Publications by authors named "Md Mazharul Islam"

12 Publications

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Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2001-2018.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK.

Background: Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) are predisposed to highly contagious, severe and fatal, emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), and re-emerging infectious diseases (RIDs). This paper reviews the epidemiological situation of EIDs and RIDs of global concern in the EMR between 2001 and 2018.

Methods: To do a narrative review, a complete list of studies in the field was we prepared following a systematic search approach. Studies that were purposively reviewed were identified to summarize the epidemiological situation of each targeted disease. A comprehensive search of all published studies on EIDs and RIDs between 2001 and 2018 was carried out through search engines including Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect.

Results: Leishmaniasis, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are reported from all countries in the region. Chikungunya, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), dengue fever, and H5N1 have been increasing in number, frequency, and expanding in their geographic distribution. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which was reported in this region in 2012 is still a public health concern. There are challenges to control cholera, diphtheria, leishmaniasis, measles, and poliomyelitis in some of the countries. Moreover, Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHF), and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are limited to some countries in the region. Also, there is little information about the real situation of the plague, Q fever, and tularemia.

Conclusion: EIDs and RIDs are prevalent in most countries in the region and could further spread within the region. It is crucial to improve regional capacities and capabilities in preventing and responding to disease outbreaks with adequate resources and expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2021.13DOI Listing
March 2021

Creative social media use for Covid-19 prevention in Bangladesh: a structural equation modeling approach.

Soc Netw Anal Min 2021 10;11(1):38. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Faculty of Business Studies, Bangladesh University of Professionals (BUP), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

In recent years, information dissemination has been quicker than earlier years with the sky-high development of diverse social media platforms, e.g., Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, YouTube and so on, which are more used in creative production. This advancement of social media disclosures has numerous merits and demerits to prevent and control contagious diseases like the Covid-19 pandemic. In this respect, this research scrutinizes the role of creative social media use in preventing the Covid-19 outbreak in Bangladesh utilizing the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. To this end, this study uses an online survey from June to October 2020 engaging 265 ( = 265) Bangladeshi people as respondents at different ages. The study results establish that creative social media use helps enhance the knowledge of Covid-19 precautions online, and this pertinent knowledge contributes to preventing Covid-19 outbreak in Bangladesh. It implies that creative social media use has a significant indirect effect on Covid-19 prevention, whereas knowledge of Covid-19 precautions online mediates this relationship between creative social media use and Covid-19 prevention. The results also discover that the educational level of the people has a significant direct and positive impact on Covid-19 prevention. Therefore, the study suggests more creative use of social media in preventing the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic in Bangladesh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13278-021-00744-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036010PMC
April 2021

The effects of carbon emissions, rainfall, temperature, inflation, population, and unemployment on economic growth in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL investigation.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(4):e0248743. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

UniSA Education Futures, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Objective: While macroeconomic and environmental events affect the overall economic performance of nations, there has not been much research on the effects of important macroeconomic and environmental variables and how these can influence progress. Saudi Arabia's economy relies heavily on its vast reserves of petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, and copper, but its economic growth trajectory has been uneven since the 1990s. This study examines the effects of carbon emissions, rainfall, temperature, inflation, population, and unemployment on economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: Annual time series dataset covering the period 1990-2019 has been extracted from the World Bank and General Authority of Meteorology and Environmental Protection, Saudi Arabia. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration has served to investigate the long-run relationships among the variables. Several time-series diagnostic tests have been conducted on the long-term ARDL model to check its robustness.

Results: Saudi Arabia can still achieve higher economic growth without effectively addressing its unemployment problem as both the variables are found to be highly significantly but positively cointegrated in the long-run ARDL model. While the variable of carbon emissions demonstrated a negative effect on the nation's economic growth, the variables of rainfall and temperate were to some extent cointegrated into the nation's economic growth in negative and positive ways, respectively. Like most other nations the short-run effects of inflation and population on economic growth do vary, but their long-term effects on the same are found to be positive.

Conclusions: Saudi Arabia can achieve both higher economic growth and lower carbon emissions simultaneously even without effectively addressing the unemployment problem. The nation should utilize modern scientific technologies to annual rainfall losses and to reduce annual temperature in some parts of the country in order to achieve higher economic growth.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248743PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021147PMC
April 2021

A Comprehensive Review of Viral Characteristics, Transmission, Pathophysiology, Immune Response, and Management of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 as a Basis for Controlling the Pandemic.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:631139. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, Doha, Qatar.

