innovative and smart idea to grow food anytime, anywhere, regardless of the outer environment. However, potato pre-basic seed tuber (PBST) production in a plant factory is a comparatively new initiative. Therefore, the aim of this study was to optimize the artificial LED light spectrum to produce PBST in a plant factory. Two potato varieties such as Golden king (V48) and Chungang (V41) were grown in soil substrate under different combination of artificial LED light combinations (such as red+blue+far-red, red+blue+white, blue+far-red, blue+white, red+far-red, and red+white) maintaining photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 100 mol ms, temperature 23/15 °C (day/night), and relative humidity 70%. The study revealed that, overall, potato plant growth (viz.; plant height, node number, leaf number, leaf length and width, fresh and dry weight) was enhanced by the red+far red light for both potato varieties. The total seed tuber number per plant was higher in red+blue+white light for V48, and red+far-red for V41. The fresh tuber weight was the highest in the red+blue+far-red light for V48 and red+blue+white for V41. The highest accumulated photosynthetic pigment (total Chlorophyll, Chlorophyll a, b and Carotenoid) was observed in red+blue+white light for both varieties. The total carbohydrate content and total sucrose content were higher in red+blue+far red and red +far red light treatment for V48 and V41, respectively. Finally, considering all factors, it is concluded that the red+blue+white light combination is deemed to be appropriate for the potato PBST production in plant factory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915469PMC
February 2021

Kenaf ( L.) Leaves and Seed as a Potential Source of the Bioactive Compounds: Effects of Various Extraction Solvents on Biological Properties.

Life (Basel) 2020 Sep 28;10(10). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, College of Biomedical Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

(Kenaf) is a potential source of bioactive constituents and natural antioxidant. The current study determined the impact of various solvents on extraction yield, recovery of polyphenol and flavonoid, antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties of Kenaf leaves and seed. The powder of leaves and seed was separately extracted with -hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water solvent. Among them, the ethanol extract of leaves and seed showed the highest extraction yield, and their GC-MS analysis revealed a total of 55 and 14 bioactive compounds, respectively. The total polyphenols (TP) and flavonoids (TF) content were quantified by a spectrophotometric technique where water extracts displayed a noteworthy amount of TP and TF content compared to other extracts. A similar demonstration was noticed in antioxidant activity, evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity. In addition, cytotoxicity and anti-lung cancer activity were identified against mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH3T3) and human lung cancer (A549) cells. All extracts of leaves and seed were observed as non-toxic to the NIH3T3 cells, but slight toxicity was expressed by -hexane extracts at the optimum dose (1000 µg/mL) of treatment. In parallel, -hexane and ethanol extracts (leaves and seed) exposed promising anti-lung cancer activity at the same concentration. Furthermore, antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion assay, and seed extracts exhibited a significant inhibition zone against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Overall, Kenaf seed extracted with polar solvents was found very potent in terms of important bioactive compounds and pharmacological aspects, which can be an excellent biological matrix of natural antioxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life10100223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601236PMC
September 2020

Intervention in Neuropsychiatric Disorders by Suppressing Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signal and Exploration of In Silico Studies for Potential Lead Compounds from (Dennst.) Oken leaves.

