Publications by authors named "Md Ibrahim Khalil"

41 Publications

Nutritional Composition and Bioactive Compounds in Tomatoes and Their Impact on Human Health and Disease: A Review.

Foods 2020 Dec 26;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 26.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia.

Tomatoes are consumed worldwide as fresh vegetables because of their high contents of essential nutrients and antioxidant-rich phytochemicals. Tomatoes contain minerals, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids (leucine, threonine, valine, histidine, lysine, arginine), monounsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids), carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotenoids) and phytosterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol). Lycopene is the main dietary carotenoid in tomato and tomato-based food products and lycopene consumption by humans has been reported to protect against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, cognitive function and osteoporosis. Among the phenolic compounds present in tomato, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, caffeic acid and lutein are the most common. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the human body against various oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary tomatoes increase the body's level of antioxidants, trapping reactive oxygen species and reducing oxidative damage to important biomolecules such as membrane lipids, enzymatic proteins and DNA, thereby ameliorating oxidative stress. We reviewed the nutritional and phytochemical compositions of tomatoes. In addition, the impacts of the constituents on human health, particularly in ameliorating some degenerative diseases, are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10010045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823427PMC
December 2020

Potentials and Safety of Date Palm Fruit against Diabetes: A Critical Review.

Foods 2020 Oct 28;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder triggered by disturbances in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolisms, where either reduced secretion or sensitivity of insulin is observed coupled with poor glucose control. Date palm fruits are one of the fruits reported to have good potential in diabetes treatment due to its presence of polyphenols exerting strong antioxidant activities. Other possible mechanisms of action include the polyphenolic compounds, which can inhibit enzymes like α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Flavonoids in dates can stimulate β-cells by increasing the number of islets and β-cells, recovering endocrine pancreatic tissues, reducing β-cell apoptosis, activating insulin receptors following the increase in insulin secretion, in addition to improving diabetes-induced complications. In this review, the in vitro, in vivo, and human study-based evidence of date palm as an anti-diabetic fruit is summarised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9111557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693939PMC
October 2020

The anticancer activity of two glycosides from the leaves of L.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jul 27:1-5. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Two compounds (7--methylmearnsitrin (7-OM) and roseoside A (RA) were identified and characterized from the leaves of (. ) L. The cytotoxicity of 7-OM and RA on HeLa cells was performed using MTT. The 7-OM and RA showed significant inhibition of HeLa cell proliferation with an IC of 22 and 20 µg/mL, respectively when compared with the standard vincristin sulphate (VS) (IC of 15 µg/mL). Moreover, the 7-OM and RA significantly inhibit other cancer cells (HEK-293, H228, and H3122) when compared with the VS and the cytotoxic activity of the compounds might show through the induction of apoptosis. Strikingly, annexin-V and PI signals could barely be detected in control cells, while strong fluorescence densities were observed in response to treatment indicating that these compounds have capacity to induce HeLa cell apoptosis. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of 7-OM and RA was due to the induction of apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1798661DOI Listing
July 2020

Protective Role of Leaf Extract Against Carbofuran-Induced Hematological and Hepatic Toxicities.

Chem Res Toxicol 2019 08 23;32(8):1619-1629. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Chemistry , The University of Jordan , Amman 11942 , Jordan.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of leaf methanol extract (SCL) against carbofuran (CF)-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats, along with the identification and quantification of polyphenolic composition by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids in SCL. Similarly, HPLC analysis suggests that SCL contains some known important antioxidants, such as rutin, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid that could be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity of the extract. In CF-exposed rats, significant hematological alterations along with histological changes were marked by the presence of necrosis, congestion, and inflammation. CF-intoxication also showed an increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in cellular antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) levels in rats compared with the control group. Furthermore, coadministration of SCL significantly ameliorated the abnormalities and improved the cellular arrangement in experimental animals. SCL also reversed the alteration of hematological and biochemical parameters and brought them back to normal levels as compared to the control group. In conclusion, may be one of the best sources of natural antioxidant compounds that can be used in the treatment of oxidative stress and stress-related diseases and disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00164DOI Listing
August 2019

Antioxidant Potential, Subacute Toxicity, and Beneficiary Effects of Methanolic Extract of Pomelo ( L. Osbeck) in Long Evan Rats.

