Publications by authors named "Mazin F Al-Jadiry"

7 Publications

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Global Retinoblastoma Presentation and Analysis by National Income Level.

JAMA Oncol 2020 05;6(5):685-695

Imam Hussein Cancer Center, Karbala, Iraq.

Importance: Early diagnosis of retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer, can save both a child's life and vision. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that many children across the world are diagnosed late. To our knowledge, the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma has never been assessed on a global scale.

Objectives: To report the retinoblastoma stage at diagnosis in patients across the world during a single year, to investigate associations between clinical variables and national income level, and to investigate risk factors for advanced disease at diagnosis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 278 retinoblastoma treatment centers were recruited from June 2017 through December 2018 to participate in a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive patients with retinoblastoma who were diagnosed in 2017.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Age at presentation, proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, and tumor stage and metastasis.

Results: The cohort included 4351 new patients from 153 countries; the median age at diagnosis was 30.5 (interquartile range, 18.3-45.9) months, and 1976 patients (45.4%) were female. Most patients (n = 3685 [84.7%]) were from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, the most common indication for referral was leukocoria (n = 2638 [62.8%]), followed by strabismus (n = 429 [10.2%]) and proptosis (n = 309 [7.4%]). Patients from high-income countries (HICs) were diagnosed at a median age of 14.1 months, with 656 of 666 (98.5%) patients having intraocular retinoblastoma and 2 (0.3%) having metastasis. Patients from low-income countries were diagnosed at a median age of 30.5 months, with 256 of 521 (49.1%) having extraocular retinoblastoma and 94 of 498 (18.9%) having metastasis. Lower national income level was associated with older presentation age, higher proportion of locally advanced disease and distant metastasis, and smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma. Advanced disease at diagnosis was more common in LMICs even after adjusting for age (odds ratio for low-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 17.92 [95% CI, 12.94-24.80], and for lower-middle-income countries vs upper-middle-income countries and HICs, 5.74 [95% CI, 4.30-7.68]).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study is estimated to have included more than half of all new retinoblastoma cases worldwide in 2017. Children from LMICs, where the main global retinoblastoma burden lies, presented at an older age with more advanced disease and demonstrated a smaller proportion of familial history of retinoblastoma, likely because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is curable, these data are concerning and mandate intervention at national and international levels. Further studies are needed to investigate factors, other than age at presentation, that may be associated with advanced disease in LMICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.6716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047856PMC
May 2020

Follicular dendritic cells display microvesicle-associated LMP1 in reactive germinal centers of EBV+ classic Hodgkin lymphoma.

Virchows Arch 2019 Aug 15;475(2):175-180. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Pathology Unit, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, Via di Grottarossa 1035, 00189, Rome, Italy.

Expression of the latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was investigated in 153 cases of EBV+ classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL); 120 cases were pediatric patients (< 14 years of age) from Iraq, and 33 cases were adult patients from Italy. We describe for the first time the presence of LMP1 protein in EBV-encoded RNA (EBER)-negative follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) of reactive germinal centers (GC) associated with EBV+ cHL. Presence of LMP1+ GCs was independent of geographic region and age of patients. Variable numbers of reactive GCs were present in 22.2% of cases (34 of 153), whereas LMP1 staining of FDCs was present in about a third of cases (10 of 34) with reactive GC. Most cases with LMP1+ GC were mixed-cellularity (MC) subtype, but some nodular sclerosis (NS) was also present. GC cells with LMP1+ FDCs were surrounded by numerous EBV-infected cells which were positive for EBER, LMP1, and CD30. Double immunolocalization analysis revealed that LMP1 was associated with CD63, an exosomal marker, and with CD21. The possibility is discussed that peri-follicular EBV-infected cells release LMP1 protein, perhaps through exosomes, and that the protein is then captured by FDCs and is presented to EBER-negative GC B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-019-02605-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6647529PMC
August 2019

PD-L1 expression in pediatric Epstein-Barr virus positive classic Hodgkin lymphoma is not associated with 9p24.1 amplification.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 07 11;66(7):e27757. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Patology Unit, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27757DOI Listing
July 2019