Biomolecules 2020 04 6;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

(Dennst.), a popular plant used in folk medicine in Bangladesh, is often used by the local folk practitioner to treat a variety of chronic diseases. The present research is an attempt to find out an innovative therapeutic prospect for the management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The methanol extract of leaves (MEHC) were utilized on various behavioral tests for assessing anxiolytic, anti-depressant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant potentials and quantitative phytochemicals were evaluated through spectrophotometric methods. Results revealed that treatment of MEHC (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced anxiety like behaviors in mice, particularly, 400 mg/kg efficiently improved % of entries and time spent ( < 0.05) in the open arms in elevated plus maze test, whereas, superior head dipping tendency ( < 0.05) was observed in hole-board test. In contrast, mice treated with 200 mg/kg revealed better anxiolytic effect in both open field and hole-cross tests. During antidepressant evaluation, mice administrated with MEHC exhibited active behaviors (swimming and struggling) in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In parallel, MEHC manifested a noteworthy ( < 0.001) suppression of inflammatory response induced by histamine. The MEHC also showed strong antioxidant activities in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) (IC: 57.64 μg/mL) scavenging, HO (IC: 51.60 μg/mL) scavenging, and ferric reducing power assay. The levels of total phenol, flavonoid, flavonol, condensed tannin, and antioxidant were estimated as higher in MEHC. Moreover, 11 compounds were documented as bioactive, displayed good binding affinities to potassium channel receptor, human serotonin receptor, cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and 2), and xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme targets in molecular docking experiments. Furthermore, ADME/T and Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS) analyses exposed their drug-likeness, nontoxic upon consumption, and likely pharmacological actions. Overall, the H. caustica is potentially bioactive as evident by in vivo, in vitro, and computational analysis. Our findings support the folkloric value of this plant, which may provide a potential source towards developing drug leads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10040561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226598PMC
April 2020

Unveiling Pharmacological Responses and Potential Targets Insights of Identified Bioactive Constituents of Roxb. Leaves through In Vivo and In Silico Approaches.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 Mar 20;13(3). Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Roxb. is traditionally used by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh to treat different diseases, such as pain, edema, tumor, jaundice, and skin infections. This study tested neuro-pharmacological, anti-nociceptive, and antidiarrheal activities by in vivo and in silico experiments for the metabolites extracted (methanol) from the leaves of (MECR). During the anxiolytic evaluation analyzed by elevated plus maze and hole board tests, MECR (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of anxiety-like behavior in mice. Similarly, mice treated with MECR demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in the time of immobility in both forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In addition, anti-nociceptive activity was assessed by the chemical-induced (acetic acid and formalin) pain models. In both cases, 400 mg/kg was found to be most effective and significantly ( < 0.001) inhibited acetic acid stimulated writhing and formalin-induced licking (pain response) in mice. Furthermore, antidiarrheal efficacy determined by the castor-oil induced diarrheal model manifested an evident inhibition of diarrheal stool frequency. In parallel, previously isolated bioactive compounds were documented based on the biological activities and subjected to in silico studies to correlate with the current pharmacological outcomes. The selected isolated compounds (15) displayed favorable binding affinities to potassium channels, human serotonin receptor, COX-1, COX-2, M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and 5-HT3 receptor proteins. Additionally, the ADME/T and toxicological properties were justified to unveil their drug-like properties and toxicity level. Overall, is bioactive and could be a potential source for the development of alternative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13030050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151675PMC
March 2020

Comparative Study of Roxb. Leaves and Stems for Anxiolytic and Antioxidant Properties Through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico Approaches.

Biomedicines 2020 Mar 25;8(4). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Roxb. is traditionally used by the indigenous people of tropical and subtropical countries like Bangladesh, India, and China for relieving the common cold or a variety of chronic diseases, such as asthma, chronic coughing, piles, rheumatic pain, headaches, wounds, tuberculosis, indigestion, and dyspepsia. This study tested anxiolytic and antioxidant activities by , , and experiments for the metabolites extracted (methanol) from the leaves and stems of (MEPSL and MEPSS). During the anxiolytic evaluation analyzed by elevated plus maze and hole board tests, MEPSL and MEPSS (200 and 400 mg/kg, body weight) exhibited a significant and dose-dependent reduction of anxiety-like behavior in mice. Similarly, mice treated with MEPSL and MEPSS demonstrated dose-dependent increases in locomotion and CNS simulative effects in open field test. In addition, both extracts (MEPSL and MEPSS) also showed moderate antioxidant activities in DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing power assays compared to the standard, ascorbic acid. In parallel, previously isolated bioactive compounds from this plant were documented and subjected to a molecular docking study to correlate them with the pharmacological outcomes. The selected four major phytocompounds displayed favorable binding affinities to potassium channel and xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme targets in molecular docking experiments. Overall, is bioactive, as is evident through experimental and computational analysis. Further experiments are necessary to evaluate purified novel compounds for the clinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8040068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235905PMC
March 2020

Simple and cleaner system of silver nanoparticle synthesis using kenaf seed and revealing its anticancer and antimicrobial potential.