J Toxicol 2019 10;2019:2529569. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant potentials, subacute toxicity, and beneficiary effects of methanolic extract of pomelo ( L. Osbeck) in rats. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. The rats were orally treated with three doses of pomelo (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. Pomelo extract contained high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid while exhibiting high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. There was no significant change in the body weight, percentage water content, and relative organ weight at any administered doses. In addition, no significant alterations in the hematological parameters were also observed. However, rats which received 1000 mg/kg dose had a significant reduction in some serum parameters, including alanine transaminase (15.29%), alkaline phosphatase (2.5%), lactate dehydrogenase (15.5%), -glutamyltransferase (20%), creatinine (14.47%), urea (18.50%), uric acid (27.14%), total cholesterol (5.78%), triglyceride (21.44%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (40.74%), glucose (2.48%), and all atherogenic indices including cardiac risk ratio (24.30%), Castelli's risk index-2 (45.71%), atherogenic coefficient (42%), and atherogenic index of plasma (25%) compared to control. In addition, the highest dose (1000 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in iron (12.07%) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (8.87%) levels. Histopathological findings of the vital organs did not indicate any pathological changes indicating that pomelo is nontoxic, safe, and serves as an important source of natural antioxidants. In addition, the fruit extract has the potential to ameliorate hepato- and nephrotoxicities and cardiovascular diseases as well as iron deficiency anemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2529569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6590546PMC
June 2019

and Mushrooms Protect against Carbofuran-Induced Toxicity in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 15;2018:6254929. Epub 2018 May 15.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

The current study aimed to investigate the ameliorative effects of two types of mushrooms, (GL) and (AP), against carbofuran- (CF) induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats ( = 42) were divided into six equal groups. The rats in the negative control group received oral administration of CF at 1 mg/kg with the normal diet for 28 days. The treatment groups received oral administration of ethanolic extract of GL or AP at 100 mg/kg followed by coadministration of CF at 1 mg/kg with the normal diet for the same experimental period, respectively. In the CF alone treated group, there were significant decreases in the erythrocytic and thrombocytic indices but increases in the concentrations of the total leukocytes, including the agranulocytes. A significant increase in all of the liver function biomarkers except albumin, in lipid profiles except high-density lipoprotein, and in the kidney function markers occurred in the negative control group compared to the rats of the normal control and positive control groups. The coadministration of mushroom extracts significantly ameliorated the toxic effects of the CF. The GL mushroom extract was more efficacious than that of the AP mushroom, possibly due to the presence of high levels of phenolic compounds and other antioxidants in the GL mushroom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6254929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976964PMC
May 2018

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels in honey and other food products: effects on bees and human health.

Chem Cent J 2018 Apr 4;12(1):35. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.

An organic compound known as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed from reducing sugars in honey and various processed foods in acidic environments when they are heated through the Maillard reaction. In addition to processing, storage conditions affect the formation HMF, and HMF has become a suitable indicator of honey quality. HMF is easily absorbed from food through the gastrointestinal tract and, upon being metabolized into different derivatives, is excreted via urine. In addition to exerting detrimental effects (mutagenic, genotoxic, organotoxic and enzyme inhibitory), HMF, which is converted to a non-excretable, genotoxic compound called 5-sulfoxymethylfurfural, is beneficial to human health by providing antioxidative, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypoxic, anti-sickling, and anti-hyperuricemic effects. Therefore, HMF is a neo-forming contaminant that draws great attention from scientists. This review compiles updated information regarding HMF formation, detection procedures, mitigation strategies and effects of HMF on honey bees and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13065-018-0408-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5884753PMC
April 2018

