Publications by authors named "Maysam Saidi"

3 Publications

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Flow Structure and Particle Deposition Analyses for Optimization of a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) in a Model of Tracheobronchial Airway.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Sep 12;164:105911. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Helmholtz Zentrum München- German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Max-Lebsche-Platz 31, Munich 81377, Germany. Electronic address:

Inhalation therapy plays an important role in management or treatment of respiratory diseases such asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). For decades, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) have been the most popular and prescribed drug delivery devices for inhalation therapy. The main objectives of the present computational work are to study flow structure inside a pMDI, as well as transport and deposition of micron-sized particles in a model of human tracheobronchial airways and their dependence on inhalation air flow rate and characteristic pMDI parameters. The upper airway geometry, which includes the extrathoracic region, trachea, and bronchial airways up to the fourth generation in some branches, was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) images of an adult healthy female. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed using the k-ω model with low-Reynolds number (LRN) corrections to accomplish the objectives. The deposition results of the present study were verified with the in vitro deposition data of our previous investigation on pulmonary drug delivery using a hollow replica of the same airway geometry as used for CFD modeling. It was found that the flow structure inside the pMDI and extrathoracic region strongly depends on inhalation flow rate and geometry of the inhaler. In addition, regional aerosol deposition patterns were investigated at four inhalation flow rates between 30 and 120 L/min and for 60 L/min yielding highest deposition fractions of 24.4% and 3.1% for the extrathoracic region (EX) and the trachea, respectively. It was also revealed that particle deposition was larger in the right branches of the bronchial airways (right lung) than the left branches (left lung) for all of the considered cases. Also, optimization of spray characteristics showed that the optimum values for initial spray velocity, spray cone angle and spray duration were 100 m/s, 10° and 0.1 sec, respectively. Moreover, spray cone angle, more than any other of the investigated pMDI parameters can change the deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the airway model. In conclusion, the present investigation provides a validated CFD model for particle deposition and new insights into the relevance of flow structure for deposition of pMDI-emitted pharmaceutical aerosols in the upper respiratory tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2021.105911DOI Listing
September 2021

Dry powder inhaler aerosol deposition in a model of tracheobronchial airways: Validating CFD predictions with in vitro data.

Int J Pharm 2020 Sep 11;587:119599. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Biotechnology Research Center, Student Research Committee, and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Effective drug delivery into the lungs plays an important role in management of pulmonary diseases that affect millions all around the world. The main objective of this investigation is to study airflow structure, as well as transport and deposition of micron-size particles at different inhalation flow rates in a realistic model of human tracheobronchial airways. The airway model was developed based on computed tomography (CT) images of a healthy 48-years-old female, which includes extrathoracic, trachea, and bronchial airways up to fourth generations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to predict transport and deposition of inhaled particles and the results were compared to our previous in vitro experiments. Airflow structure was studied through velocity contours and streamlines in the extrathoracic region, where the onset of turbulence, reverse flow and subsequently vortex formation, and laryngeal jet are found to be critical phenomenons in the formation of airflow and deposition patterns. The deposition data was presented by deposition efficiency (DE) and deposition fraction (DF) against impaction parameter and Stokes number. At all of the inhalation flow rates, highest values of deposition fractions were devoted to the mouth-throat (MT), tracheobronchial tree (TB), and trachea (Tra), respectively (At 60 L/min: MT = 6.7%, TB = 5.3%, Tra = 1.9%). The numerical deposition data showed a good agreement with the experimental deposition data in most of the airway regions (e.g. less than 10% difference between the deposition fractions in the tracheobronchial region). Enhancing inhalation flow rate in all of the airway regions led to an uptrend in deposition rate due to the increase of particles inertia and turbulence level. In addition, the increase of particle deposition with enhancing inhalation flow rate in all of the sections including extrathoracic, trachea, and tracheobronchial tree suggesting that inertial impaction is the dominant deposition mechanism due to the increase of inertial force. In conclusion, the validated CFD model provided an opportunity to cover the limitations of our previous experimental investigation on aerosol deposition of commercial inhalers and became an efficient method for further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119599DOI Listing
September 2020

Investigation of left heart flow using a numerical correlation to model heart wall motion.

J Biomech 2019 Aug 27;93:77-85. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been developed to model the flow in the left heart including atrium and ventricle. Since time resolution of the medical scans does not fit the requirements of the CFD calculations, the main challenge in a numerical simulation of heart chambers is wall motion modeling. This study employs a novel three-dimensional approximation scheme to correlate the wall boundary and grid movement in systole and diastole. It uses a geometry extracted from medical images in the literature and deformed based on the reported flow rates. The opening and closing of the mitral (MV) and the aortic valve (AV) considered as simultaneous events. Unstructured tetragonal grids were used for the meshing of the domain. The calculation was performed by a Navier-Stokes solver using the arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) formulation. Results show that the proposed correlation for the wall motion could predict the main features of heart flows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.06.008DOI Listing
August 2019
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