COVID-19 emerged from China in December 2019 and during 2020 spread to every continent including Antarctica. The coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been identified as the causative pathogen, and its spread has stretched the capacities of healthcare systems and negatively affected the global economy. This review provides an update on the virus, including the genome, the risks associated with the emergence of variants, mode of transmission, immune response, COVID-19 in children and the elderly, and advances made to contain, prevent and manage the disease. Although our knowledge of the mechanics of virus transmission and the immune response has been substantially demystified, concerns over reinfection, susceptibility of the elderly and whether asymptomatic children promote transmission remain unanswered. There are also uncertainties about the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and why there are variations in clinical presentations and why some patients suffer from long lasting symptoms-"." To date, there are no significantly effective curative drugs for COVID-19, especially after failure of hydroxychloroquine trials to produce positive results. The RNA polymerase inhibitor, remdesivir, facilitates recovery of severely infected cases but, unlike the anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone, does not reduce mortality. However, vaccine development witnessed substantial progress with several being approved in countries around the globe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.631139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952616PMC
March 2021

Rodent Ectoparasites in the Middle East: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pathogens 2021 Jan 31;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 31.

School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering & Science, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 40000, South Africa.

Rodents carry many ectoparasites, such as ticks, lice, fleas, and mites, which have potential public health importance. Middle Eastern countries are hotspots for many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, such as plague, leishmaniasis, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Q fever, due to their ecological, socioeconomic, and political diversity. Rodent ectoparasites can act as vectors for many of these pathogens. Knowledge of rodent ectoparasites is of prime importance in controlling rodent ectoparasite-borne zoonotic diseases in this region. The current systematic review and meta-analysis performs a comprehensive synthesis of the available knowledge, providing an evidence-based overview of the ectoparasites detected on rodents in Middle Eastern countries. Following a systematic search in Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science, a total of 113 published articles on rodent ectoparasites were studied and analyzed. A total of 87 rodent species were documented, from which , , and were found to be the most common. Fleas were the most reported ectoparasites (87 articles), followed by mites (53), ticks (44), and lice (25). , , , and were the most commonly described fleas, lice, mites, and ticks, respectively. Based on the reviewed articles, the median flea, louse, mite, and tick indices were highest in Israel (4.15), Egypt (1.39), Egypt (1.27), and Saudi Arabia (1.17), respectively. Quantitative meta-analysis, using a random-effects model, determined the overall pooled flea prevalence in the Middle East as 40% (95% CI: 25-55, = 100%, < 0.00001), ranging between 13% (95% CI: 0-30, = 95%, < 0.00001) in Iran and 59% (95% CI: 42-77, = 75%, < 0.00001) in Israel. The overall pooled louse prevalence was found to be 30% (95% CI: 13-47, = 100%, < 0.00001), ranging between 25% in Iran (95% CI: 1-50, = 99%) and 38% in Egypt (95% CI: 7-68, = 100%). In the case of mites, the pooled prevalence in this region was 33% (95% CI: 11-55, = 100%, < 0.00001), where the country-specific prevalence estimates were 30% in Iran (95% CI: 4-56, = 99%) and 32% in Egypt (95% CI: 0-76, = 100%). For ticks, the overall prevalence was found to be 25% (95% CI: 2-47, = 100%, < 0.00001), ranging from 16% in Iran (95% CI: 7-25, = 74%) to 42% in Egypt (95% CI: 1-85, = 100%). The control of rodent ectoparasites should be considered to reduce their adverse effects. Using the One Health strategy, rodent control, and precisely control of the most common rodent species, i.e., , , and , should be considered to control the rodent-borne ectoparasites in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911898PMC
January 2021

In silico identification and characterization of AGO, DCL and RDR gene families and their associated regulatory elements in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.).

PLoS One 2020 21;15(12):e0228233. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Bioinformatics Laboratory, Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

RNA interference (RNAi) plays key roles in post-transcriptional and chromatin modification levels as well as regulates various eukaryotic gene expressions which are involved in stress responses, development and maintenance of genome integrity during developmental stages. The whole mechanism of RNAi pathway is directly involved with the gene-silencing process by the interaction of Dicer-Like (DCL), Argonaute (AGO) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) gene families and their regulatory elements. However, these RNAi gene families and their sub-cellular locations, functional pathways and regulatory components were not extensively investigated in the case of economically and nutritionally important fruit plant sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.). Therefore, in silico characterization, gene diversity and regulatory factor analysis of RNA silencing genes in C. sinensis were conducted by using the integrated bioinformatics approaches. Genome-wide comparison analysis based on phylogenetic tree approach detected 4 CsDCL, 8 CsAGO and 4 CsRDR as RNAi candidate genes in C. sinensis corresponding to the RNAi genes of model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The domain and motif composition and gene structure analyses for all three gene families exhibited almost homogeneity within the same group members. The Gene Ontology enrichment analysis clearly indicated that the predicted genes have direct involvement into the gene-silencing and other important pathways. The key regulatory transcription factors (TFs) MYB, Dof, ERF, NAC, MIKC_MADS, WRKY and bZIP were identified by their interaction network analysis with the predicted genes. The cis-acting regulatory elements associated with the predicted genes were detected as responsive to light, stress and hormone functions. Furthermore, the expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis showed that these RNAi candidate genes were highly expressed in fruit and leaves indicating their organ specific functions. Our genome-wide comparison and integrated bioinformatics analyses provided some necessary information about sweet orange RNA silencing components that would pave a ground for further investigation of functional mechanism of the predicted genes and their regulatory factors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228233PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751981PMC
January 2021