Antihyperglycemic, Antidiabetic, and Antioxidant Effects of in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 19;2017:2979760. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

The antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic, and antioxidant potentials of the methanolic extract of (GP) fruit in rats were investigated. The acute antihyperglycemic effect of different doses of GP was studied in normal male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection in another cohort of male Wistar rats and they showed significantly higher blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, altered lipid profiles, and lower insulin levels compared to nondiabetic control animals. There were increased lipid peroxidation and reduced levels of cellular antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of diabetic rats. However, oral administration of GP extracts, especially the highest dose (1000 mg/kg), significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia (42%); elevated insulin levels (165%); decreased HbA1c (29.4%); restored lipid levels (reduction in TG by 25%, TC by 15%, and LDL-C by 75% and increase in HDL-C by 4%), liver and renal function markers, and lipid peroxidation (reduction by 52% in the liver, 39% in the kidney, 44% in the heart, and 46% in the pancreas); and stimulated tissue antioxidant enzymes to near normalcy. Overall, the findings suggest that GP fruit is effective against hyperglycemia and could be used in the treatment of diabetes and its complications and other oxidative stress-mediated pathological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/2979760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5672145PMC
October 2017

Beneficial roles of honey polyphenols against some human degenerative diseases: A review.

Pharmacol Rep 2017 Dec 4;69(6):1194-1205. Epub 2017 Jul 4.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Honey contains many active constituents and antioxidants such as polyphenols. Polyphenols are phytochemicals, a generic term for the several thousand plant-based molecules with antioxidant properties. Many in vitro studies in human cell cultures as well as many animal studies confirm the protective effect of polyphenols on a number of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, pulmonary diseases, liver diseases and so on. Nevertheless, it is challenging to identify the specific biological mechanism underlying individual polyphenols and to determine how polyphenols impact human health. To date, several studies have attempted to elucidate the molecular pathway for specific polyphenols acting against particular diseases. In this review, we report on the various polyphenols present in different types of honey according to their classification, source, and specific functions and discuss several of the honey polyphenols with the most therapeutic potential to exert an effect on the various pathologies of some major diseases including CVD, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2017.07.002DOI Listing
December 2017

Protective effects of ethanolic peel and pulp extracts of Citrus macroptera fruit against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Oct 29;94:256-264. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh; Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Increases in the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have aroused strong interest in identifying antioxidants from natural sources for use in preventive medicine. Citrus macroptera (C. macroptera), commonly known as "Satkara", is an important herbal and medicinal plant reputed for its antioxidant, nutritious and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardio-protective effects of ethanol extracts of C. macroptera peel and pulp against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats (n=36) were pre-treated with peel and pulp extracts (500mg/kg) for 45days. They received a challenge with ISO (85mg/kg) on the 44th and 45th days. Our findings indicated that subcutaneous injection of ISO induced severe myocardial injuries associated with oxidative stress, as confirmed by elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and anti-peroxidative enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase, compared with levels observed in control animals. Pre-treatment with C. macroptera peel and pulp extracts prior to ISO administration however, significantly improved many of the investigated biochemical parameters, i.e., cardiac troponin I, cardiac marker enzymes, lipid profile and oxidative stress markers. The fruit peel extract showed stronger cardio-protective effects than the pulp extract. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examinations. Overall, the increased endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity against heightened oxidative stress in the myocardium is strongly suggestive of the cardio-protective potential of C. macroptera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.080DOI Listing
October 2017

Protective mechanism of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on carbofuran-induced hematological and hepatic toxicities in a rat model.

Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1937-1945

a Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , Jahangirnagar University , Savar , Dhaka , Bangladesh.

Context: Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity.

Objective: The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats.

Materials And Methods: The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods.

Results: Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 μM Fe) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue.

Discussion And Conclusion: Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1345951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012003PMC
December 2017

In silico analysis of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2) gene.