Nanotechnology 2020 Apr 6;31(26):265101. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwon daehakgil, Chuncheon-si, Kangwon-do 24341, Republic of Korea. Institute of Kenaf Co., Ltd., Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea.

The clean and eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has provided promising characteristics with impressive biomedical related potential. Here, we have employed a green process for the synthesis of AgNPs using kenaf seed (KS) extract as a bilateral mediator for reducing and capping of Ag ions under hydrothermal condition. The synthesis pathways, such as varying amounts of KS, Ag ion concentration and autoclaving time were optimized. The manifestation of a strong absorption peak from 420-430 nm in UV-vis spectroscopy indicated the successful synthesis of [email protected] Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of hydroxyl and carbonyl functionalities involved in the reduction and stabilization of Ag ions. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy revealed that the [email protected] are spherical in shape having a size around 7-11 nm, whereas high-quality crystals were evidenced by x-ray diffraction analysis. Moreover, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry revealed that 19.6 μg l of Ag ions were released from the [email protected] In cell line studies, [email protected] at a higher dose were shown to be non-toxic to the healthy (NIH3T3) cells, while strong anti-proliferative response was found in the case of lung cancer (A549) cells. Furthermore, a significant zone of inhibition was observed for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms, and a combination of [email protected] with ampicillin revealed a notable synergistic anti-pathogenic effect. Overall, our study proved the potentiality of KS as an efficient bio-resource for the synthesis of AgNPs and also its original feature as an anti-cancer and antimicrobial agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab7d72DOI Listing
April 2020

Bio- Fortification of Nakai Nano-Powder Using Bio-Polymer by Hot Melt Extrusion to Enhance the Bioaccessibility and Functionality of Nutraceutical Compounds.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2019 Dec 25;13(1). Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Nakai (AGN) is a popular traditional herbal medicine which has been used to alleviate various human diseases in Korea since ancient times. However, the low bioaccessibility of the nutraceutical compounds of AGN results in a poor water solubility, thereby limiting bioavailability. In this regard, a ternary AGN-biopolymer-plasticizer composite (AGNC) was developed to enhance the bioaccessibility of nutraceutical compounds from extrudate AGN formulations manufactured by hot melt extrusion (HME). The AGNC was prepared with extrudate AGN (EAGN) using different hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) biopolymers (5% /) viz.: hypromellose phthalate (HP), hypromellose (AN), and hypromellose (CN) along with acetic acid (AA) (0.1 M, 20% /) as a plasticizer. The non-extrudate fresh AGN (FAGN) powder was used as a control. The physicochemical properties of the extrudate formulations and control were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). DSC analysis showed a lower enthalpy (ΔH) (12.22 J/g) and lower glass transition temperature () (41 °C) in HP-AA-EAGN compared to the control. FTIR confirmed the physical crosslinking between AGN and biopolymer in the extrudate composite and demonstrated that some functional groups formed viz., -OH and -CH. The obtained result also shows that the particle size was reduced by 341 nm, and solubility was increased by 65.5% in HP-AA-EAGN compared to the control (1499 nm, 29.4%, respectively). The bioaccessibility of the total phenolic content and the total flavonoids-including decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA)-were significantly higher in HP-AA-EAGN compared to the control. The 2,2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) indicated that the HP-AA-EAGN formulation preserves a greater antioxidant profile than the other formulations. Finally, it is summarized that the addition of acidified HP biopolymer increased the bioaccessibility, functionality, and improved the physicochemical properties of nutraceutical compounds in the extrudate AGN formulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13010003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169383PMC
December 2019

Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Accumulation of the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Profile of Broomcorn Millet ( L.) Flour.