Helminth Parasites among Rodents in the Middle East Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Dec 9;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering & Science, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 40000, South Africa.

Rodents can be a source of zoonotic helminths in the Middle East and also in other parts of the world. The current systematic review aimed to provide baseline data on rodent helminths to recognize the threats of helminth parasites on public health in the Middle East region. Following a systematic search on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, a total of 65 research studies on rodent cestodes, nematodes, and trematodes, which were conducted in the countries of the Middle East, were analyzed. The study identified 44 rodent species from which , , and were most common (63%) and recognized as the primary rodent hosts for helminth infestation in this region. Cestodes were the most frequently reported ( = 50), followed by nematodes (49), and trematodes (14). The random effect meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of cestode (57.66%, 95%CI: 34.63-80.70, % = 85.6, < 0.001) was higher in Saudi Arabia, followed by nematode (56.24%, 95%CI: 11.40-101.1, % = 96.7, < 0.001) in Turkey, and trematode (15.83%, 95%CI: 6.25-25.1, % = 98.5, < 0.001) in Egypt. According to the overall prevalence estimates of individual studies, nematodes were higher (32.71%, 95%CI: 24.89-40.54, % = 98.6, < 0.001) followed by cestodes (24.88%, 95%CI: 19.99-29.77, % = 94.9, < 0.001) and trematodes (10.17%, 95%CI: 6.7-13.65, % = 98.3, < 0.001) in the rodents of the Middle East countries. The review detected 22 species of helminths, which have zoonotic importance. The most frequent helminths were , , , and . There was no report of rodent-helminths from Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Furthermore, there is an information gap on rodent helminths at the humans-animal interface level in Middle East countries. Through the One Health approach and countrywide detailed studies on rodent-related helminths along with their impact on public health, the rodent control program should be conducted in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10122342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764038PMC
December 2020

Healthcare Capacity, Health Expenditure, and Civil Society as Predictors of COVID-19 Case Fatalities: A Global Analysis.

Front Public Health 2020 3;8:347. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Business and Law, Central Queensland University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

The rapid growth in cases of COVID-19 has challenged national healthcare capacity, testing systems at an advanced ICU, and public health infrastructure level. This global study evaluates the association between multi-factorial healthcare capacity and case fatality of COVID-19 patients by adjusting for demographic, health expenditure, population density, and prior burden of non-communicable disease. It also explores the impact of government relationships with civil society as a predictor of infection and mortality rates. Data were extracted from the Johns Hopkins University database, World Bank records and the National Civic Space Ratings 2020 database. This study used data from 86 countries which had at least 1,000 confirmed cases on 30th April 2020. Negative binomial regression model was used to assess the association between case fatality (a ratio of total number of confirmed deaths to total number of confirmed cases) and healthcare capacity index adjusting for other covariates. Regression analysis shows that greater healthcare capacity was related to lesser case-fatality [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.5811; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4727-0.7184; < 0.001] with every additional unit increase in the healthcare capacity index associated with a 42% decrease in the case fatality. Health expenditure and civil society variables did not reach statistical significance but were positively associated with case fatalities. Based on preliminary data, this research suggests that building effective multidimensional healthcare capacity is the most promising means to mitigate future case fatalities. The data also suggests that government's ability to implement public health measures to a degree determines mortality outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7349997PMC
April 2021

First molecular analysis of rabies virus in Qatar and clinical cases imported into Qatar, a case report.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jul 4;96:323-326. Epub 2020 May 4.