Comput Biol Chem 2017 Jun 14;68:175-185. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Polymorphisms of the ADIPOR2 gene are frequently linked to a higher risk of developing diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Though mutations of the ADIPOR2 gene are detrimental, there is a lack of comprehensive in silico analyses of the functional and structural impacts at the protein level. Considering the involvement of ADIPOR2 in glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation, an in silico functional analysis was conducted to explore the possible association between genetic mutations and phenotypic variations. A genomic analysis of 82 nonsynonymous SNPs in ADIPOR2 was initiated using SIFT followed by the SNAP2, nsSNPAnalyzer, PolyPhen-2, SNPs&GO, FATHMM and PROVEAN servers. A total of 10 mutations (R126W, L160Q, L195P, F201S, L235R, L235P, L256R, Y328H, E334K and Q349H) were predicted to have deleterious effects on the ADIPOR2 protein and were therefore selected for further analysis. Theoretical models of the variants were generated by comparative modeling via MODELLER 9.16. A protein structural analysis of these amino acid variants was performed using SNPeffect, I-Mutant, ConSurf, Swiss-PDB Viewer and NetSurfP to explore their solvent accessibility, molecular dynamics and energy minimization calculations. In addition, FTSite was used to predict the ligand binding sites, while NetGlycate, NetPhos2.0, UbPerd and SUMOplot were used to predict post-translational modification sites. All of the variants showed increased free energy, though F201S exhibited the highest energy increase. The root mean square deviation values of the modeled mutants strongly indicated likely pathogenicity. Remarkably, three binding sites were detected on ADIPOR2, and two mutations at positions 328 and 201 were found in the first and second binding pockets, respectively. Interestingly, no mutations were found at the post-translational modification sites. These genetic variants can provide a better understanding of the wide range of disease susceptibility associated with ADIPOR2 and aid the development of new molecular diagnostic markers for these diseases. The findings may also facilitate the development of novel therapeutic elements for associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2017.03.005DOI Listing
June 2017

Antioxidant Properties and Cardioprotective Mechanism of Malaysian Propolis in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 2;2017:5370545. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh; Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Propolis contains high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars and proteins. Malaysian Propolis (MP) has been reported to exhibit high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Herein, we report the antioxidant properties and cardioprotective properties of MP in isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats ( = 32) were pretreated orally with an ethanol extract of MP (100 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac troponin I levels and altered serum lipid profiles. In addition significantly increased lipid peroxides and decreased activities of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes were observed in the myocardium. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with MP ameliorated the biochemical parameters, indicating the protective effect of MP against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings obtained for the myocardium further confirmed the biochemical findings. It is concluded that MP exhibits cardioprotective activity against ISO-induced oxidative stress through its direct cytotoxic radical-scavenging activities. It is also plausible that MP contributed to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/5370545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312504PMC
February 2017

Assessment of Toxicity and Beneficiary Effects of on the Hematological, Biochemical, and Histological Homeostasis in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 22;2017:4686104. Epub 2017 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh; Human Genome Center, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicological profile of a methanolic extract of fruit in rats by conducting hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups, each with 6 animals, and were treated with three oral doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. The extract did not cause significant changes in body and relative organ weight, percent water content, or hematological parameters at any administered doses. However, a significant dose-dependent positive effect in serum lipid profile and all atherogenic indices including the cardiac risk ratio, Castelli's risk index-2, and the atherogenic coefficient were observed. Significant increases in the levels of iron and decreases in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and the levels of serum glucose were noted when the extract was administered at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg). Histopathological examination of the target tissues further confirmed that the extract was safe and had no observed toxicological features. Our study indicates that fruit is nontoxic, has the potential to be effective against atherosclerosis, and may be used as a hepatoprotectant. The fruit extract is also beneficial to those with iron deficiency and hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/4686104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5294221PMC
January 2017

Alzheimer's Disease and Natural Products: Future Regimens Emerging from Nature.