Foods 2019 Jun 27;8(7). Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Broomcorn millet ( L.) is an important nutritious ancient minor-cereal food crop. However, this crop is little explored in the food processing arena to improve its functionality. In this context, different processing methods were applied to enhance the secondary compounds of broomcorn millet. Four different individual methods such as roasting, steaming, puffing, and extrusion were applied at 110 °C to enhance the functional attributes of millet flour. It was observed that the significantly highest content of total phenolic (TP) (670 mg/100 g of ferulic acid equivalent) and total flavonoid (TF) (391 mg/100 g of rutin equivalent ) was attained in the roasted whole millet followed by steaming (315 mg/100 g, 282 mg/100 g), puffing (645 mg/100 g, 304 mg/100 g), extrusion (455 mg/100 g, 219 mg/100 g), and control (295 mg/100 g, 183 mg/100 g). The chromatographic analysis showed a greater content of single phenolic acids such as syringic acid, gallic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, and catechin in roasted millet compared to control, and the content of each acid was higher in whole millet than dehulled. Results also indicated that the content of ferulic acid was relatively higher among the quantified single phenolic acid from broomcorn millet. Likewise, in comparison with dehulled millet, the roasted whole millet showed higher total antioxidant capacity, measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), the phosphomolybdenum method (PPMD), and the hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HRSC) method. Lastly, it is concluded that the roasting method should be taken into consideration in the processing of broomcorn millet to enhance the content of nutraceutical compounds and improve its functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8070230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6678386PMC
June 2019

Blue Light added with Red LEDs Enhance Growth Characteristics, Pigments Content, and Antioxidant Capacity in Lettuce, Spinach, Kale, Basil, and Sweet Pepper in a Controlled Environment.

Plants (Basel) 2019 Apr 8;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The aim of this study was to investigate the different combinations of red (R) and blue (B) light emitting diode (LEDs') lighting effects on growth, pigment content, and antioxidant capacity in lettuce, spinach, kale, basil, and pepper in a growth chamber. The growth chamber was equipped with R and B light percentages based on total light intensity: 83% R + 17% B; 91% R + 9% B; 95% R + 5% B; and control was 100% R. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), photoperiod, temperature, and relative humidity of the growth chamber were maintained at 200 ± 5 μmol m s, 16 h, 25/21 ± 2.5 °C, and 65 ± 5%, respectively. It is observed that the plant height of lettuce, kale, and pepper was significantly increased under 100% R light, whereas the plant height of spinach and basil did not show any significant difference. The total leaf number of basil and pepper was significantly increased under the treatment of 95% R + 5% B light, while no significant difference was observed for other plant species in the same treatment. Overall, the fresh and dry mass of the studied plants was increased under 91% R + 9% B and 95% R + 5% B light treatment. The significantly higher flower and fruit numbers of pepper were observed under the 95% R + 5% B treatment. The chlorophyll , chlorophyll , and total chlorophyll content of lettuce, spinach, basil, and pepper was significantly increased under the 91% R + 9% B treatment while the chlorophyll content of kale was increased under the 95% R + 5% B light treatment. The total carotenoid content of lettuce and spinach was higher in the 91% R + 9% B treatment whereas the carotenoid content of kale, basil, and pepper was increased under the 83% R + 17% B treatment. The antioxidant capacity of the lettuce, spinach, and kale was increased under the 83% R + 17% B treatment while basil and pepper were increased under the 91% R + 9% B treatment. This result indicates that the addition of B light is essential with R light to enhance growth, pigment content, and antioxidant capacity of the vegetable plant in a controlled environment. Moreover, the percentage of B with R light is plant species dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants8040093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6524371PMC
April 2019

Investigation of the Biological Activities and Characterization of Bioactive Constituents of var. (D.Don) & Mondal Leaves through In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Approaches.