Erasmus MC, Department of Viroscience, WHO collaborating centre for arbovirus and viral hemorrhagic fever Reference and Research, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Identifying the origin of the rabies virus (RABV) infection may have significant implications for control measures. Here, we identified the source of a RABV infection of two Nepalese migrants in Qatar by comparing their RABV genomes with RABV genomes isolated from the brains of a RABV infected camel and fox from Qatar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.04.070DOI Listing
July 2020

Qatar experience on One Health approach for middle-east respiratory syndrome coronavirus, 2012-2017: A viewpoint.

One Health 2019 Jun 4;7:100090. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Ministry of Public of Health, Doha, Qatar.

The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East in 2012 was associated with an overwhelming uncertainty about its epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Once dromedary camels () was found to be the natural reservoir of the virus, the public health systems across the Arabian Peninsula encountered an unprecedented pressure to control its transmission. This view point describes how the One Health approach was used in Qatar to manage the MERS-CoV outbreak during the period 2012-2017. One Health focuses on the association between the human, animals and environment sectors for total health and wellbeing of these three sectors. To manage the MERS outbreak in Qatar through a One Health approach, the Qatar National Outbreak Control Taskforce (OCT) was reactivated in November 2012. The animal health sector was invited to join the OCT. Later on, technical expertise was requested from the WHO, FAO, CDC, EMC, and PHE. Subsequently, a comprehensive One Health roadmap was delivered through leadership and coordination; surveillance and investigation; epidemiological studies and increase of local diagnostic capacity. The joint OCT, once trained had easy access to allocated resources and high risk areas to provide more evidence on the potential source of the virus and to investigate all reported cases within 24-48 h. Lack of sufficient technical guidance on veterinary surveillance and poor risk perception among the vulnerable population constituted major obstacles to maintain systematic One Health performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2019.100090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462540PMC
June 2019

Drivers of MERS-CoV Emergence in Qatar.

Viruses 2018 12 31;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus University Medical Center, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus) antibodies were detected in camels since 1983, but the first human case was only detected in 2012. This study sought to identify and quantify possible drivers for the MERS-CoV emergence and spillover to humans. A list of potential human, animal and environmental drivers for disease emergence were identified from literature. Trends in possible drivers were analyzed from national and international databases, and through structured interviews with experts in Qatar. The discovery and exploitation of oil and gas led to a 5-fold increase in Qatar GDP coupled with a 7-fold population growth in the past 30 years. The lifestyle gradually transformed from Bedouin life to urban sedentary life, along with a sharp increase in obesity and other comorbidities. Owing to substantial governmental support, camel husbandry and competitions flourished, exacerbating the already rapidly occurring desertification that forced banning of free grazing in 2005. Consequently, camels were housed in compact barns alongside their workers. The transition in husbandry leading to high density camel farming along with increased exposure to humans, combined with the increase of camel movement for the racing and breeding industry, have led to a convergence of factors driving spillover of MERS-CoV from camels to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11010022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356962PMC
December 2018

Analysis of low birth weight and its co-variants in Bangladesh based on a sub-sample from nationally representative survey.

BMC Pediatr 2018 03 6;18(1):100. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

School of Business and Law, Central Queensland University, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) remains a leading global cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. This study leverages a large national survey to determine current prevalence and socioeconomic, demographic and heath related factors associated with LBW in Bangladesh.

Methods: Data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2012-13 of Bangladesh were analyzed. A total of 2319 women for whom contemporaneous birth weight data was available and who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey were sampled for this study. However, this analysis only was able to take advantage of 29% of the total sample with 71% missing birth weight for newborns. The indicator, LBW (< 2500 g) of infants, was examined as the outcome variable in association with different socioeconomic, demographic and health-related covariates. Mixed-effects logistic regression was performed to identify possible factors related to LBW.

Results: In the selected sub-sample, about 20% of infants were born with LBW, with lowest rates observed in Rajshahi (11%) and highest rates in Rangpur (28%). Education of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.68 for secondary or higher educated mother) and poor antenatal care (ANC) (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.90) were associated with LBW after adjusting for mother's age, parity and cluster effects. Mothers from wealthier families were less likely to give birth to an LBW infant. Further indicators that wealth continues to play a role in LBW were that place of delivery, ANC and delivery assistance by quality health workers were significantly associated with LBW. However there has been a notable fall in LBW prevalence in Bangladesh since the last comparable survey (prevalence 36%), and an evidence of possible elimination of rural/urban disparities.

Conclusions: Low birth weight remains associated with key indicators not just of maternal poverty (notably adequate maternal education) but also markers of structural poverty in health care (notably quality ANC). Results based on this sub-sample indicate LBW is still a public health concern in Bangladesh and an integrated effort from all stakeholders should be continued and interventions based on the study findings should be devised to further reduce the risk of LBW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1068-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5840696PMC
March 2018