Curr Top Med Chem 2017 ;17(12):1408-1428

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Malaysia.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), which largely affects the elderly, has become a global burden. Patients with AD have both short- and long-term memory impairments. The neuronal loss in AD occurs due to abnormally folded amyloid beta proteins and aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in the brain. Eventually, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are formed, which subsequently disintegrate the neuronal transport system. There are several factors which are involved in AD pathogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation and the presence of metal ions. The modern therapies utilized for AD treatment have many adverse effects, driving the quest for more safe and effective medications. Many dietary components, including different types of fruits, vegetables, spices, and marine products as well as a Mediterranean diet, are a good source of antioxidants and have anti-inflammatory properties, with many showing substantial potential against AD pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the potential of these foods for treating AD and opportunities for developing disease-targeted drugs from active compounds extracted from natural dietary products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026617666170103163054DOI Listing
July 2017

Impact of Bee Venom Enzymes on Diseases and Immune Responses.

Molecules 2016 Dec 27;22(1). Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

Bee venom (BV) is used to treat many diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antimutagenic, radioprotective, anti-nociceptive immunity promoting, hepatocyte protective and anti-cancer activity. According to the literature, BV contains several enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and α-glucosidase. Recent studies have also reported the detection of different classes of enzymes in BV, including esterases, proteases and peptidases, protease inhibitors and other important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Nevertheless, the physiochemical properties and functions of each enzyme class and their mechanisms remain unclear. Various pharmacotherapeutic effects of some of the BV enzymes have been reported in several studies. At present, ongoing research aims to characterize each enzyme and elucidate their specific biological roles. This review gathers all the current knowledge on BV enzymes and their specific mechanisms in regulating various immune responses and physiological changes to provide a basis for future therapies for various diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6155781PMC
December 2016

Dietary Phytochemicals: Natural Swords Combating Inflammation and Oxidation-Mediated Degenerative Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016 19;2016:5137431. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Cumulatively, degenerative disease is one of the most fatal groups of diseases, and it contributes to the mortality and poor quality of life in the world while increasing the economic burden of the sufferers. Oxidative stress and inflammation are the major pathogenic causes of degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although a number of synthetic medications are used to treat these diseases, none of the current regimens are completely safe. Phytochemicals (polyphenols, carotenoids, anthocyanins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes) from natural products such as dietary fruits, vegetables, and spices are potential sources of alternative medications to attenuate the oxidative stress and inflammation associated with degenerative diseases. Based on , , and clinical trials, some of these active compounds have shown good promise for development into novel agents for treating RA, DM, and CVD by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. In this review, phytochemicals from natural products with the potential of ameliorating degenerative disease involving the bone, metabolism, and the heart are described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5137431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5046019PMC
March 2017

Natural Products Combating Neurodegeneration: Parkinson's Disease.

Curr Drug Metab 2017 ;18(1):50-61

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by neurodegeneration and a progressive functional impairment of the midbrain nigral dopaminergic neurons. The cause remains unknown; however, several pathological processes and central factors, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, have been reported. The current treatment method primarily targets symptoms by using anti-Parkinson drugs such as levodopa, carbidopa, dopamine (DA) agonists, monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors and anticholinergics to replace DA. When drug therapy is not satisfactory, surgical treatments are recommended. Unfortunately, the existing conventional strategies that target PD are associated with numerous side effects and possess an economic burden. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches that regulate the pathways leading to neuronal death and dysfunction are necessary. For many years, nature has provided the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutic agents. Remarkably, many natural products from medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables have been demonstrated to be efficacious anti-Parkinson agents. These products possess neuroprotective properties as a result of not only their wellrecognized anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities but also their inhibitory roles regarding iron accumulation, protein misfolding and the maintenance of proteasomal degradation, as well as mitochondrial homeostasis. The aim of this review is to report the available anti-Parkinson agents based on natural products and delineate their therapeutic actions, which act on various pathways. Overall, this review emphasizes the types of natural products that are potential future resources in the treatment of PD as novel regimens or supplementary agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200217666160709204826DOI Listing
October 2018

Impacts of Nonsynonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Adiponectin Receptor 1 Gene on Corresponding Protein Stability: A Computational Approach.