Molecules 2019 Apr 8;24(7). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

var. is one of the most frequently used ethnomedicinal plants by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh. This study was designed to investigate the antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and antibacterial activities of the ethanol extract of leaves (EEOR). The leaves were extracted with ethanol and subjected to in vivo antidiarrheal screening using the castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal transit models. Anti-inflammatory efficacy was evaluated using the histamine-induced paw edema test. In parallel, in vitro anthelmintic and antibacterial activities were evaluated using the aquatic worm and disc diffusion assays respectively. In all three diarrheal models, EEOR (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed obvious inhibition of diarrheal stool frequency, reduction of the volume and weight of the intestinal contents, and significant inhibition of intestinal motility. Also, EEOR manifested dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. Anthelmintic action was deemed significant ( < 0.001) with respect to the onset of paralysis and helminth death. EEOR also resulted in strong zones of inhibition when tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. GC-MS analysis identified 30 compounds within EEOR, and of these, 13 compounds documented as bioactive showed good binding affinities to M3 muscarinic acetylcholine, 5-HT3, tubulin and GlcN-6-P synthase protein targets in molecular docking experiments. Additionally, ADME/T and PASS analyses revealed their drug-likeness, likely safety upon consumption and possible pharmacological activities. In conclusion, our findings scientifically support the ethnomedicinal use and value of this plant, which may provide a potential source for future development of medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6480688PMC
April 2019

Development of a Polymer-Mediated Soybean Nanocomposite by Hot Melt Extrusion to Improve Its Functionality and Antioxidant Properties.

Foods 2019 Jan 24;8(2). Epub 2019 Jan 24.

College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The poor bioaccessibility of the phenolic compounds of soybeans is a key challenge to developing functional food products. Therefore, a novel hydrophilic food-grade hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer was added to soybean to prepare a soybean food composite (SFC), in order to improve the soybean's functionality. The SFC was prepared with soybean (95%) plus HPMC (5%) (/) mixes (HSE), as well as 100% soybean extrudate (SE), at 80 °C and 130 °C by a hot melt extrusion (HME) process. A non-extrudate 100% soybean material was considered as a control. It is observed that water solubility was significantly increased (35.18%), and particle size reached to nano-size (171.5 nm) in HSE at 130 °C compared to the control (7.14% and 1166 nm, respectively). The total phenolic, flavonoid, and single isoflavones content, including daidzin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and genistin was significantly increased in HSE at 130 °C compared to the control. The antioxidant properties were also significantly increased in HSE at 130 °C compared to the control, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and the phosphomolybdenum method (PPMD). Finally, it is concluded that the HPMC polymer could be used as a novel excipient to develop nanocomposite via HME, in order to improve the functionality of soybean food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8020041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406252PMC
January 2019

Development of iron(II) sulfate nanoparticles produced by hot-melt extrusion and their therapeutic potentials for colon cancer.

Int J Pharm 2019 Mar 18;558:388-395. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Particle size reduction of FeSO (iron(II) sulfate, IS) from micron to nano size was achieved by a combination of hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing and the input of Span 80, Tween 80, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 6000. Conveying, kneading, and extruding steps of the HME process and a decrease in the surface tension by surfactants were introduced to produce FeSO nanoparticles (NPs) in an aqueous environment. The FeSO-based NPs (ISNPs) in the dispersion were composed of FeSO, Span 80, Tween 80, and PEG 6000 and displayed a hydrodynamic size of 350-400 nm (5-50 mg/mL ISNPs concentration range) and a spherical shape. Considering the feeding ratio of FeSO (20%, w/w) used for preparing the ISNPs, FeSO appears to be wrapped by Span 80, Tween 80, and PEG 6000 according to the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. ISNPs exhibited different thermodynamic properties from those of FeSO itself. In colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, the ISNPs group exhibited enhanced antiproliferation and apoptosis potentials compared to the FeSO group (p < 0.05). Histological staining data of a dissected intestine after oral administration of ISNPs suggest the absence of severe intestinal toxicities compared to the control (no treatment) group. All of these results imply the feasibility of the use of the developed ISNPs for the treatment of colon cancers with oral administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.01.018DOI Listing
March 2019