Burkitt lymphoma in Iraqi children: A distinctive form of sporadic disease with high incidence of EBV cases and more frequent expression of MUM1/IRF4 protein in cases with head and neck presentation.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 12 11;65(12):e27399. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Pathology Unit, Sapienza University, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphoproliferative disorders are relatively common in Iraqi children. Burkitt lymphoma (BL) accounted for 40% of lymphoma cases. The mean age of 125 BL cases was 5.9 ± 3.1 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 3.6:1. Clinical presentation was abdominal in 66% and head and neck in 34%. Bone marrow involvement was higher (P < 0.001) in children with head and neck disease. Tumor cells had MYC translocation (96%) and were CD20 /CD10 /MYC /BCL2 . MUM1/IRF4 staining was expressed by a fraction of tumor cells in 19 of 125 cases (15%) and was more frequent (P < 0.007) in head and neck disease (12/42; 29%). EBV-encoded RNA was positive in 100 of 125 (80%) BL cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27399DOI Listing
December 2018

Molecular and epidemiologic characterization of Wilms tumor from Baghdad, Iraq.

World J Pediatr 2018 12 28;14(6):585-593. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, USA.

Background: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer worldwide, yet its incidence and clinical behavior vary according to race and access to adequate healthcare resources. To guide and streamline therapy in the war-torn and resource-constrained city of Baghdad, Iraq, we conducted a first-ever molecular analysis of 20 WT specimens to characterize the biological features of this lethal disease within this challenged population.

Methods: Next-generation sequencing of ten target genes associated with WT development and treatment resistance (WT1, CTNNB1, WTX, IGF2, CITED1, SIX2, p53, N-MYC, CRABP2, and TOP2A) was completed. Immunohistochemistry was performed for 6 marker proteins of WT (WT1, CTNNB1, NCAM, CITED1, SIX2, and p53). Patient outcomes were compiled.

Results: Mutations were detected in previously described WT "hot spots" (e.g., WT1 and CTNNB1) as well as novel loci that may be unique to the Iraqi population. Immunohistochemistry showed expression domains most typical of blastemal-predominant WT. Remarkably, despite the challenges facing families and care providers, only one child, with combined WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, was confirmed dead from disease. Median clinical follow-up was 40.5 months (range 6-78 months).

Conclusions: These data suggest that WT biology within a population of Iraqi children manifests features both similar to and unique from disease variants in other regions of the world. These observations will help to risk stratify WT patients living in this difficult environment to more or less intensive therapies and to focus treatment on cell-specific targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-018-0181-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236303PMC
December 2018

Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in children: a disease reminiscent of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.

Hum Pathol 2015 May 3;46(5):716-24. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Pathology Unit, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Pediatric Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+ DLBCL) is a rare disease in nonimmunocompromised hosts. In a review of 231 cases of malignant lymphoma (87 Hodgkin lymphoma and 144 non-Hodgkin lymphoma) occurring in Iraqi children, 7 cases (5% of NHLs) were classified as EBV+ DLBCL. Six children presented with nodal disease, and 1 presented with extranodal localization (bone). In all cases, the disease was at an advanced clinical stage (III/IV). Evidence of immunodeficiency (Evans syndrome and selective IgA deficiency) was observed in a single case. Two cases were "monomorphic" with immunoblastic histology, and 5 cases were "polymorphic" with histologic aspects reminiscent of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (2 cases) and of CD30+ classical Hodgkin lymphoma (3 cases). In all cases, tumor cells were EBV infected (EBER+/LMP-1+), were medium-large B-cells (CD20+/CD79a+/PAX-5+/BOB-1+/OCT-2+) of non-germinal center (non-GC) origin (CD10-/MUM-1+), and had high proliferative activity (50%-70%). Chromosomal translocations involving BCL2, MYC, and IGH genes were not observed. IGH monoclonality could be demonstrated in 3 of 3 investigated cases. Six cases of EBV-negative DLBCL (4% of NHL) were present in the same series. All had monomorphic histology with centroblastic/immunoblastic morphology; 3 cases were of GC type and 3 of non-GC type. Our findings indicate that in Iraq, DLBCLs are 9% of NHLs. Moreover, 2 different types of the disease do exist; the EBV-positive cases, with strong histologic and immunohistochemical resemblance with EBV+ DLBCL of the elderly, and the EBV-negative cases, which are similar to the pediatric DLBCL usually observed in Western populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2015.01.011DOI Listing
May 2015