Biomed Res Int 2016 15;2016:9142190. Epub 2016 May 15.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Despite the reported association of adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1) gene mutations with vulnerability to several human metabolic diseases, there is lack of computational analysis on the functional and structural impacts of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human ADIPOR1 at protein level. Therefore, sequence- and structure-based computational tools were employed in this study to functionally and structurally characterize the coding nsSNPs of ADIPOR1 gene listed in the dbSNP database. Our in silico analysis by SIFT, nsSNPAnalyzer, PolyPhen-2, Fathmm, I-Mutant 2.0, SNPs&GO, PhD-SNP, PANTHER, and SNPeffect tools identified the nsSNPs with distorting functional impacts, namely, rs765425383 (A348G), rs752071352 (H341Y), rs759555652 (R324L), rs200326086 (L224F), and rs766267373 (L143P) from 74 nsSNPs of ADIPOR1 gene. Finally the aforementioned five deleterious nsSNPs were introduced using Swiss-PDB Viewer package within the X-ray crystal structure of ADIPOR1 protein, and changes in free energy for these mutations were computed. Although increased free energy was observed for all the mutants, the nsSNP H341Y caused the highest energy increase amongst all. RMSD and TM scores predicted that mutants were structurally similar to wild type protein. Our analyses suggested that the aforementioned variants especially H341Y could directly or indirectly destabilize the amino acid interactions and hydrogen bonding networks of ADIPOR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9142190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884590PMC
February 2017

Sundarban Honey Confers Protection against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats.

Biomed Res Int 2016 17;2016:6437641. Epub 2016 May 17.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh; Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Sundarban honey (SH) in rats with isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction. Adult male Wistar Albino rats were pretreated with Sundarban honey (5 g/kg) daily for a period of 6 weeks. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected into the rats at 24 h intervals for 2 days. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by increased serum cardiac specific troponin I levels and cardiac marker enzyme activities including creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Significant increases in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were also observed, along with a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. In addition to these diagnostic markers, the levels of lipid peroxide products were significantly increased. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were significantly decreased in the hearts after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with Sundarban honey brought the biochemical parameters to near normalcy, indicating the protective effect of Sundarban honey against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings of the heart tissues further confirmed the biochemical findings, indicating that Sundarban honey confers protection against ISO-induced oxidative stress in the myocardium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6437641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4886051PMC
March 2017

Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016 29;2016:9470954. Epub 2016 Feb 29.

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh; Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9470954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4789439PMC
April 2016

Metabolic Control of Type 2 Diabetes by Targeting the GLUT4 Glucose Transporter: Intervention Approaches.

Curr Pharm Des 2016 ;22(20):3034-49

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the most common form of diabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance in the hepatic and peripheral tissues. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a major role in the pathophysiology of T2DM. Its defective expression or translocation to the peripheral cell plasma membrane in T2DM patients hinders the entrance of glucose into the cell for energy production. In addition to suitable drugs, an appropriate diet and/or exercise can be implemented to target the increase in GLUT4 expression, GLUT4 concentrations and GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface when managing the glucose metabolism of T2DM patients. In this review, we discussed successful intervention strategies that were individually administered or coupled with diet and/or exercise and affected the expression and translocation of GLUT4 in T2DM while reducing the excess glucose load from the blood. Additionally, some potentially good synthetic and natural compounds, which can activate the insulin-independent GLUT4 signaling pathways for the efficient management of T2DM, are highlighted as possible targets or emerging alternative sources for future anti-diabetic drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612822666160307145801DOI Listing
November 2017

Natural Products Towards the Discovery of Potential Future Antithrombotic Drugs.