Far Infrared Irradiation Enhances Nutraceutical Compounds and Antioxidant Properties in Angelica gigas Nakai Powder.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2018 Dec 11;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of far infrared irradiation (FIR) on nutraceutical compounds, viz. total phenolic content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity, of Nakai (AGN). The FIR treatment was applied for 30 min with varied temperatures of 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, and 240 °C. Results showed that FIR increased total phenolic and flavonoid content in AGN at 220 °C. The HPLC results revealed higher quantities of decursin (62.48 mg/g) and decursinol angelate (41.51 mg/g) at 220 °C compared to control (38.70 mg/g, 27.54 mg/g, respectively). The antioxidant capacity of AGN was also increased at 220 °C, as measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the phosphomolybdenum (PPMD) method. A further increase of the FIR temperature caused a reduction of compound content. In addition, the results also showed a strong correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant properties of AGN powder. These findings will help to further improve the nutraceutical profile of AGN powder by optimizing the FIR conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox7120189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315959PMC
December 2018

Effect of Artificial LED Light and Far Infrared Irradiation on Phenolic Compound, Isoflavones and Antioxidant Capacity in Soybean ( L.) Sprout.

Foods 2018 Oct 22;7(10). Epub 2018 Oct 22.

College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The effect of light emitting diode (LED) light and far infrared irradiation (FIR) on total phenol, isoflavones and antioxidant activity were investigated in soybean ( L.) sprout. Artificial blue (470 nm), green (530 nm) LED and florescent light (control) were applied on soybean sprout, from three to seven days after sowing (DAS) in growth chamber. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and photoperiod was 150 ± 5 μmol ms and 16 h, respectively. The FIR was applied for 30, 60 and 120 min at 90, 110 and 130 °C on harvested sprout. Total phenolic content (TP) (59.81 mg/g), antioxidant capacity (AA: 75%, Ferric Reduction Antioxidant Power (FRAP): 1357 µM Fe) and total isoflavones content (TIC) (51.1 mg/g) were higher in blue LED compared to control (38.02 mg/g, 58%, 632 µM Fe and 30.24 mg/g, respectively). On the other hand, TP (64.23 mg/g), AA (87%), FRAP (1568 µM Fe) and TIC (58.98 mg/g) were significantly increased by FIR at 110 °C for 120 min among the treatments. Result suggests that blue LED is the most suitable light to steady accumulation of secondary metabolites (SM) in growing soybean sprout. On the other hand, FIR at 110 °C for 120 min is the best ailment to induce SM in proceed soybean sprout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods7100174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6210234PMC
October 2018

Preparation of cupric sulfate-based self-emulsifiable nanocomposites and their application to the photothermal therapy of colon adenocarcinoma.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 09 7;503(4):2471-2477. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon, 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Nanocomposites (NCs) of cupric sulfate monohydrate (CuSO) were fabricated by hot-melt extrusion (HME) system equipped with twin screws. Micron-sized bulk powder of CuSO was dispersed in the mixture of surfactants (Span 80 and Tween 80) and hydrophilic polymer (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000) by HME process. Reduction of surface tension by surfactants and homogeneous dispersion in hydrophilic polymer along with HME technique were introduced to prepare CuSO NCs. Dispersion of CuSO NCs exhibited approximately 204 nm hydrodynamic size, unimodal size distribution, and positive zeta potential values. Encapsulation of CuSO in CuSO NCs and the physicochemical interactions between CuSO and pharmaceutical excipients were investigated by solid-state studies. Of note, CuSO NCs group exhibited higher antiproliferation efficacies, compared with bulk CuSO, in Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma) cells at 75 and 100 μg/mL CuSO concentrations (p < 0.05). Also, near-infrared laser irradiation to CuSO NCs group elevated the antiproliferation efficacies, compared with non-irradiation group, in Caco-2 cells. After intravenous injection in mice, CuSO NCs did not show severe in vivo toxicities. Developed CuSO NCs can be one of promising candidates of photothermal therapeutic agents for colon cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.07.002DOI Listing
September 2018