Curr Pharm Des 2016 ;22(20):2926-46

Globally, thrombosis-associated disorders are one of the main contributors to fatalities. Besides genetic influences, there are some acquired and environmental risk factors dominating thrombotic diseases. Although standard regimens have been used for a long time, many side effects still occur which can be life threatening. Therefore, natural products are good alternatives. Although the quest for antithrombotic natural products came to light only since the end of last century, in the last two decades, a considerable number of natural products showing antithrombotic activities (antiplatelet, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic) with no or minimal side effects have been reported. In this review, several natural products used as antithrombotic agents including medicinal plants, vegetables, fruits, spices and edible mushrooms which have been discovered in the last 15 years and their target sites (thrombogenic components, factors and thrombotic pathways) are described. In addition, the side effects, limitations and interactions of standard regimens with natural products are also discussed. The active compounds could serve as potential sources for future research on antithrombotic drug development. As a future direction, more advanced researches (in quest of the target cofactor or component involved in antithrombotic pathways) are warranted for the development of potential natural antithrombotic medications (alone or combined with standard regimens) to ensure maximum safety and efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612822666160307150454DOI Listing
November 2017

Physicochemical Properties, Minerals, Trace Elements, and Heavy Metals in Honey of Different Origins: A Comprehensive Review.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2016 Jan 18;15(1):219-233. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Univ. Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Honey is a popular natural food product with a very complex composition mainly consisting of both organic and inorganic constituents. The composition of honey is strongly influenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors, which vary based on its botanical and geographical origins. Although minerals and heavy metals are minor constituents of honey, they play vital role in determining its quality. There are several different analytical methods used to determine the chemical elements in honey. These methods are typically based on spectroscopy or spectrometry techniques (including atomic absorption spectrometry, atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). This review compiles available scientific information on minerals and heavy metals in honey reported from all over the world. To date, 54 chemical elements in various types of honey have been identified and can be divided into 3 groups: major or macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, S, Cl), minor or trace elements (Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cd, Tl, Co, Ni, Rb, Ba, Be, Bi, U, V, Fe, Pt, Pd, Te, Hf, Mo, Sn, Sb, La, I, Sm, Tb, Dy, Sd, Th, Pr, Nd, Tm, Yb, Lu, Gd, Ho, Er, Ce, Cr, As, B, Br, Cd, Hg, Se, Sr), and heavy metals (trace elements that have a specific gravity at least 5 times higher than that of water and inorganic sources). Chemical elements in honey samples throughout the world vary in terms of concentrations and are also influenced by environmental pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12182DOI Listing
January 2016

Polyphenols: Potential Future Arsenals in the Treatment of Diabetes.

Curr Pharm Des 2016 ;22(5):549-65

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. In addition to exercise and diet, oral anti-diabetic drugs have been used as a part of the management strategy worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the conventional anti-diabetic drugs are without side effects, and these drugs pose an economic burden. Therefore, the investigation of novel anti-diabetic regimens is a major challenge for researchers, in which nature has been the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutics. Many plants have been shown to act as anti-diabetic agents, in which the main active constituents are believed to be polyphenols. Natural products containing high polyphenol levels can control carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as protecting and restoring beta-cell integrity, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and increasing cellular glucose uptake. Blackberries, red grapes, apricots, eggplant and popular drinks such as coffee, cocoa and green tea are all rich in polyphenols, which may dampen insulin resistance and be natural alternatives in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to report on the available anti-diabetic polyphenols (medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables), their mechanisms in the various pathways of DM and their correlations with DM. Additionally, this review emphasizes the types of polyphenols that could be potential future resources in the treatment of DM via either novel regimens or as supplementary agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612822666151125001111DOI Listing
October 2016

Amelioration of Isoproterenol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Myocardium by Withania somnifera Leaf Extract.

Biomed Res Int 2015 11;2015:624159. Epub 2015 Oct 11.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

We investigated the protective role of Withania somnifera leaf extract (WSLEt) on isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) administered to rats for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels and serum lipid profiles, as well as the activities of some marker enzymes. In addition to these diagnostic markers, there were increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)) in the myocardium. However, oral pretreatment (100 mg/kg b.w.) with WSLEt for 4 weeks elicited a significant cardioprotective activity by lowering the levels of cTnI, lipid profiles, and marker enzymes. The levels of LPO products were also significantly decreased. Elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes were also observed in rats pretreated with WSLEt. As further confirmed histopathologically, our findings strongly suggest that the cardioprotective effect of WSLEt on myocardium experiencing ISO-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidant system and an inhibition of LPO in the myocardial membrane. We conclude that WSLEt confers some protection against oxidative damage in ISO-induced MI in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/624159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4619872PMC
August 2016

Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels.

Biomed Res Int 2015 3;2015:286051. Epub 2015 May 3.

Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/286051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433628PMC
March 2016

A dual-polarization coherent communication system with simplified optical receiver for UDWDM-PON architecture.

Opt Express 2014 Dec;22(26):31735-45

A dual-polarization coherent heterodyne optical communication system using a simplified and low-cost demodulation scheme, for high-capacity UDWDM-PON access networks, is proposed and demonstrated. In this scheme, the signal light and reference light occupying each of the polarization modes are emitted simultaneously from the transmitter. The random phase fluctuations between the signal light and reference light are obviated completely by means of the application of the phase-correlated orthogonal lights. When the signal light in the each polarization mode is modulated with M-amplitude-shift keying (M-ASK) or M2-quadrature amplitude modulation (M2-QAM), the phase-stable intermediate frequency (IF) signal with M-ASK or M2-QAM modulation in the corresponding polarization mode is available for conversion in the electrical domain by beating the modulated signal light with the un-modulated reference light. A new IF signal with M2 or M4-QAM can be synthesized by the IF signals in both modes as long as the power ratio and time delay between the two-modes optical signals are set at the proper values. This is achieved without using polarization demultiplexing and complicated algorithms and the synthesized IF signal can be received and demodulated directly. A proof-of-concept transmission link with dual-polarization 2-ASK is demonstrated. The experimental results are consistent with theoretical predictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.031735DOI Listing
December 2014

Protective Effect of Sundarban Honey against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Hepatonephrotoxicity in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 30;2014:143782. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.

Honey, a supersaturated natural product of honey bees, contains complex compounds with antioxidant properties and therefore has a wide a range of applications in both traditional and modern medicine. In the present study, the protective effects of Sundarban honey from Bangladesh against acetaminophen- (APAP-) induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in experimental rats were investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were pretreated with honey (5 g/kg) for 4 weeks, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity via the oral administration of a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg). Organ damage was confirmed by measuring the elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB), urea, creatinine, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Histopathological alterations observed in the livers and the kidneys further confirmed oxidative damage to these tissues. Animals pretreated with Sundarban honey showed significantly markedly reduced levels of all of the investigated parameters. In addition, Sundarban honey ameliorated the altered hepatic and renal morphology in APAP-treated rats. Overall, our findings indicate that Sundarban honey protects against APAP-induced acute hepatic and renal damage, which could be attributed to the honey's antioxidant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/143782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4229961PMC
December 2014

Honey: a potential therapeutic agent for managing diabetic wounds.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 15;2014:169130. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh.

Diabetic wounds are unlike typical wounds in that they are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. Although honey has been used as an alternative medicine for wound healing since ancient times, the application of honey to diabetic wounds has only recently been revived. Because honey has some unique natural features as a wound healer, it works even more effectively on diabetic wounds than on normal wounds. In addition, honey is known as an "all in one" remedy for diabetic wound healing because it can combat many microorganisms that are involved in the wound process and because it possesses antioxidant activity and controls inflammation. In this review, the potential role of honey's antibacterial activity on diabetic wound-related microorganisms and honey's clinical effectiveness in treating diabetic wounds based on the most recent studies is described. Additionally, ways in which honey can be used as a safer, faster, and effective healing agent for diabetic wounds in comparison with other synthetic medications in terms of microbial resistance and treatment costs are also described to support its traditional claims.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/169130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4216698PMC
November 2014
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